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Jranna flitrupont IBarnarfc, 


25 l 


rruitwi for „ U . Gillyflower and J. . . tUrciitli 


3&opai ^politician 

I N 

One Hundred Emblems. 

Written in Spanijh by 

Don Diego Saavedra Faxardo, 
Knight of the Order of St. Jago, 
Plenipotentiary AmbaiTador 

To the Cantons of SWIT^E R LAND, 
At the Imperial Diet at RATISBON i 
At the Famous Treaty of MVNSTER, 
And of the Supreme Council of State for 
both the INDIES. 

With a large Preface, containing an Account of the 
Author, his Works, and the Ufefalnefs thereof. 

Done into Engliflj from the Original, 

By Sir J A. A ST R T. 

V PL 1 

L O N D ON: 

Printed for Matt. Gylliflower at the Spread-Eagle in 
Weftminfter-Hall: And Luke Meredith at the Star 
in St. Paul's Church- Yard, MDCC. 


m . . ■ »■ '■ i ' ' ■■' ■ 'i I i 'I'»' ■ I ' ' "" 



Moft Illuftrioras Prince, 



i • v 

Duke of (¿keener* 

F . ' • . 1 . » ■ 

May it pleafe your Highnéfs¿ 

THE . Author of the enfuing Worfa 
originally a Spaniard, was in his 
life-time, Jo highly efteemed fot 
his Learning, Wifdom, and Experience, 
in State Affairs, that he made no fmall 
Figure in the greateft Courts, of Europe. 
$or hqs this Off- faring of his Brain met 
with lefs favourable Succels, For having 

A beeé 

y (•* JL o i. ti O 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

been tranflated into feveral Languages, and 
in each often printed, it has been received 
with great Applaufe, and ever been honour- 
ed with the Protection of fome Illuilrious 
Young Prince. 

But Precedent, Roval Sir, is not my 
only Apology for this Prejumption $ for were 
Saavedra now living, he might fee his 
Theory reduced to Practice by flpe beft of 
Kings, in the befi of Governments : And 
though he has indeed given you excellent 
Maxims, fupported by many eminent Ex- 
amples, yet are there none fo worthy your 
Imitation, as thofe you may continually ob- 
ferve, in the Conduct and Bravery of that 
mofi Excellent Prince, your Heroick Uncle $ 
the whole Series of whofe Life as far fur- 
paffes Panegyric^, as the Greatnefs of his 
Soul abhors flattery. And I was the rather 
induced to attempt this unpolifhed Ferfwn, 
flowing that honeft Plain-dealing and un- 
biaffed Integrity, the two darling Mi fire ¡fes 
of our Author, could not be unacceptable in 
a Nation where they are fo generally belov- 
ed, and in a Court where they are beyond 


The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

Precedent, more peculiarly cherijhed and 
maintain d. 

Tour Royal Highnefs will here find Dif- 
courfes, which I hope will not only be diver- 
tive to your Touth, but profitable even in 
your ripeft Tears $ by reviving thofe Seeds 
of Honour and Virtue, which are daily 
fiwn by the pious Care and Example of 
Tour nioft llluftrious Parents. Tou may here 
learn, not only the Duty of a Prince, but that 
alfo of an accomplijVd States-Man and 
Loyal Subjeót : And if ever it fhallpleafe 
God to make Tou his Vicegerent , Tou may 
from hence ( next to the Holy Scriptures ) 
learn your Duty to him alfo, by whom 
Kings Reign, and Princes decree Juftice. 

In fine : Tou have here a Compleat Sy- 
ft em of Religious Politicks, which may 
guide Tou through all the Labyrinths of 
Government in this World, and crown Tou 
with immortality in that to come. But, par- 
don me, Royal Sir, 1 pre fume not by this 
Addrefs to think., but that the niceft Stroaks 
of our Author come far fhort of Tour High- 
miss blooming Virtue, but as near as Per- 

A 2 fettion 

6 x a i u- 

The Epiftle Dedicatory. 

fettion can be copied, this Work has k Right 
in Tour Royal Highnefs, it fhewingwot fo 
much what Ton fhould be, as (if we may 
Judge the enfuing Day by the Glorious Morn) 
what Ton will be v the beft of Princes. 

But here I beg leave to retire, having 
already wade J cut of my Depth, Tour High- 
nds's Praifes being a Tcpick fo profound, 
that in attempting them, I jhould only 
trouble the Stream without hopes of ever 
plumbing the Bottom. The main Motives 
to this Dedication, were thofe two inherent 
Taffions of Mankind, efpecially Writers, In- 
tercft and Ambition; the firftin Regard to 
this Work-, which has need of no lefs a Name, 
tlxin that of Tour Royal Highnefe to pr oten 
it , the lafi in refpeft to my felf, having 
none greater than to fubfcribe my felf, 

Your HighnefsV moll Faithful 

and moft Obedient Humble Servant, 

f. A. 

The Author to the Reader, 

IN the toilibme Leifure of my continual Travel 
over Germany , and feveral other Countries , i 
compos'd thefe Hundred Emblems; wherein you 
ha/e an Idea of a Royal Chriftian Politician, 
penning them down at vacant Intervals. Thefe I had 
meditated on in my Journeys upon the Road, as ofc as 
that continual Intercourfé I had by Letters with hi» 
Catholick Majefty and his Minifters, and other public!. 
Concerns incumbent on me , gave me Time and Le: > 
iure. By Degrees the Work fwell'd , and though Í 
was well afiured, it came far ihort of Perfe&ion, t* 
not being compiled with that continual Application o: 
Thought, nor with that Accuracy and jLabour cbrreíi 
ed, as was requinte to have render'd it agreeable in a i 
its Parts } and an abfolutely perfect Piece ; and that [ 

A 3 wcu.4 

The Author to the Reader. 

would be thought Pride in me, to prefume to prefcribe 
Precepts to Princes (i)[: ' However, the Importunity of 
thy Friends (who have ever great Influence over me) 
prevail'd upon me to publiih it¿ in which alio Self-love 
had forrie part, for we are generally as fond of the Pro- 
duces of our Brain, as of thofe of Nature. I write not 
this , Reader , to excuíé my Errors , for that I can't do 
fufficiently , but that I may more eafily obtain Pardon 
of thoie, who ihall confidermy Zeal, in having amidft 
fuch a Croud of Bufinefs, Fatigues, and Danger's, com- 
pil'd this Bopk,that if any Benefit miglit be reap d from 
it, it might accrue to my Prince and Mafíer,* and leaft 
with me ihould die the Experience which íj^have ac- 
quir'd by a continued Exercife in Bufinefs for Four 
and thirty Years, which after five years Study in the 
Univerfity of Salamanca , I have pais'd in the principal 
Courts of Europe, always employed in Publick Affairs , 
having been at Rome at the Election of two Popes ,• at 
the AiTembly of the Electoral Princes at Rctuhone 
when Ferdinand the Third , the prefent mod Auguft 
Emperor,was created King' of the Romans • at Eight Diets 
in Switzerland » and laftly at the Imperial Diet at Rata- 
bone 3 being Plenipotentiary for the moft Serene Houie 
and Circle of Burgundy. Wherefore, if any one of thefe 
Political Counfels $r.?Precepts, ihall be any ways bene- 
ficial to .him who is hafpppily born to govern both theQId 
and New World, I" believe this Attempt will be excused. 

Nor ihould any one be difgufred at the Vie of Em- 
blems, fince God himfelf is the Author of them. Tha 
Brazen-Serpent (2), The Flaming-Bufh (3), Gideon's 
Fleece ( 4 ) , Samfforis Lion ( 5 ), The Priefts Gar- 
ments (6), The Amours of the kind Spoufe (7), What 
are they, elie but Emblems ? 

It has been my'chiefeft Endeavour to have the It*. 
vention new ; whether the Performance be anfwerable 

(1) Prscipere qvttlii debeat ejje princeps y pulchrum quidem, & ¿enero» 
fum y <¿r propefuperbum. Flir». Jun. lib. 3. Epift. 18. (2} Numb. 2r. 
(3) Excdus3. (4) Judges 6. (5.) Judges 14. (6j Excdus 28, 
(7) Soog of Sotcmou. 

I know 

The Author to the Reader. 

Í know not. There have been many Ingenious Men, 
who have wrote upon the lame Subject , and 'tis very 
obvious for different Perfons to Jump upon the fame 
Thoughts,* which has been my Fortune , having .after- 
wards met with in other Authors, thofe Emblems which 
I "at firft thought my own Invention, which I therefore 
thought fit wholly to omit , not without Prejudice to 
my Defign , for my PredeceiTors have made ufe of fe- 
ver al Figures and Motto's, which has oblig'd me to 
take up with others lefs proper. 

Alfo fome Political Precepts, which though my own, 
as to the Invention at leaft , yet I have found fince to 
be of other, and far more ancient Authority: I have 
therefore Inferted the Authors Names in the Margin , 
that due Honour may be paid to Antiquity. J Twas the 
Happinefs of the Wits of former Ages, that they could 
engrofs from their Pofterity the Glory of Invention. 
I have made it my Defign and Care , to Interweave- 
this. Web with fome Threads of Cornelius Tacitus, with- 
out doubt the moft accomplifii'd Mafter of Princes, 
and who moft judicioufly penetrates their Nature, and 
the Cuftoms and Intrigues of Courts, as alfo the Mis- 
carriages and Succefs of Governments ¿ with Precepts 
and Sentences taken from this Great Man , as with 
my Hand, I lead the Prince whom I would mould by 
thefe Emblems , that he may without danger , gather 
Flowers tranfplanted hither frorrTanothers Garden, 
and purg'd from the Venom and Thorns which their 
native Soil frequently fubje&s them to, or the ran k- 
nefs of thofe times produc'd. In this Second Edition , 
I alfo illuftrate the principal ^laxims of State , with 
Proofs from Holy the Scriptures ; for thofe Politicks 
which are refin'd in that Furnace, may be truly call'd, 
Silver try'd and refined íéven times in the Fire of 
Truth (8). And who would learn of a Heathen, or 
impious Peribn , when the Holy Spirit is fo ready to 
give InftrufHon ? 

(8) Pfalm i a. i. The Words of the Lord are pure Words y, as 
Silver tried in a Furnace of Earth, purified feyep times, ' 

A 4 In 

J%c Author to the Reader, 

In explaining the Emblems, I am not too prolix, that 
the Reader may not lofe the Satisfaction of diicoverine 
their meaning of himfelf. If jby Chance, in my Di£ 
courfe, I fpnrilde a little Learning, it is not out of 
'Ofténtation , but to enlighten the Prince's Mind, and 
render the InftruéYton more agreeable. 

The whole Work corififts purely of State Maxims and 
RuleSjthofe being the fitteft Materials forfuch a Politick 
Building ,• however I don't barely proppfe * them , but 
intermix them with the whole Diicouife , applying 
them all along to particular Cafes, to avoi(3 the Danger 
of general Precepts. 

It has bien alio my Endeavour to render the Stile 
polite, but without Affectation ; ihort too and conciíé, 
feut not obicure ,• which in Horaces Judgment was a 
difficult Matter (9) , and of which I have not yet feen 
an initance iri the faftillian Language. I have however 
made an Eflay towards it, 'knowing that what Is writ- 
ten to Princes ihould be' neither icfly Sententious, nor 
fuperfluoulty Copious. Their time is precious, and he 
does not a little obftruér. the Publick Intereft, who with 
empty and frivolous Difcourfe diverts them from Affairs 
of greater Importance. 

I don't fo whojly confine my felf to the Inftitution 
and Direction of Princes , but that I alfo defcend to 
Governments, reflect upon their Growth, Prefervation, 
and Fall ; and fo to frame a Minifter of State , and a 
prudent Courtier. * ' 

if it any timé I am liberal of my Commendations of 
any, 'tis to excite Emulation,' nor to Flatter, to Which 
I am very averfe ; for it were a Crime' unpardonable 
to puÉliíh to the whole World, Flatteries, and thoie 
too engraven in Brail , or to make my felf guilty of 
jhe very fame thing, which t fo much reprove and dif- 
cornmend in others. 

If I fpeak the Truth with too much Freedom , 'tis to 
ne imputed to Ambition , which is fo deeply rooted in 
Vlens minds, that without Fire and Swoid tis incurable. 

(9) Brevk vjft laboro obícurus fio, Uof. 

' ' The 

The Author to the Reader. 

The Doctrine is general ; but if any one fhall from * 
Refemblance of Vices, think hirafelf levell'd at, or 
that what is blam'd in him is commended in others, 
'tis not my Fault (10). 

As alfo when I reprove Princes Actions , or reflect 
upon Tyrants , or only on the Nature of Sovereignty, 
it being rip new or unufual thing, for a good Prince 
to do ill, when either he is not clearly inform'd of the 
Truth, or governed by ill Counfellors. 

The fame I would have underftood of Common* 
wealths , if in any thing I feem to diflike them ; for 
either my Reflections are upon what is very ufual ini 
Communities, or at leaft comprehend not thole crown'd 
and well conftituted Republicks, whole Government is 
Generous and Royal. 

"I have us'd Examples , both Ancient and Modern j 
thofe for their Authority , thefe partly as being more 
perfuafive , partly too, becaufe by Reafon of Propin- 
quity of time , the State of Affairs is lefs altered , and 
consequently may with lefs Danger be imitated, and a 
Prudent and Politick Judgment may more fafely be 
formed thereon , which is the principal Advantage of 
Hiftpry. Nor is our Age fo barren of virtuous and 
great Atchievements , as not to have furnim'd us and 
our Pofterity with good Examples (n). Befides, really 
it were black and envious in us to extol ancient , with- 
out the leaft regard to modern Actions (12). 

Í am well affurd , Reader , that Books of this nature 
which treat of State Affairs, are like f Statues, which in 
running at the Quintín, all aim at with their Lances, 
all ftrike. I well know that whoever defigns to be an 
Author, muft fubmit to the Black Ink, and Prefe of 
Detraction, ( which I defign'd to fignify by this Em- 
blem ,*) but withal I am not ignorant , that the blacker 
that Ink , with which the Letters are daub'd , and the 
clofer the Prefs wherewith they are prefsd, the fairer 
afterwards, and more conlpicuous they appear. 

(10^ Tac. 4. ann. Qui *b fumlitudinem aliena malefaSa Jibi objeSari 
putant. Qn) Tac. 4. tíiít, (11^ Ibid, f Eflafermos, g 


*• ■ ■ ■ ■ — — ■' ' ■ ■ - ■ i "TT 




I Will not endeavour with Rhetorical Flourifies to capti- 
vate any Perfon into a good Opinion 'of my Author , or 
his Work, beivg j enjille I fljould therein do an Injury 
to his Memory, who has Jo often declared his Aver- 
fion to Flattery. I only defire the Reader to remember always 
that he was by Birth a Spaniard, and though Educated in 
the Church of Rome 3 was by Vrofcjjion a Lawyer and 
Stattfman , who being generally wifer , are lefs bigotted to 
the foolijh Principles and PraBices of that Religion. How- 
ever, as I think it on the one Hand needle fi to vindicate the 
Illuftrious Houfe of NaiTau frcm his partial Reflections, 
(which were modijh in the Spanifh Court when he wrote (i) ) 
the whole World being fat'hfied in the Juftice of their Caufe y 
the Heroick Profecution thereof, and what Additional Laurels 
they jufily acquird thereby ; fo on the other fide, I would not' 
be thought to recommend bis Religion either to Prince or Peo- 
ple. We too lately efcaped the Snare , to be again entangled 
with the Knaveries or Fooleries , to fay no worfe , of the 
Church or Court of Rome ; and next under God muft own 
our fole Deliverance to a Branch of that Ancient and Imperial 
Family, our prefent Gracious Sovereign. 

s (t) The firrt Edition that I know of, was at Munfler, Anno 1641» 
which being near fix Year before the Conclufion of the Peace there, 
may ferve as fome Apology for the Author's Reflections on the 
Princes otorange^ and other Heroes of the AdVerfc Faity. 



Thefe Vrecautions being cbferved , I humbly prefume this 
Book will be of excellent Ufe to all Ingenuous Perfons of what 
Degree or Quality foe-ver. For though by the Title it feems 
calculated for the Meridian of Kings and Trinces only, yet it 
in fome mtafure comprehends all Perfons within the Circum- 
ference of their Dominions. 

The Statefman and Politician may herein learn what Quali- 
fications they ought to be endowed' with for Negotiations, 
either at Home , or in Foreign Courts • how by avoiding the 
Vices ufuatty attending their High Stations > and embracing the 
contrary Virtues , they may render their Anions meritorious to 
their Prince or Country. 

The Officers and Soldiers of an Army may here without 
¡Danger behold, the Methods and Stratagems their Predeceffor's 
have ufed to Conquer their Enemies , and learn that their 
greateft Inter ef_ confifts in good Order and Difcipline, and ab- 
solute Obedience to 'their Superiors , that Vice is as pernicious 
in a Camp as a Court, and that Bravery and Virtue in Con- 
junction merit the great eft Reward and Affeffion from their 
Prince cr Country. 

The Merchants and Seamen may here behold the vaft Ad- 
vantage, their Profcjficn is to a Government , and how Ships 
are the Moveable Poles , on which the Stability thereof de- 

' In fine, all Perfcns of Learning , Senfe , or Reafon, may 
from many excellent Precepts and'' eminent Examples contain d 
therein, improve and refine their Talents to the greatefi Ad- 
vantage imaginable, remembring always my previous Caution 
to avoid fome few mi/laken Aphorifms of his Religion and 

Our Celebrated Author, Don Diego Saavedra Faxardo , 
Knight of the Order of St. Jago , was Born of a Noble Fa- 
mily of Murcia in Spain. He was the Son of Peter de 
Saavedra and Fabiana Faxardo , who was alfo of Noble 
Extraction. He was Educated in the Univerfity of Salaman- 
ca , in the Prefeffion of the Laws , wherein he became very 
Eminent^ efpecially in thofe Parts thereof which are rec/uifite 
for the Accomplijhment of an Abfoiute Politician and Compleat 
Statefman, From thence he was chofen Secretary to Cardinal 
y % Gafpar 


Gaípar Borgia , Vice-Roy of Naples , and foon after Rep- 
dent for his Catholick Majefly at Rome ; where his ConduSt 
gaind him Jo great ^pplaufe , that he was fent en the fame 
Imploy into Switzerland : After that, he was Plenipotentiary- 
AmbaJJ'ador at two Imperial Diets at Ratisbone ; and then 
commanded to affi/l Don Gafpar de Bracamont , Count de 
Pennecranda, at the famous Treaty of Munfter, where he 
gave fignal Demon/lration of his great Experience and Dex- 
terity in the Management of .the mo(l difficult Affairs of 
State. At his Return he fate»in the Supreme Council for toe 
Government of both the Indies ; in which Imploy he diei at 
Madrid in the Tear 164$. All that I know more of bim t 
yod may find in his own Preface, to which , for brevity fake 
J refer you (2). 

The greatnefs of bis Ver fonal Character and Reputation, ani 
of this Book in particular , are too well-efiablifh'd in the 
World to require any Panegyricks on either ¡ but if the' Reader 
defire to fee how this Work was admired by fame of the mtft 
Learned of the Age, let him read the Epijlles prefixed to the 
Latin Verfion thereof His Religious Temper more particularly 
appears in the great Veneration he always jhews for the Holy 
Scripture, and his apt Application thereof* and his "Politicks 
no left by being fo well read in Tacitus , the Great Mafter 
thereof. Were that Excellent Roman now living , he could 
not but be pleafed } to fee the Roughnefs and Crabbednefs of 
his Stile fo finely polifiid, without Diminution to the profound- 
nefs of his Senfe and Judgment , in our Engliih Verfion ; 
though in the Annotations thereof, he would find himfeff Ri- 
val d , if not excell'd by a Modern Politician. But there 
is no greater Argument to prove the general Approbation and 
kind Reception thereof than the various Editions in feveral 
Languages, befides the Original, as Latin, French, Italian, 
Portugefe, and High-German. To enumerate the particu- 
lar Times and Places of each Impreffion would be fuperfiuous , 
were they all known to us. Let it fujfice to inform you, that 

(1) Nic. Antonio's Bibliocheca Scrip. Hifpa», 
Mirzut's Bibliotheca Ecclcfiaft. 
Morería Great Diftmary, 


to the READER. 

the ImpreJJton of the Original we chiefly made ufe of in this 
Verfton, is the Fourth Edition, Printed at Valencia, 1660. 
as being the mo ft Corrcft we could meet with. He wrote 
alfo a Book, Entitnled, Corona Gothica, Caftellanice, 8¿ 
Auftriaca Politicamente IUuftrada , Printed ar Madrid, 
iéfo. though, at jome fay, he died before he bad compleat- 
ed it. 

And here 1 cannot but obferve bow difngenuous (to fay no 
worfe) the Italian and French Tranjlators , or rather Cor- 
ruptor s, of our Author have been, efpecially the last, who not 
content only to omit whole Pagis and Sextons , very material 
to the Purpofe, have foified in their own fulfome flatteries 
instead thereof, bafely perverting his very Senfe and Mean- 
ing, to comfy with the Interefi and Ambition of particular 
Ptrfons or Governments. So dangerous á Thing is Truth in 
fomt Nations. But we have ehofe rather to draw the Copy 
after the full Proportion of the Original , being fatisfied we 
have the Happinefs to live in fo well Conflicted a Govern- 
ment, and under fo Excellent a King, that Truth and Inte- 
grity are new become the great Accomplijhments of a 

Our Author taking occafion fo often to mention Alphonfus 
the Wife , I prefume it will not be thought unneceffary, or be 
unacceptable to fome Readers , to give a Jhort Account of 
him. He was the Tenth of that Name, King of Leon and 
Caftile, and was alfo Sirnamed the Aftrologer, and fucceeded 
bis Father , Ferdinand the Third, 12^2. He made the 
Agronomical Tables, ftill Extant, which are called from his 
Namt, Tabulae Alphonfinae; and his certainly affirm d , 
That he fpent 400000 Crowns in the Compoftion of them. 
He refufed the Imperial Crown of Germany , which was 
offered him after the Rejection of Richard, Duke of Corn- 
wall , contenting himfelf only with the Title of Emperor, 
which fome fay he refgned to Pope Gregory the Tenth , 
whereof he repented , and would have reajj'umed the Imperial 
Title and Arms j but was deterred for fear of an Excommu- 
nication againfi him. He was fuccefsful againjl the Moors $ 
hut at length dethroned by his own Son Sancho , and died 
for Grief in Anno 1284. In a great Shknefs y after many 



Remedies ufed in vain; he began to read Quint. Curtics'i 
Hijlory <?f Alexander the Great, which he did with fo much 
Delight , that he recovered his Health • whereupon he r aid, 
Farewell Avicen , Hippocrates , and the whole Croud oí 
Doctors, give me. my Curtius that hath faved my Life. 
He had read the Bible fourteen Times , with feveral Com- 
mentaries upon it ; he was a great Aflrologer , and after he 
bad deeply confidered the Fabrick of the Wodd 3 the follow- 
ing faying of his , Hported^ by Lipfius , denotes him to have 
been none of the mo(l Pious ; viz,. That if God had advi- 
fed with him in the Creation, he could have given him 

By the Great Captain , often alfo mentioned, is meant 
Gonzales of Cordova , who ferved under Ferdinand and 
Ifabella, in the Conc¡uefi of Granada^ and was very famous 
in his Time. 

It may perhaps, according to Cufiom, be expected we jhould 
give fome Account of the prefent Performance ; but that in- 
deed is a very ticklijJj Point; for to Commend , or even Ju- 
fiify it would favour of Vanity ; and to dif cover its Impera 
feffions , would be very difobliging to our Friends , tht 
Eookfellers. I ¡hall therefore in the Word* of an Ingenuous 
end fudicious Author (4), defire you to conjider, That there 
are certain Graces and Happineffes , ^peculiar to every Lan- 
guage which give Life and Energy to the Words. And who- 
mever offers at a Verbal Tranjlation, Jhall have the Misfor- 
tune of that Young Traveller , who Ion his own Language 
abroad, and brought home no other inftead thereof. For the 
Grace of the Spaniih will be lofl by being turned into 
Engliih Words y ' and the Grace of the Engliih by being 
turned into Spaniih Phrafe. However we have endeavoured 
to come as near the Senfe of the Original, as we could, 
without offering to be Fidi Interpretes , that properly be- 
longing to thofe who Tranjlate Matters of Faith y or fucb 
Fafts of Moment as have Relation thereunto. 

(3) Mariana Hift. Hifp, Turquee Roderick Géneb, Spood, Bzo- 
(i) Si"" John Denbam* 


to the HhAühR, 

The Reader is dejired to take notice that our Author 3 a 
aU others of his Religion, makes ufe of the Vulgar Translation 
in his Quotations out of the Holy Serif ture , which in many 
Places is fo different from the Engliih Verfion 3 that they are 
not applicable to the Purpofe for which he Quotes them. 
For Infiance the Seventy eighth Emblem is a Syren or Mtr-- 
maid, and the Motto, Formpfa Superne. In the begin- 
ning thereof 3 he quotes ifaiah 13. 22. Et Sirenes in delu- 
bris voluptatis, which we Tranflate , and Dragons in 
their pleaiant Places. How beautiful they are 3 unlefs we 
do them wrong, I leave you to^ judge. The Fifty fifth Em- 
hlem, is a Hand holding a Scepter full of Eyes ¡ the Motto, 
His Provide & Provide. He there quotes Jeremiah 1. n. 
where the Vulgar has Virgam vigilantem ego video ; the 
Engliih , I fee the Rod of an Almond Tree ,• which 
literally taken, is little to his Vurpofe 3 and therefore we 
leave it in the Senfe he took it. The Word in the Hebrew, 
is Saked, for an Almond Tree 3 and Verfe the nth , Then 
faid the Lord unto me, thou haft well ieen , for I will 
ha ft en my Word to perform it. The Almond Tree is there 
mentioned' as an Emblem of Hafi • the word Saked, an Al- 
mond Tree, alluding to Sakad, a Word which fignifies making 
Hafie. Nor is the AUufion frivolous, for PYmyfays, Floret 
omnium prima Amygdala, menfe Januario, Martio vero 
Poma maturat, Lib. 16. c. 2 y. (f). 

Now , if any Perfon thinks himfelf reprefented herein 9 
and likes not ha Picture , let him confider he fate not for it , 
and if he finds any Strokes too Bold 3 let him not blame the 
Artift 3 hut amend the Original. As for that little Popery 
that is in it 3 it has been Jo folidly confuted by many Emi- 
nent Divines of the Church of England, and fo ridicuFd 
by others 3 that I prefume , it cannot have the leafl Influence 
on the meanefi Proteftant of the Nation. In Anfwer to 
wbaijpejeflecls on fome of his • Majefiys Heroick Ancestors , 
(if it may not rather be called an Encomium) I refer the 
Reader to that mo ft Excellent and Unanfwerable Apology, 

(5 ) Bocharcus's Gcograph. Sacra, Phaleg, lib. c, i, Canaan, 
lib. 1, c, 35, 



wrote hy the Vrince of Orange hintfelf , and publifbed in sU 
Languages, And for a Conch/ion, accept of the following 
Epigranv, by an unknown Hand, reprefentmg that IHuftrious 
Trbtcey as Tropbetically, /peaking to William f¿e Third, our 
frefent Gracious Sovereign. 

NaiTovius Coeli miratus ab Arce NTepoterr) 

Ad Summum tantis pafllbas ire Dccui; 
Mafte, inquit, faaguis nofter ; tibi cedimus akr©* 

Quandoquidern ccdunc Terra Frecumque tibi. 
Me Duce parta meis Libertat priftina Bdgis, * 

Orbis Hyperboreus, te Duce, liber erir. 

In EnghJIi. 

When NafTau from the Styes beheld his Sort, 

Withjucb large Steps the Race of honour Run 5 
Ttpceedj my Boy, proceed xmth)oy % [aid fíe ; 

/ ¿o, fince Earth and Sea fubmit to thee. 
I only to my Country freedom gave , 

7ou will the Northern World from Bondage favei 




O F T H E 

Emblems of the Firft Part. 

The Education of a Prince. 

FA LOUR exerts it i ¡elf 'even in 
the Cradle. 
And then Art drams its Drafts as on 

blank Canvajs. 
Fortifying and adorning the Body with 

honourable Exercifes. 
And the Mind with Liberal Sciences. 
InñilVd with pleajant Induflry 
And Adorn 'd mth polite Learning. 

Emb. ■ Page 

1 H l N c L4bor ' & VirtttS ' l 

II. Ad omnia, 9 

III. Robur 8c Deeus, ij> 

IV. Non folum Armis, 26 

V. Cum Deleftatione jnformat, 34 

VI. Polirioribus ornantur liters, 38 

How a Prince ouehc to regulate |%is Anions. 

LET him know things as they are in 
themfelves not as reprejented by 
the P 'a ¡pons. 
Let his Anger fubmit to Reafon. 
Let him not be mov'd by Envy which 

is its own Executioner. 
And proceeds from Glory and Fame 
Let a Prince be cautious in his Dif. 
courfe, for from thence his Mind is 
Let him jhadow Lyes with Truth. 
And be ajfured that his Defetls will be 

the Subjetl of Obliquy. 
Which both reproves and amends him. 
Let him value ¡deputation beyond Life, 
Comparing his own Actions with tkofe 

of his Anceftors. 
But not refi fat'ufied with the Trophies 

and Glories derivd from them. 
Lei him own his Scepter frotn God. 
And that he txufl rejign it to his Sw. 

finowing that d Crown is but a deceit- 

jul Good. 
JL(t lr>m Rute and Goneil By T.awi. 

VII. a UGET & Minuit, 44. 

VIII. Prae oculís ira, 

IX. SuiVindex, 

X. Fama nocet, 

XI. Ex pulfu nofcitur. 

XÍÍ. Exccecat candor, 
XUI. Ccnfurse pater, 



XIV. Detrabir & decoraf, 102 

XV. Dim luceam peream, n» 

XVI. Purpura juxta purpuram, » 1 5 

XVII. Alienis fpoliis, 

XVIII A peo, 

XIX. ViciíTim cudituT, 

XX. Fallas bonum, 
XXf. Regw & coirigif, 

z 19 




The Contents of the Firfl Part. 

And epdtijh his Mayfly \wtth Jufiiee 

and Clemency. 
Let Reward be the Trice of Valour. 
Let him always have RefpsLi to the 

Let him place iq that, the- Stability 

and Security of %s Empire. 
And Hopes of ViBory. 
Ho: ¡n the falfe and Counterfeit. 
JLet htm covfult times prejent,paft } and 

to come, 
And nut particular Cafes which rarely 

But by the Experience of many who 

ejtablijh Wifdom. 
This will teach him to maintain his 

Crown with Reputation. 
Not to depend on popular Opinion; 
Nor be di] composed at Change of Fortune. 
To Endure and Hope. 
To draw Felicity from Adverfity. 
To Sail with every [Vind. 
Of two Evils to chufe the Leafl. 

Errb. Pagt 

XXIF Pixfidia Majcftatis, i6r 

XXIII. Piedum Virfutis, 170 

XXIV. Irnmobilis ad immobile nu- 
men, 178 

XXV. Hie tutior, 184. 

XXVI. In hoc Signo, 189 

XXVII. Specie Religionis," 19? 

XXVIII. Quae fint.quae fueiint, quae 
mox ventura fequantur, 202 

XXIX. Non Temper Tripodem, 209 

XXX. Fukitur experientiis, 214,. 

XXXI. Exiftimatione nixa, 225 

XXXII. Ne tequaefiveris extra, 234 

XXXIII. Semper Idem, 240 
XXXIV Ferendfi Sc fperandu, 250 

XXXV. Intercluía refpirat, 255 

XXXVI. In contraria ducet, 2«,9 
XXXVII./VIinimum eligendum, 266 

How a Prince ought to behave himfelf towards his Subjects 
and Srrangers. 

■ t ET him make himfelf beltñf d and 

, ftard by all Men, 
Being the Altar to which they fee for 

Ljt his Ability be the Meafure of his 

Let hm avoid Extreams, 
Mixing Plea fare with Profit. 
That he may ' know how to reign, let 

him learn to dijfmblc, 
jind not di-fcover his De/igns,- 
Nor rely too much on his Maje/Iy. 
But think always he may be deceived, 
By the fpecious Pretenders to Fertile, 
No lefs than Flatterers-. 

XXXVIII. £UM Blandimemo & 

XXXIX. Omnibus, 



XL. Quae tribuunt tribuit, 2S6 

XLI NequidnJmis, 291 

XLII. Omne tulit punñum, 299 

XLHI. Ut fciat regnare, 303 

XLIV. Nee a quo,nec ad quemólo 

XLV. Noh Majsftate fecurus, 316 

XLVI. Fallimur opinione, 319 

XL VII. Et juvifle nocet, 3:9 

XLVIII. Sub luce lues, 337 

How a Prince ought to behave himfelf towards his Mirifiiers of State. 

JET their Authority be only depen- XLIX. T ÜMINE Solis, 
** dent *- 

That they may be always fubjett to hit L. Jovi & Fulmilli. 

D' Jplt tfufe as well as Favour. . 


O F 






B MB L E M h 

Alour is born, not' acquired : 'tis an intrinfick 
Quality of the Soul which is infuied with it, 
and immediately exerts it (elf: The very Mo* 
thers Womb was a Field of Battel to the Two 
Brothers, Jacob and Efau ( i ). Of Thamars Twins, one 

CiJ And the Children iiruggkd together wiciiin her, Gen, i$.iz* 

» by 

x The Inclinations of a Prince Vol. V. 

by Nature more daring, when he could not be Borti 
before his .Brother, broke however the Ligature, and" 
thru ft out his Hand, as if he would fnatch the Elder- 
ihip from him (2). A great Soul exerts it felt in the 
Cradle: Hercules Crowned by the Conqueft of Two 
Serpents, from that day expofing himfelf to Envy, and 
making Fortune truckle to his Vertue. A generous 
Spirit is confpicuous in the very firft Actions of Nature. 
The Infant of Spain, your Highneis his Uncle of 
BlefTed Memory, faw the Battel of Norlinguen almoft 
feyen before he knew what War was, and even then 
knew how to Command with Prudence and Ad. with 

Cyms, a very Boy when Elected King by thofe of 
his own Age, did in that Childiifi Government fuch 
Heroick Actions, as fufficiently manifeifed his fecret 
Greatnefs of mind and Royal Genius, Natures moft 
excellent Productions are themlelves their own Difco- 
verers. Amidft the rude and unrefined mafs of Oar, 
the Diamond fparkles, and Gold glifters. The Young 
Lion as ibon as whelp'd, views his Paws, and with a 
haughty Mein, íhakes his curled Main fcarce yet dry, 
as preparing .to Fight. Childifli Games, to which 
Princes are carried by a natural Irnpulfe, are Signs 
and prognoiticks of maturer Actions. Nature is ne- 
ver fo much as a Moment idle, but from the very Birch 
of it's Off-fpring is induftrious in a regular Formation 
of its Mind as well as Body,* for this Reafon, me has 
fiampt fuch an extraordinary Affection upon Parents 
to excite their Diligence in well Educating their Chil- 
dren,- and leaii they ihould ('which is no unulual 
thing) with a ftrange Nurfes Milk, imbibe alfo her 
Vicious Practices, the fame Nature, provident in her 
Dif tribu tions, has cfifpenced as ic were a double Foun- 
tain of purer Blood, to fupp'iy them with Nouriihment 
for their Young Ones: But either Idienefs, or fear of 

■f2j And ic tame to pais when (he travailed, tluc the one puc 
out hit-hand ftrltj (Jenrf. 38. iS. 


Vol. T. Vifcermlle in his Cradle. \ 

Iofing their Beauty, is frequently the occaiion why 
Mothers ( not without confiderable Detriment to the 
Commonwealth) negleft their Duty, and give the fuck- 
ling of their Children to others; which Abufe, fince it 
cannot fo eafily be remedied, at leaft great care mould 
be taken in the Choice of them. Let them be Healthy, 
of a good Family ¡and well bred • for as from the Conception to 
the Birth the Child is nourijhed in the Body of its Mother, 
fo is it from its Birth till 'tis weaned, by the Nurfe's Breaft y 
and this lafl Interval being longer than the other, the Child 
mufl of Necejjity imbibe more of the Nature of its Nurfe 
than its Mother, Says the Wife King Alfhonfo, who pre- 
ferred Laws to Heaven and Earth. 

The Second Obligation Parents lie under, is the E- 
ducation of their Children (3 ): there's fcarce any Ani- 
mal will forfake its Young Ones without Direction 
given how to provide for themfelves. Nor are the Ad- 
vantages of Education lefs confiderable than thofe of 
Nature, and Children are more ready to embrace their 
Parents inftru&ions and bear their Reproofs, than thoie 
of others (4 ) : Thofe particularly who are nobly born 
difdain to be govern'd by their Inferiours. In a 
Childs firft Procreation, it Received nothing from the 
Father but a Body, for God alone is the Authour of 
the Soul, which except the Father afterwards Cultivates 
and improves by Education (<; ), he will fcarce deferve 
the name of a true and abfolute Fsther. Nor is it new* 
in holy Scripture for a Mailer to be called Father. For 
Example, Jubal the firft Teacher of Mufick ( 6). And 
who, I pi ay, is fitter to Teach his Son how to appear 
with Majeity, how to keep a Decorum in all things, 
Maintain his Authority, and govern his Subjects, than 
the Prince himfeif (y) ? He only has the full pra&ick 

(l) Haft 'hou Childrea, inftruft them. Ecclef.7. 13. (4) Educan 
fiquiJem r efté ü parentibus, per fancfoi $j jttjhs mores bon't wm eva- 
dent. Antht. Oecon. lib.i. (<\) WifJoro cxahcrh her Children. Ecclef.4, 
J2 (_6) He was the Father of all fuch as handle che hárp and Organ, 
Gen. 4. 21. (7) My I or, five me rhiue heart; and kc chine Eyes 
oj;;rve a, y ways: tyov. 23. s£. 

' B ¿ Know,' 

4 The Inclinations of a Vrince Vol.1. 

Knowledge of Government, which others know only 
in part and by Speculation : Nor without reafon did So- 
lomon boaft that he Received great Improvement from his 
Fathers Inftruclions ( 8) ; however lince Fathers fome- 
times have not themfelves the Qualifications requinte for 
a good Education of their Children, or at leaft have not 
leifure to take that Trouble upon them, Matters muft be 
looked for of an unblamable Life and Converfation,* 
eminent withall for Learning and Experience ( 9 )¿ 
luch as King Alphonfo in his Laws defcribes in 
thefe Words. So that for all tbefe reafons, Kings ought to 
take great care of their Children, and to cboofe them 
Tutours of a good iamily and good Livers, found both in 
Mind and Body^ and above all faithfuü and jufi, firm to the 
Jntereft of their King and Country, To which I add, that 
they ought to be Men of Valour and a great Spirit, 
well Experienced in Affairs, as well of Peace as War, 
fuch was Seneca, whom therefore Agrippina made Choice 
of for Neros Mailer (10). 'Tis imponible, without 
doubt, for a Man of an abject and mean Spirit to 
imprint on a Prince thoughts more fublime than his 
own. Were an Owl to inftrud an Eagle, ihe would 
not teach her to look on the Sun, or ibar above lofty 
Cedars ,• her School would be kept altogether in the 
dark, amidft the lower Branches, The Mailer's Image 
appears in the Scholar, and in him, he in a manner Re- 
prefents himfelf. For no other reafon did Pharaoh make 
Jofeph Lord of/ his houfe,and Ruler of all his fubftance, 
but to teach his Princes to be like himfelf ( 1 1 ). Thofe 
who have the tuition and government of Princes Sons, 
ought to be as careful of their tender years, as Gardi- 

(i) For I was my Father's Son, render and only belov'd of my 
Mother* he taught me alio, and (aid, Let thine heart retan my words. 
Frov. 4. 3. (9} Qn&rendi funt iiberit Magjftrit quorum <& incubara fit 
v\ta(f nwes. Hut. de Educ. ( \o~) Vtq\Donúút juerrtit tali Magijlio 
adttefieret; <& confdiis ejttfdem ad fpem dominatimii wterttur. Tac. 12. 
Ann. (11) And he made him Lord oí his houfe, and rulerof h»s fuh- 
fiance : Tobitd his Princes at his pleafure; and csach his Scnatours 
wiidom, Pfa!. 105.21, 22, 


Vol. í. Difcernihle in his Cradle. $ 

ners are of their moil delicate Plants, which even before 
they appear above ground ,• they fecure with Fences to 
prevent their being injured, by treading on, or hand- 
ling. On the firft ftroak depends the Perfection of a 
Pi&ure, fo does a good Education on what the firft 
years have imbibed, before the paflions get itrength and 
refufe to fubmit to reafon ( 12 ). From a very minute 
Seed a vaft Tree proceeds, which however fmall a twig 
at firft, and eafily flexible every way, when 'tis invefted 
with Bark, and has diffufed it felf into Branches, 
(lands immoveable. The affections in youth are not 
much unlike poiibn, which having once made its pak 
fage into the Heart, leaves the palenefs confequent 
to it incurable. Vertues that improve and increafe 
with our Age have not only the precedency of others, 
but excell even themfelves ( 13 j. Of the four Winged 
Animals in Ez,ekid\ Vifion, the Eagle, one of that very 
number, was carried higher than all thoíé four ( 14), 
for becaufe (he as foon as hatcht began to have Wings, 
the others not till long after, {he not only appeared 
above them, but her felf too. For want of a fuitable 
confideration of this, I Imagine it is that many per- 
ibns ufually commit the Care, of their Sons as icon as 
they come into the World, to Women^ who with the 
idle fear of ihadows, agreeable to the genius of their 
Sex, enfeeble their minds, and íramp other Effeminate 
paffions on them, which with time take deep root ( 1 5V . 
To avoid this inconveniency, the Verfiw Kings Com- 
mited theirs to the care of perfons of worth and 
prudence ( 16 ). But above all, Children's natures are 

(12) Bow down his neck while he is young, and beat him on the 
fides while he is a Child, kail he wax ftubborn, and be dtfobedienc 
to thee, and fo bring forrow to thine hearc. Ecc'ef. 30, 12. (3) It ii 
good for a Man that he bear the Yoke in his Youth, he iitteth alone, 
and keeperh filence, becaufe he hath born it upuiihim, Lam. 3. 27, 
28. £14) They four had alfo the face of an Eagle. Efet». 1. i o' (i 5 j 
Train up thy child in the way he ihould go: and when he is o!d he 
will not depart from it. Frov. 22. 6. (16) Nunitur puer non a Ma 
Here nutnee par urn hsnvifica, ver urn ah Eunuchis, qui reliquorum cv>cu Rc- 
m optimi Midcantur^ Plu:. primo A'cib. 

B 3 to 

6 The Inclinations of a Prince Vol. I. 

to be taken particular notice of, it being imponible 
without it to draw a true Scheme of Education. 

Now no Age is more proper for it than their infancy, 
when nature as yet free from envy and diflimulati- 
on (i7J, fincerely diiclofes it felfj when in their Fore- 
head, Eyes, Hands, their Smiles and other motions of 
their Body, their pailions and inclinations appear with- 
out difguife. The Ambafladours of Beam having pow- 
er given them by the illuftrious William of Moneada to 
Choofe which of his Sons for their Prince they thought 
fit; upon obfervation, that Ones hand was Clinched, 
the others open, Chofe this latter, interpreting it to be 
a ilgn of Munificence and Liberality, as it afterwards 
prov'd. If an Infant be of a generous and great Mind, 
at hearing his own commendations he fmooths his 
Brows, looks pleafantly and fmiles • on the contrary, 
when difcommended, he is concerned, bluihes and 
cafts his Eyes on the ground • if of an undaunted Spirit, 
he looks item, is not terrified with fhadows or threats ; 
if Liberal, he defpifes toyes and prefents, or readily 
parts with them again to others ,• if revengeful, he con- 
tinues Angry, is all in Tears till he have fatisfa&ion ; 
if he be Cholerick, the lea ft trifle puts him in a heat, 
he lets fall his Brows, looks dogged, and threatens with 
his fifi; if Affable, with a fweet Smile and alluring 
Eye, he wins favour and acceptance; if Melancholy, 
he avoids Company, delights in folkude, is often 
complaining, feldom Laughs, and generally looks fol- 
ien,* if he be Airy, he unfolds the Wrinkles of his 
Forehead, and now gratefully fixing his Lyes fscms to 
dart a pleafing light, by and by with a kind of Com- 
placency withdrawing them, and agreeably pleating his 
brows, betrays the Chearfulnefs of his Mind. Thus 
does the heart reprefent the other Vermes alio, and 
vices in the face and exterior motions of the Body, till 
more cautious Age has taught it to Conceal them. 

(17) Juvenet non funt mal'tgni maris, fed faciits morís, froftcrea quod 
nondum vidernnt neqttitias. Aiiit. 


Vól. T. Vifcermhle in his Cradle. 7 

In the very Cradle and Nurfe's Arms, the whole 
Court admired in your Highnefs, a certain' natural 
pleafantneis and grateful Majefty, and indeed that 
grave carriage and prefence of Mind which appeared 
in your Highnefs, when the Two Kingdoms of .CafiUe 
and Leon took an Oath of Allegiance to you, exceeded 
the ordinary capacity of your years. 

I would not hare however, thefe reflections of mine 
upon infancy be lookd upon as infallible and- without 
exception, tor nature fometimes deviates from her Com- 
mon Road, and deceives the too curious Enquirer, 
there are fome, who. tho 1 vitious in their infancy, 
when at years of difcretion take up and Reform/Which 
happens perhaps, becaufe one of -a -great- and --haughty 
Spirit deipifes Education, and confequently is fubd$ed 
by his natural paííions, while right reafon is too weak 
to refift them, till that getting ftrength He acknow- 
ledges its errours and correéis them effectually: 'twas 
a cruel and barbarous Cuftom therefore of the Brack- 
mans, who either killed or expofed their (¿hildren after 
they were Two Months Old in the Woods, if there 
appeared in them any tokens -of tmirl nature.-- ' -As tít- 
humane were the Lacedamonians who threw theirs into 
the River Taygetes. Both feemed to make no account 
of Education, of right reafon and free-will which ufu- 
ally correal and regulate natural affections. This alio 
feems unaccountable, when nature joyns fome eminent 
Vertues with the moil enormous Vices in the fame 
perfenj as too different flips are often grafted upon 
two branches, which growing out of the fame Root pro- 
duce different, nay contrary Fruits, bitter and fweet. 

This was Vifible in Alcibiades of whom 'twas a 
queition whether he was more eminent for his Ver- 
tues or Vices. And thus Nature works "ere ihe has 
begun to know her felf, but reafon afterwards and 
induírry corred and polifh her operations. * — - 

Laftly fince I propofed to my ielf by thefe Emblems 
to give an exact Model of a Prince from the Cradle to 
the Tomb, It won't be amifs to accommodate my rudi- 

B 4 meats 

f The Inclinations of a Prince, &c. Vol. I. 

ments and ftile to each particular Age, as Flato and Art- 
ftotle have done. At prefent, I Advife that fpecial Care 
be taken to render his Arms and Legs adive by Exercife. 
If by chance any of his Limbs fhould be crooked they 
may be ftraightned by artificial Inftruments ( 18 ). Let 
frightful fpedacles which may injure the imaginative 
faculty be kept from him : Let him not be fufí'ered to 
look afquint at any thing: Ufe him gradually to 
the ihaipnels of the Air, nor fhould Mufick be Wan- 
ting to quicken his Spirits now and then : for whate- 
ver new thing Children meet with, that 'tis they ad- 
mire, that makes the deepeft Impreffion on their Imagi- 

(18) C&terumne propter teneritatem membra torqueantur, n at mes qui» 
¿ufdam artifichfit infirumentis utebanw. Arift, lib. 7. Pol. cap. 17. 





With Pencil and Colours Art admirably J£x- 
prefles every thing. Hence, if Painting be not 
Nature, it certainly comes ib near it as that 
often its works deceive the fight, and are not to be 
diftinguiihed but by the touch. It can't, it's true, ani- 
mate Bodies, but it frequently draws the Beauty, Moti- 
ons and Affections of the Soul. Altho' indeed it cannot 
intirely form the Bodies themfelves for want of mat- 
ter, yet the Pencil fo exquiíitely deícribes them on 
Canvafs, that befides Life there's nothing that you can 
defire more. Nature I believe would envy Art if ihe 
could poilibly do the fame, but now ihe is fo kind, as 
in many things to ufe the Affiftance of Art,* for whate- 
ver the Induftry of this can perfeft, that Nature does 
not finiih her felf. Thus we fee man is born without 
any manner of knowledge or propriety of fpeech, in- 
ftru&ion and learning being left to draw the lineaments 


I o How, and when to hegin Vol.1, 

of Arts and Sciences on his mind as on a blank Can- 
vafs, and Education to Imprint morality thereon, not 
without great advantage to humane Society; for 
hence it comes to pafs that by One mans having Oc- 
cafíon for the Affiftance of another, the bonds of 
gratitude and affection are ftrengthened: for Nature 
has íbwn the feed of Vertue and knowledge in all 
of us, we are equally born to thofe goods of the 
mind, which muft be cultivated and quicken'd by fome 
other hand (i). But Vis neceífary theie meafures 
be taken in the tender years, while the mind is fitter 
to Receive all manner of forms, fo readily apprehen- 
five of fciences as to appear rather to remember than 
firft learn them; which Plato made ufe of as an argu- 
ment to prove the immortality of the Soul (2); but if 
this be negle&ed in the firft Age, the affections by de- 
grees get ground, and their depraved inclinations make 
fo deep an impreilion upon the will as no education 
can efface. The Bear no fooner whelps but licking the 
limbs of her deformed Lirref while they are foft, perfe&s 
and brings them to ihape, whereas if ihe fullered them 
to grow firm her pains would be ineffectual. It was 
wifely done {in my Judgment) of the Kings of ferfia 
to Commit their Sons in their Infancy to Mafters, 
whofe care it ihould be for the firft ieven years of 
their lite to Organize their Bodies: In the fecond to 
ftrengthen them by ufing them to fencing and the like 
Exercifes. To thefe they after added four feled Peifbns 
to give the finiíliing ftroaks ; the firft eminent for Lear- 
ning, made 'em Scholars; the fecond a difcreet, fober 
mnn, taught them to govern and bridle their appetites; 
the third a Lover of Equity, inculcated the Admini- 
ííration of Juftice; laltly the fourth eminently Valiant 
and Experienced in Warfare, iniiructed them in Mili- 

(l^ Omnibus natura fundamenta dedit, fetnenque itrtutum, emnef ad 
ifla omnia natr fnmu<\ cum i rut, it or accejfit, tunc ilia artini bona, velut 
fvpita excitantur. Sen. Epifl. 10. (2) Ex hoc pop,} cogmjet an:mat 
iwnnrtales tffi, atque, quod in jHtOll mobilfa junt ingenia, ¿7 ad 
pe\ uyendttni fad lia. Fiar, dv A.u. 


Vol. 1. the Education of a Toung Prince. 1 1 

tary Difcipline, efpecially endeavouring by incentives 
to Honour, to divert their minds from fear and Cow- 
ardice. But this good Education is particularly necefla- 
ry in Princes as they are the Inftruments of Politick 
happinefs and publick fafety. In others the neglect of 
a good Education is only prejudicial to fingle perfons 
or at leaft influences very few: but in a Prince 'tis 
not only againft his private, but every ones common 
intereft, whilft fome he injures immediately by his 
Actions, others by his Example. Man well Educated 
is the mod divine Creature in the World ¡ If ill, of all 
animals the moil favage ( % ). . What, I pray, can you 
expect from a Prince who is ill Educated, and has got 
the fupreme power itt his hands? other evils of a 
Common wealth are of no long continuance, this 
never terminates but with the Princes life. Of what 
Importance a good and honourable Education is, Philip 
King of Macedón was fenfible, declaring in his Letters 
to Ariftoth upon the Birth of his Son Alexander his Ob- 
ligation to the Gods, not fo much for giving him a 
Son, as that he was born at a time when he could make 
ufe of fuch a Mafter, and 'tis certainly never conve- 
nient to leave nature otherwife good, to her íélf and 
her own operations, iince the beft is imperfect and re- 
quires fome external indufrry to cultivate it, as indeed 
do raoft things necefiary for man's well being. The 
puni/hment derived to us by the fault of our firfl: pa- 
rents being not to enjoy any thing without labour and 
the fweat of the Brow, how can you expect a Tree to 
bear fvveet fruit unlefs you transplant it, or by graf- 
fing it upon ftems of a more refined and generous 
nature, correct its Wildnefs. Education improves the 
good and inírruóts the bad (q). This was the rea- 

C 5 ) fiemo reclam rutins inflitutionern divmffimum manjuetiflimumque 
animal efjici folct ; fi vero, vel non fufficienter, vel ,non bene educetur % 
éomm qn£ terraprogenuit, feroaflimum. Piar. lib. 3. de leg. (<Q Ed^catio % 
fa tntUtuth ccmmoda.naturas bonas, ivduál, fa rurfum borne n at une ft talent 
inliitutionem confequantut , meliores adhuc fa prjijiantions evat/ire fimus. 
Piai. \)u\. 4 dc Leg. 


xi How, and when to legtn Vol.!. 

(on why Trajan became ib eminent a Governour, be- 
cauíé he added induftry to his natural parts and had 
the direction of fuch a Mafter as Vluiarch. Nor had 
King Peter firnamed the Cruel, ever proved fo barba- 
rous and tyrannical had John Alphonfo, Duke of Albu- 
tjuerque, his Tutor, known how to mollifie and break his 
haughty temper. There's the fame difference in Mens 
difpofitions as in Metals, fome of which are proof a- 
gainft fire, others diffolve in it; yet all give way to the 
graving tools, are maleable and duótile. So there's no 
bumour ib rugged but care and correction may have 
íbme effe<a on. Altho' I confefs Education is not al- 
ways fufficient of it íélf to make men Vertuous, becauíé 
many times under Purple as among Briais and Woods, 
there ipring up fuch monftrous Vices, particularly in 
perfons of a great Spirit, as prove utterly Incorrigible. 
What is more obvious than for young men to be debau- 
ched by Luxury, Liberty or Flattery in Princes Courts, 
where abundance of Vicious afFe&ions grow as Thorns, 
as noxious and unprofitable weeds upon ill manured 
Land. Wherefore Except theie Courts are well infti- 
tuted the care taken in a good Education will be to 
very little purpofe ; for they feem to be like Moulds 
and accordingly fo Form the Prince as themfelves are 
Well or ill ditpofed, and thofe Vertues or Vices which 
have once began to be in repute in them, their mini- 
iters tranfmit to pofterity. A Prince is fcarce Mafter 
of his reafon when his Courtiers out of flattery Cry 
up the too great Liberty of his Parents and Anceftor^ 
recommending to him fome great and renowned Ani- 
ons of theirs, which have been as it were the propriety 
of his Family. Hence alio it comes to pafs that fome 
particular Cuftoms and Inclinations are propagated 
from Father to Son in a continued fucceffion, not íb 
much by the Native force of their blood, ( for neither 
length of time nor Mixtures of Marriage are ufed to 
Change them ) as becaufe they are eftabliihed in the 
Courts where Infancy imbibes them and as it were 
turns them into nature,, thus among the Romans the 


Vol.!. the Education of a Toung Prittce. 1% 

Claudii were reputed Proud, the Sapos Warlike, the 
Ami ambitious ¿ as now in Spain the Gufmans are look- 
ed upon to be Good Men, the Mendosas Humane, 
the Maurices have the Character of Formidable, the 
Toletans Severe and Grave. The fame is Vifible in 
Artificers, when any of a family have attained an Ex- 
cellency, they eafily tranfmit it to their Children, the 
Spe&atours of their Art and to whom they leave their 
Works and Monuments of their Labour. To all this may 
be added, that Flattery mixt with Errour fometimes com- 
mends in a Boy for Vertue what by no means deferves 
that name, as Lewdneis, Orientation, Iniblence, Anger, 
Revenge and other Vices of the like nature,* fome men 
erroneoufly perfwading themfelves that they are tokens 
of a great Spirit; which withall induces 'em too eagerly 
to purfue thefe, to the negled: of real Vermes: as a 
Maid fometimes if fhe be commended for her free 
Carriage or Confidence, applies her felf to thofé rather 
than Modefty and Honefty, the principal good Qualities 
of that Sex. Tho' indeed young men ought to be driven 
from all Vices in general, yet more efpecially from 
thoíé which tend to Lazinefs or Hatred they being 
more eafily imprinted in their minds ( 5- ). Care there- 
fore muft be taken that the Prince over-hear no filthy 
or obfcene expreffions, much leís ihould he be fuffered 
to ufe them himfelf : We eafily execute what we make 
familiar to us in diicourfe, at leaft fomething near it (6). 
Wherefore to prevent this Evil the Romans uíéd to 
Choofe out of their families ibme grave Ancient Ma* 
tron to be their Sons Governeis, whofe whole Care 
and Employment was to give them a good Education, 
in whofe prefence it was npt allowable to fpeak a foul 
word or admii an indecent A&ion (7 ). The deiign of 

(s) Carina igitur mala, fed ea máxime qua turpitudinem habent vel 
odium parent, funtprocul a pu:ris removendt. Arirt. Pol. 7.C if. (6) 
Ham f'cite tmpia hquendo, efficitur ut homines his próxima facicnr. 
Ariit. Pol. 7,0. 17. (7) Coram qua neque dkere fas e at, qtod turpe 
dittit, ñeque faceré quod inhonejiumfttta viiintwr* ^uiar.dial, de orar. 


14 How, and when to Begin Vol.T. 

this fevere difcipline was that their nature being pre- 
ferved pure and untainted, they might readily em- 
brace honeft profeffions ( 8 ) . Quintilian laments the 
negled of this manner of Education in his time, 
Children being ufually brought up among fervants, 
and fo learning to imitate their Vices. Nor, fays he, is 
any one of the family concerned what he fays or does 
before his young Mafter, iince even their parents don't 
ib much inure them to Vertues and Modefty as La- 

^ fcivioufnefs and Libertiniim ( 9 ) • Which to this day 
is ufual in molt Princes Courts: nor is there any 
remedy for it, but difplacing thofe Vicious Courtiers 
and fubftituting others of approved Vertue who may 
excite the Princes mind to Actions more generous and 
fuch as tend to true honour Y 10,). When a Court 
has once bid adieu to Vertue, 'tis often Changed but 
never for the better, nor does it defire a Prince better 
than it felf. Thus Nero's family were Favourers of 
Otho, becaufe he was like him ( 1 1 ). But if the Prince 
cannot do this, I think it were more advifeable for 
him .to leave that Court, as we remember James the 

• 3 ft. King of Arragon did, * when he faw himfelf Tyran- 
nized over by thofe who educated and confined him 
as it were in a prifon : nor can I give thofe Courts 
any other name, where the principal aim is to enflave 
the princes will, and he is not fuffered to go this way 
or that by choice and at his own pleafure, but is for- 
cibly guided as his Courtiers pleaíé, juft as Water is 
conveighed thro' private Channels for the fole benefit 
of, the ground thro' which it pafles. To what purpofe 
are good natural Parts and Education, if the Prince is 

("8) j^f» difciplina, ac feve ritas eo peitinebat y ut fiicera <¿r integra, & 
nulJis pravitatibus detorta unii'fcujufque natura tnto fta'im pífíire arriperet 
ai tes hone/las. Quimil. Ibid. (9) Nee quifquam in tota domo p:nji habct quid 
toram infante domino, ant dicat aut faciat ; quandn etiam ipfi pjrentes, 
nee probittui ñeque modeJtU párvulo) ajfuefacu<nt, fed Utfcivis, <*r iiber- 
tati. Quint, ibid. (10) Nt'q--> enim aurtbus jocunda conven'u dicere,fed 
ex quo aliquii gloriojus fiat, Linip. in Hippol. (u) Proni in cum .¿.r.t 
iftrms Ht/imile.Ti. Tac 1. Hift. * Mar. H it. Hii>. 


Vot.T. the Education of a Young Prince* i f 

fuffered to íéc, hear and know no more than his At- 
tendance think fit? What wonder if Henry the 4th. 
King of Caftile f proved fo negligent and fluggifh, fo 
like his Father John the Second in all things, after he 
had been Educated among the fame Flatterers that oc- 
cafioned his Fathers male Adminiftration ? Believe me, 
'tis as imponible to form a good Prince in an ill 
Court, as to draw a ftraight Line by a Crooked 
iquare: there's not a wall there which fome lafcivious 
hand has not fuilied ; not a Corner but Echoes their 
diflblute Courfe of. Life: all that frequent the Court: 
are fo many Mafters and as it were Ideas of the 
Prince, for by long ufe and Converfation each imprint 
foroething on him which may either be to his benefit 
or prejudice,* and the more apt his Nature is to Learn, 
the fooner and more eafily he imbibes thofe domeftick 
Cuftoms. I dare affirm that a Prince will be good 
if his Minifters are fo ; bad if they be bad: an inftance 
of this we have in the Emperor Galba, who when he 
light upon good Friends and Gentlemen, was governed 
by them, and his Conduct unblameable ; if they were 
ill, himfelf was guilty of inadvertency (12). 

Nor will it fuffice to have thus reformed living and 
animate figures in a Court, without proceeding alfo to 
inanimate: for tho' the graving Tool and Pencil are but 
mute Tongues, yet Experience has taught us they are far 
,more eloquent and perfwafive. What an incitement to 
Ambkionis Alexander 'the great's Statue? how ftrangely 
do pictures of Juf iters lewd Amours inflame Luft? be- 
fides, for which our corrupt nature is blameable, Art 
is ufually more celebrated for chefe kind of things 
than Vertuous inftrudive pieces" At firft indeed the 
excellency of the workmanfhip makes thoie pieces Va- 
luable, but afterwards lafcivious peribns adorn the 
Walls with them to pleafe and entertain the Eyes. 
There ihould be no ftatue or piece of painting al- 

+ Maf. Hifl Hif. (iz) Amkornnr, libertorumq; ubi iv bonos incidí ffet, fine 
reprebenfme pawns, fi muliforent, vfc ¿id tullan i¿na>M. T<t£. 1. hi<K 


1 6 How, and when to legin Vol. F. 

lowed, but fuch as may Create in the Prince a 
glorious Emulation ( i %). The Heroick Atchierements 
of the Ancients are the propereft fubjeéts for Painting, 
Statuary and Sculpture; thoíé let a Prince look on 
continually, thofe read; for Statues and Pictures arc 
fragments of Hiftory always before our Eyes. 

After the Vices of the Court have been (as far as 
poffiblej thus corrected, and the Princes humour and 
inclinations well known, let his Mafter or Tutor en- 
deavour to lead him to fome great undertaking, {ow- 
ing in his Mind Seeds of Vertue and honour íb íecret- 
ly, that when they are grown it will be difficult to 
judge whether they were the product of Nature or 
Art. Let them incourage Vertue with Honour, brand 
Vice with Infamy and DHgrace, excite Emulation 
by Example; thefe things have a great Effect upon 
all Tempers, tho* more on fome than others. Thofe who 
are of a Generous difpofition, Glory influences moft; 
the Melancholy, Ignominy ; the Cholerick, Emulation, 
the Inconftant, Fear; the Prudent, Example ; which 
is generally of moft efficacy with all, efpedally that of 
Anceftors; for often what the Blood could not, Emu- 
lation does perform. 'Tis with Children as young trees 
on which you muit Graff a branch ( as I may fay ) 
of the fame Father, to bring them to perfection. Thefe 
Grafts are the famous examples which infufe into Po- 
fterity the Vertues of their Anceftors and bear excellent 
fruit. That therefore it may be conveighed as it were 
thro' all the Senfes into the mind, and take deep Root 
there, ihould be the particular induftry of his Inftru- 
ctors, and confequently they are not to be propofed 
to the Prince in ordinary Exhortations only or Reproofs, 
but alio in fenfible objects. Sometime let Hiftory put 
him in mind of the great Atchievements of his Ance- 
ftors, the glory of which eternized in print may ex- 
cite him to imitate them. Sometimes Mullck (that 


(i%) Cum autem ne quis talialoquaturprohibetnr y fat if ir.teüigifur vff- 
tart % ne turfes, ul fifturas vel fábulas fpettet. Ann, 7 Pol. cap. 17. 


Vol.!. the Education of a Toung PrittcB. \j 

fweet and wonderfull Governeis of the paflions ) play 
ing their Trophies and Triumphs, will be proper to 
Raiíe his Spirits. Sometimes let him hear Panegyricks 
recited upon their Life, to encourage and animate him 
to an Emulation of their Vermes, now and then reci- 
ting them himfelf, or with his young Companions Act 
over their Exploits as upon a flage, thereby to inflame 
his mind: for the force and efficacy of the action is 
by degrees fo imprinted on him that he appears the 
very fame whofe perfon he reprefents: Laftlylethim 
play the part of a King amongft them, receive peti- 
tions, give audience, ordain; puniih, reward > command 
or marihal an Army, beiiege Cities and give Battel. 
In experiments of this nature Cyrus was educated from 
a little Boy and became afterwards an eminent Ge- 
neral. But if there be any inclinations unbecoming 
a Prince difcernible in his Infancy, he ihould have the 
Company of fuch as are eminent for the oppofite Vertues 
to corred the Vices of his Nature ; as we fee a ftraight 
Pole does the Crookednefs of a tender Tree tyed to it. 
Thus if the Prince be Covetous, let one naturally liberal 
be always at his Elbow ; if a Coward, one bold and da- 
ring ; if timorous, one refolute and active ,• if Idle and 
Lazy, one diligent and indufhious: for thofe of that 
Age as they imitate what they fee or hear, fo they al- 
fo eafily copy their Companions Cuftoms. To 
Conclude, in Education, of Princes too rough Repre- 
henfion and Chailifement is to be avoided as a kind 
of Contempt. Too much Rigour makes men mean fpi* 
rited ; nor is it fit, that he ihould be fervilely fubjecl: to 
One Man, who ought to Comn^uid all. It was well 
faid of King Alphonjus, Generous Spirits tire [carter correihd 
by 'Words than blows , and love and refpeB thofe mcfl "who ufe 
them fo. 

Youth is like a young borle that the Barnacle 
hurts, but is eafily governed by the gentler Bit. Be- 
lides that men ot generous Spirits ulually conceive a 
fecret horrour of thofe things they learnt thro* fear ¿ 
on the contrary have an inclination and defire co try 

C thole 

ió flow, and when to he¿in> &c\ Vol.!. 

thoíé Vices which in their Childhood were prohibited 
them. Affe&ions too much confined (eipecially fuch 
as nature endows a Prince wkhall ) break out at laft 
into Defpair, as Exhalations hard bound within the 
Clouds, into Lightning. He that imprudently (huts the 
gates upon natural inclinations, is the occafion of their 
attempting to get thro' the Windows. Some allow- 
ance is to be made to humane infirmity, which is by 
fome innocent diverfions to be raiíéd to Vertue : this 
method they took who had the Care of Nero's Edu- 
cation (14). The Tutor ought to chide the Prince 
in private, not before Company, leaft he rather grow 
obftinate when he fees his Vices arepublick. In thefe 
two Verfes of Homer is very aptly contained how a 
Prince ought to be intruded how to obey: 

Advife, Command him } and what's good fnggefl 

He will obey when for himfelf 'tis be(l. Horn. 1. ll. 

(itf QuofitciHus lubricant Principk &tatem t ft veritatem afpsrnaretur^ 
loluftatibus concepts, miner et. Tac. 13. ann. 






BY the induftry of fome ingenious and carefult 
hand one while watering, another time de- 
fending it from the injuries of Wind and ill 
Weather, the Rofe grows, ancí as the Bud opens un- 
folds its little leaves into a circular form : A flower 
ftrangely pretty, but which flatters only the Eyes, and 
is fubjea to fo many cafualties, that in this its infinite 
delicacy 'tis by no means fecure. The very fame Sun 
which faw it bloom, fees it alfo whither, and that with- 
out any other benefit, than juft mewing the World its 
beauty $ it brings fo many months Labour to nothing, 
naj£ oftentimes wounds the very hand that planted it ; 
nor could it be otherwife than that fuch rank tillage 
ihould produce thorns. Of Coral faSeafhrub) there's 
quite another account to be given,- for that growing 
under Water, and continually toffed by the Violence of 

C 2 Waves 

2.o Tendernefs in a Princes Education Volví. 

Waves and Tempeftuous Winds becomes fo much the 
harder and more beautiful ; nay, then firft is it more il- 
luftrioufly ufeful, when it has underwent the rage of ib 
many Elements. Such contrary Effe&s arife from the 
different manner of growing of this Shrub, and that 
Flower in refpe<5fc of foftnefs and hardnefs. The feme 
happens in the Education of Princes, for they who are 
brought up fo tenderly and clofely that neither the Sun, 
Wind or other Air can come to them, but that of per- 
fumes, prove too delicate and little fit for Government; 
they on the contrary are ftrong and able who inure their 
Bodies to laborious Exercifes. It's alio convenient to 
ufe ones felf to Cold from our infancy as a thing of 
great advantage to health, and that will enable us to 
undergo Military duties ( i ) . By thefe Exercifes Life 
is prolonged, by Voluptuouíhefs and Luxury fhortned. 
a VeiTel of Glafs formed with a blaft of the Mouth, 
is with a blaft broken ; Whereas one of Gold wrought 
with a hammer refifts a hammer. 3 Tis no matter if 
he that lives a private and retired Life, be delicate; 
but one who is to fupporta Kingdom, as Atlas the 
Heavens, upon his fhoulders, had need be ftrong and 
robuft. A Common-wealth has not occafion for a 
Prince only for a ihew, but in the Field alio and in 
time of War, and in Scripture we find an effeminate 
JUng mentioned as a kind of divine puniihment ( 2 ) . 
The advantage or difadvantage of this different Edu- 
cation was vifible in the Two Kings, John the Second, 
and Ferdinand the Catholick, one of which had his at 
Court, the other in the Camp; that among Women, 
this among Soldiers* that entring his Government feem'd 
to fail into a ftrange Gulf, and leaving the Helm, com- 
mitted the guidance of it to his Minifters; this was 
neither ignorant of, nor unacquainted with Govern- 

■ — 

(\) F.J} et jam utile fatimab ineuntc at ate fri¿oribus affurfcere, hoc 
tnim turn ad valetudinem y turn ad murtera militaría commod>fjimum eft. 
A Mil. I'ol 7. cap 17. (z) I will give Children to be ihcir Princes, 
aud C.ib.s to rule over (hem, Jjai. 3. 4. 

ment ; 

Vol.!. to le avoided. ai: 

ment ; but knew how to Rule even' in another's Do- ; 
minion, and force Subjects to their Duty; that was 
contemn'd, this honoured and efteemed by all; that 
ruined his Kingdom, this advanced to a Monarchy .: 
'Twas upon this confideration that King Ferdinand Sir-. 
named the holy, was defirous to breed his Sons, AU 
fbonfo and' Ferdinand, Soldiers. And what elfe was 
it rendred the Emperour Charles really great, as welt- 
as titularly fo ? was it not his continual Travels and 
indefatigable Labours? Nor had Tiberius any other 
thoughts w¿en he defign'd his Sons Germanicus and Dru- 
fus for the Army, chiefly for theíé four Realbns* 
that they might accuftom themfelves to War; gain 
the Soldiers hearts; be free from the Debauchery of the 
Court; and Laftly that himfelf might live in more fecu* 
rity when both his Sons commanded his Legions ( l) ' • 
He that lives in a Camp, by the many Experi- 
ences he has there, fpends his time to advantage ; 
the Courtier utterly lofes his in Riot, Ceremonies and 
trifling Diverfions. At Court a Prince itudies- more 
how to iet off his Body than improve his Mind. 
And tho* this latter is rather to be regarded, yet Or-. 
naments of the Body, and a comely Prefence ihould 
not be wholly neglecled. For thofe captivate the Eyes, 
as this does the Eyes and Soul. God himfelf feem'd 
pleafed with the inape and proportion of Saul ( 4 % 
Ethiopians and Indians in iome parts choofe them 
Kings, whom the moft Majeftick Mien recommends : 
as the Bees do the biggeft among them, and that of 
the moft ihining Colour. People Judge of a Prince's 
Adions by his Prefence, and think him the beft who is 
the Comelieft. Galbas very Age, fays Tacitus, was 
ridiculed and fcorn'd by thole who were ufed to Nero's 

C3.) Vt fuefceret Miliiix, ftndiaq\ exercitui pararet y fimul juventutem 
urban? luxu lafcivientem mediis in caftrk hiberi Tiberius, feque tutiorem 
rebatwr, utroq; filio legiones obtinente. Tac. 2. arm. (4) And when he 
flood among the people, he was higher than any of the people from 
the fhoulders upwards, 1 Sam: 10, 21, 

C 5 blooming 

12, Tendernefs in á Prince s Education Vol.I. 

blooming Youth ( y ). A handfome face joyned with 
a kind of Majefty encreafed fafpafians fame (6), 
Thus Beauty ftrikes thei Eyes, and thro' them wound- 
ing the Soul engages Mens affe&ions and good opini- 
ons: 'tis a particular privilege of nature, a pleafing Ty- 
rant over the affections and a certain Sign of a well 
diipofed mind; and tho' the holy Spirit for more fe- 
curity advifes us not to judge by exteriours, yet do we 
ieldom find a generous Soul in a deformed body (j). 

"Twas a faying of Plato's, that as a C-rcle can't be 
without a Center, fo neither can external Beauty Con- 
fi ft without interiour Vertue. King Mphonfus there- 
fore well advifed to have a Prince Marryed to a hand- 
Ibme Woman, that fays he, the Children may be beautifull 
as a Prince s ought to he 3 that they may he above other men. 
■ . The Lacedamoniam fined their King Archiadinus for 
Marrying a little Woman, however Wittily he excu- 
íéd himfelf by faying, of tivo Evils he had chofe the lefs* 
Beauty of the Body is the image of the Soul and pi- 
cture of Goodnefe (8). It nevertheleis happens fome- 
times that nature intent upon outward perfections for- 
gets inward which are more defirable. So it was with 
Peter the Cruel, whofe favage and rough difpofition 
Kature had concealed under an agreeable Perfoo. 
Pride and Oñentáfiion of Beauty eafily difcompofe the 
Modefty of Vertue; a Prince therefore ihould not 
efteem feminine and affe&ed Charms, which ierve only 
to inflame another's Luft; but thofe which ufually ac- 
company true Vertue; for the Soul is not to be adorn- 
ed with the Beauties of the Body, but this rather 
with the Ornaments of the Soul. 

A Commonwealth requires a Prince perfect in mind 
rattier than One fa in Body; tho' twere a great orna- 

(5) Ipf* etas Galb& <& irrifui &f*flid¡o erat afftetis juvatu KeronU^ 
& Jmper atares forma <(<y deco>r ctrpvii, (ut eft mos vulgf) compnran- 
tlbus. Tic f. Hilt, (6) Angebat famam ¡pftur decor oris cum quadaot 
Aiajejijte, Tac. 2, Hift. ^7) Commend noca Man tor his^aiKv.iiciiher 
abhora man for his outwjrd appearance, Fcdefii.2.. (8) Speiieientm 
WfaxU JiwUcrnw e¡l mewn, fi±ttruq\ prúitatk. Ambr. 2. de vir. 


Vol.1. to le avoided. 'x\ 

ment if he were eminent for both. Thus the Palm js 
iingularly commended, as well for the neatnefs of its 
Trunck and Leaves,as for the pleafant Fruit it bears, and 
other excellent qualities of it, being a Tree fo ufefuíl, 
that Vim arch fays the Babylonians reckoned 560 Vertues. 
in it ; thefe, I conceive, the Complement of the Cce- 
leftial Bridegroom points at, Thy fiature is like to a Vdy* 
Tree (9). For by thefe words he would commend npc 
only the beauty of his Spoufe's Body, but the endow- 
ments alio of her Soul, fígnified by the Palm as 'tis an 
Emblem of Juñice and Fortitude : of Juftice becaufe jts 
leaves hang in aequilibrioj of Fortitude upon the account 
of the admirable irrength of the Boughs,which the more 
weight they are loaded with, the more forcibly grow 
up. 5 Tis further an Hieroglyphick of Vi&ory, be- 
caufe in the Games and Exercifes of the Ancients, 
the Vigors were crowned with Branches of it. The 
Cypreis was never efteemed at this Rate, however 
flouriihing and green it always is, lifting its felf even 
up to heaven in form of an Obelisk : for that its beau~ 
ty is meer outiide without any good quality inherent 
in it ,• it's of a flow growth, bears uíélefs fruit, bitter 
leaves, has a ftrong imell and tafte, a thick and me- 
lancholy íhade. To what purpofe is a Prince of a 
delicate Body, if he only fatisfies the Eyes, and does 
not difcharge his Duty. There needs no more in him 
than an agreeable harmony of parts to ihew a gene- 
rous and well diipofed mind, into which afterwards 
Art and Induftry may infpire Motion and Vigour, for 
without that every Adion of a Prince will be dull, 
and rather caufe Ridicule and Contempt than pro- 
cure Authority with his Subjefe. But fometimes thefe 
extraordinary Endowments of the Mind don't render a 
Prince amiable, as when the State is diítempered and 
inclined to Change its Government, which Ferdinand 
King of Naples had once Experience of ± nay fome- 
times Vertue her felf is unhappy, aaJ a good Prince 

(9; Cant. 77. 

C 4 often 

¿4 Teuáernefs in a Vrincis Education Vol. I. 

often odious,* as on the other fide his Vices taking, as 
were shofe of Vitellius (n). But for the generality 
humane Will embraces that which is moft peneft,* and 
it will be therefore a Prince's intereft as well in pub- 
lick as private Exercifes, to ftudy by them to fupply 
and perfect Nature, to ftrengthen himfelf in his Youth, 
to create generous Thoughts in his Mind, and in all 
things to pleafe the People: for the Perfon of a Prince 
fliould not only court the Minds but Eyes too of his 
Subje&s ( 12 ), who choofe to be governed by him in 
whom they fee moft Ornaments of Nature and Vertue. 
Our moft Catholick King, Your Highnefss Father, by 
the pains he took and reiolution he ihewed at a Chafe, 
by his Valour and Dexterity in Military Exercifes, 
his lingular Carriage and Vivacity in publick AcVions, 
what vaft Reputation did he gain ? How beloved by 
their Subjects, and efteemed by Foreigners were the 
Kings Ferdinand the holy, Henry the 11, Ferdinand the 
Catholick, and the Emperour Charles the Vth. in whom 
Beauty and a juft Proportion of Body were joyn'd 
with Induftry, Vertue and Valour. But thofe Exer- 
cifes are better learnt by Converfation and in Compa- 
ny, where Emulation enflames the Mind and awakens 
Induftry. For this reafon the Kings of the Goths 
Educated the Sons of the Spanijh Nobility in their 
Courts, not only to lay an Obligation upon thofe 
families, but that their own Sons might have their 
Education and learn the Sciences with them. The 
(ama thofe of Macedón ufed to do ( i ; ) , among 
whom the Court was as it were a feminary of Com- 
manders. Which good Cuftom is either utterly for- 
got, or at leaft has not been hitherto in Vogue in the 
Court of Syain. 'Twere otherwife the propereft means 
in the world to engage the Hearts of foreign Princes, 

£■" O Stud'u execitur r*rb cuiquam birii artib»s qutfra, fer'inie 
éd fuere qua>n buic ¡terigrtAvi.vr.Tv.i Hit). (12) Peí}™* Vrinapif non 
¡alum *mmti y fed etiam oculii ferine debet avium. Ctc. Fhii. 8. (1?) 

Hit cohorj i veU{tfeminaiUirnUmmn } Prsje¿h-umq\ffuJ MuccdmQs fmt. 


Vol.!. to te avoided. if 

to inftitute Seminaries of that Nature, to which their 
Sons might travel and be inftru&ed in Arts and Scien- 
ces worthy a Prince. From which alio this advan- 
tage would arife, that the King's Sons would infenfibly 
be accuftomed to the Manners and Genius of thofe 
Nations, and meet with a great many among them, who 
with lingular Affeétíon and Gratitude for fo good art 
Education would return the Obligation with their Ser- 
vice. To this End King Alphonfm iiinamed the wife, 
in the Second of his excellent Laws, cali'd the Parti- 
das, has drawn up a Catalogue of thofe Arts and Dudes 
it is proper for Kings Sons to be exercifed in. 

For all thefe Exerciíés nothing fenders a Prince ib 
fit as Hunting, for herein Youth exerts k felf, becomes 
ftrong and a&ive ; that gives occafion to ufe Military 
Arts, to view Ground, meafure the time, know when 
to expe£, when alTault and ftrike, what ufé to make 
of Accidents and Statagems. There the iight of the 
Blood of wild Beaits, and the trembling Motion of their 
Limbs as they expire, purge the Affe&ions, fortify 
the Mind, and infpire generous Thoughts, fuch as deípiía 
Fear and Danger : for the Solitude of a Wood and that 
Silence which ufually is kept in Hunting raife the 
Thoughts to glorious Aitions (14). 

Laftly all thofe Exercifes are to be ufed with that 
moderation that they render not the Mind either wild 
or ftupid ,• for the Mind is no left harden'd with too 
much Labour, and made as it were callous and infen- 
iible, than the Body. Tis therefore not convenient to 
fatigue both at the fame time, for thefe Labours have 
contrary EfFe<5b ,• that of the Body is a hindrance to 
the Mind, that of the Mind to the Body ( 1 j ) . 

C 14) Nam ip fyli/jt [olitudo, ipf*mq\ illud filentiM'n quod venationi datur % 
magna coghationk jrciramenta funt. Plin, lib. i. fcpift. ad Cor. Tac. 
C 1 53 M"H fiiml mentem 4j corpus ¡ab'mbu$ fatigare non convenir, 
qaoniam bi labores contraria'Hm rerum eficientes fnnt. Labor enim cor- 
fois menu eft impedimento, mentis antem corpori, Arift. To!. 8.C 4. 





KNowledge is neceifary in a Governour, In a 
Subjeft natural Prudence is fufficient, nay ibme- 
times meer Ignorance. In the Idea and Con- 
trivance of a Building the Brain is employed, in the 
Fabrick it íélf the Hand labours. Command proceeds 
from Underftanding and is quick- lighted, Obedience is 
ignorant generally and blind ( r ). He is by nature a 
Commander who is moil intelligent. Whereas others 
are fo either by Succeffion, Election or Conqueft, which 
depend more upon Fortune than Reafon. Wherefore 
we íhall reckon the Sciences among the politick in- 
ftruments of Government : fo Jnftinian ; Imperial Ma- 
jefiy-i fays he, ought to fa Armed as well with Laws as 

( t ) Pra :Jl autcm natur.t } fit valet htefflgcntLi prsviJere. Arift. Pol. 
I. Op. 4. 

Arrns 9 

Vol.!. Learning, how far neceffary, &c ty 

Arms y that the time of peace and War may he equally well 
governed (2). This Vis you have exhibited in the 

Íirefent Emblem under the figure of a Cannon levelled 
or the better aim, by a quadrant, the Emblem of the 
Laws and Juftice; for this mould fo manage Peace 
and War that what's Juft be always in View, and Rea- 
fon be the mark at which all things be aimed by the 
medium of Wifdom and Prudence. 'Tis related of 
Alphonfus King of Naples and Arragon, that being ask'd 
upon this Subject, which he was moft indebted to, his 
Arms or Studies ? he made anfwer : That "'twas from his 
Books he had learnt Arms and the Laws of Arms (%)• 

But lome one may perhaps think theie Ornaments of 
Learning are more convenient for the body of a Com- 
monwealth, which the word Majefty feems to import, 
than the Prince, who being diíira¿ted with Publick Bu- 
finefs, can't apply himfelf to them ,• that 'twere fuffici- 
ent to make Learning flourilh, if he entertained and 
patronized Men of Ingenuity,* which the* fame Em- 
perour Juftinian did, who tho' himíélf utterly illiterate, 
with the Affiftance of Men of the greateft Learning, 
whofe Converfation he had, got the Reputation of an 
eminent Governour. For my part, tho' I make no dif- 
ficulty to grant that even men of no literature may 
fometimes govern a Commonwealth well, as we have 
inftances in K. Ferdinand the Catholick, and many 
others ,• yet this only holds in thofe Genius's that Expe- 
rience has improved, or at leaft fuch as are endowed 
by Nature with fo acute a Judgment that they can de- 
termine any thing without danger of Errour (4). 
But tho' Prudence may have fome efforts from Nature, 
yet 'tis to be perfeded by Learning ,• for to know well 
how to chofe whats good, and rejeót the contrary, a 

(2 J Imptratoriam Jifajeflatem ron folum armk decoratam, fed etiem 
Ugi'oAS opcrtet ejfe armaram, ut utruuiq\ tempHs ¿r f>clli & pueis retís 
fojjit gabernaru Jutt. in prooem, lnft. (■$) Ex libra fe awa, <& 
armorum Jura Xtdictfli. Paaorm. iib. 4. (4) E'fi pvudeivui quof- 
dum impels 4 natmafumat tamen pirjiciendndoiirina ejU Ojainr. iib. a, 
C 12, 


2.8 Learning, bow far neceffary Vol. T. 

general knowledge is almoft neceffary, and a long ob- 
íérvation of Examples both paft and prefent, which is 
not perfe&ly to be attained without labour and ftudyj 
nothing therefore is íb neceflary to a Prince as the Light 
and Ornament of good Literature ,• For for want of the 
knowledge of thefe things (fays K. Alphonfo) a Trince will 
be obli¿d to take to bis ajjiftance, one who does under ft and 
them; and be may experience what King Solomon faid y 
That be who entrufts his fecret with another, makes him» 
fflf his Jlave, whereas he who can keep it limfef, is Ma- 
far of himftlf which is infinitely reejuifite in a Trince. For 
the Office of a King requires a great underftanding 
and that too illuftrated with Learning, fot without doubt s 
fays K. Alphonfo in the fame Law, no man can acquit him- 
felf of an Office of fuch importance as this, at leajl with- 
■cut great underftanding and wifdom, whence he who 
Icorns the favours of Knowledge and Education, will 
be fcorn'd by God, who is the Author of them. Other 
Sciences hive been divinety infufed into many; none 
but Solomon was ever infpired with Politickss. For 
Tilling ground, Agriculture prefcribes certain Rules j 
the Art cf Taming wild Beaits has alfo its Methods, 
but 'tis eafier to command any Animal than Man, 'tis 
neceflary therefore rhat he be endued with an extraordi- 
nary portion of Wifdom who has Men to govern ( 5 ) • 
The different Cufloms and Difpofitions of Sub- 
jects can't without confiderable Sagacity, Application 
and Experience be difcovered: and confequently no 
man requires Wifdom more than a Prince (6). Tis 
that makes Kingdoms happy, Princes feared and reve- 
renced. Then was Solomon fo, when the World became 
acquainted with his. Knowledge renders a Prince 
more formidable than Power ( 7 J. A wife King, fays 
the holy Spirit, is the upholding of the people'. But an un- 

($) Omni ammali facilius imperab'u quant homini. Ideo íapientiflimum* 
ejfe oportet, qui bominibks regere vein. Xenoph. (6) tfutlus eli y cuifapi~ 
entiamañf cmvenrat, quam Principa cujas doff rina omnibus debet prodefle 
fubdiu. Vfgcc. (1 ) Wifd. 5. 26. 


Vol.' I: in a Prince. *9 

•wife King deflroyeth them (8). AH which fhews how bar- 
barous the Opinion of the Etnperour Lkinius was, who 
cryed out upon the Sciences as a publick Plague, Phi- 
lofophers and Orators as Poiibn to a Commonwealth; 
nor does that of the Goths appear lels abfurd, who 
found fault with Athalarkuss Mother for initru&ing 
him in good Letters, as if he was thereby rendred 
incapable of publick Bufineis. Sihius tAEneas had quite 
other fentiments of them, when he faid they were 
Silver in the Commonalty, Gold in the Nobility, and 
in the Prince Jewels. Alphonfo of Naples upon hea- 
ring once a certain King lay, That Learning did not 
become a Prince; Reply ed immediately, That's [poke rather 
like a Bea/l, than a man (y). Well therefore faid K.Al- 
pbonfo f , That a King ought to he ajjiduous in Learning the 
Sciences, for by them he will learn the Office of a King, and 
know better how to fraílife it. Of Julius C¿efar 'tis rela- 
ted that he would have the Stacuary form him, ftand- 
ing upon a terreftrial Globe with a Sword in one Hand, 
in the other a Book with this Motto, Ex utrocj; Cafar ; 
thereby intimating that* as well his Learning as his 
Arms was in {frumental in getting and preferving to 
him the Empire. Lewis the Xlth of France did not 
efteem Learning at this rate,* for he would not permic 
his Son Charles the 8th. to apply himfelf to it, becauíé 
he found himfelf thereby fo obitinate and opinionative 
as not to admit the CounfeUof any, which was the 
reafon why Charles proved afterwards unfit ^o govern, 
and f iffered himfelf to be led by the Nofe by every 
one, not without great Diihonour to himfelf and detri- 
ment to his whole Kingdom. Extreams therefore in 
that as in all other things are to be avoided, fupine Ig- 
norance breeds Contempt and Derifion, befides it is ex- 
pofed to a thoufand Errours,* on the other fide exceffive 
Application to Studies diftracb theMind and diverts it 
from the Care of Government. The Converfation of 

(%) Eccl. 10. 3 (9) Earn voce.-n bilis ejfe, non himinti. Paaorm. 
lib. 4. t lib. 1 ó. c.*5- p. z. ' 


3 o Learning, how far tiecejjary Vol. f. 

che Mulé is very pleafant and agreeable, and no one 
would without Relu&ancy exchange it for the Fatigue 
and Trouble of Audiences and Confutations. Alpbonfo 
the Wife knew the Caufes of Earthquakes, but could 
nor regulate the Commotions of his Kingdoms,» the 
Coeleftial orbs his Ingenuity penetrated, yet knew not 
how to defend the Empire offered, and Crown here- 
ditary to him. The Sultan of Egypt upon his fame 
fent Embaffadours to him with very confiderable pre- 
fents, in the mean time almoft all the Cities of Caftile 
revolted. Thus it ufually happens ; Princes too much 
addicted to the Studies of Wifdom advarjce their Repu- 
tation among Foreigners, and lofe it with their Sub- 
jects. Their Learning is admired by thofe, to theíé 
íbmetimes prejudicial,* for Men of mean parts are gene- 
rally better Governours than men of ingenuity ( 10 ). 
A Mind too intent upon Speculation is ufually flow in 
AéHon, and fearful in Refolution, for of neceffity ma- 
ny different and contrary Reafons muft occur to fuch 
a Perfon, which either wholly take away or obftrucT: 
the liberty of his Judgment^ If an Eye looks upon 
Óbjeíts by the Sun's Light refle&ed, it clearly and di- 
ftin&ly fees them as they are; whereas if it be fixed 
diredly againft the Sun's Rays, 'tis fo dazled with 
too much luftre, that it cant io much as diinnguiih the 
Colours and Figures of them. It happens thus to Wits; 
thofe who # too eagerly apply themfelves to the Studies 
of Wifdom and Learning are lefs fit for publick bufi- 
nefs. Right Reafon never judges better than when 
free and difengaged from the Difputations and Subtil- 
ties of the Schools; nor without Reaibn did the wife 
K. Solomon call that the worft of Travails which him- 
felf had tryed ( 1 1 ) . For there are fome of the li- 

CioJ ffebetiorej quam acuñares ut plurimm melius Rempub. admi» 
niltrant. Thucyd 1 . lib. 3. fuj 1 gave my Heart to fearch our by 
Wifdom, concerning all things that are done under Heaven : This 
fore Travail huh God giren to the Sons of Men, jo be exercifed wkh, 
Ecclef. 1. 13, 


Vol.!. in a ?r tricé. \i 

beral Sciences., which to have a fuperficial Knowledge 
of is commendable, but to make them ones whole 
Bufmefs, and defire to attain a Perfecüon irt them, very 
prejudicial ( 12 ) . Wherefore 'tis very convenient that 
pradence moderate a little that defire of knowledge 
which is ufually moft vehement in the beft Wits; as 
we read Agrícola % Mother did, who cooled the heat 
of her Sons Mind, when in his youth he feem'd to 
follow the ftudy of Philofophy more eagerly than 
was allowable for a Roman and Senatonr ( 1 5 ) . As 
in Vices fo in Learning there is excefs (14): and this 
is' as hurtful to the mind as thofe to the Body. It will 
fuffice therefore for a Prince to tail the Arts and Sci- 
ences as 'twere en pgffant ; feme practical knowledge 
of them, will be more for his advantage, particularly 
thofe which relate to the Affairs of Peace and War, 
taking as much out of them as will fuffice to iliuftrate 
his underflanding and regulate his Judgment, leaving 
the honour of being excellent in them to his Inlerioursj 
let him pais only his leifure hours in this Noble Exer- 
cife as Tacitus fays Helvidius Trifcus ufed to do ( 1 j ). 

This granted, thofe are not always to be efteem'd 
the beft Tutors for Princes, who are moft eminent 
for Learning and Knowledge, for they are generally 
too great Lovers of Retirement and ftudious Idlenefs, 
Strangers to converfation, Men of no Reiblution and I 
very unfit for the management of weighty Affairs. 
But thofe rather who are Learned and Experienced 
Politicians, who befides the Sciences can teach a Prince 
the Art of Government. 

C12J Sunt enim quad am ex liber alibus faenáis quos ufque ad aliqaid 
d'tfeere honeflius fit, penitm vero Mis trader e atque ujq, ad extretmm per' 
fequivelle, valde noxium Arift.Iib. 2. Pol. Ó3J fed in prima invent* 
fludium Pkilcfüphja acrius quant concejfnm Rom. «c fenatori haiijijje, ni 
prudentia mams incenfum ac flagrantem animum coercniffct. Tac. in vie. 
Agr. C14J Retimritq; quod dfficillimnm eft ex fapientia modum. 
Ibid. 05J íngenium altioibus ftudiis juvenis admodum dedit, 
non ut plvriqae, ut nomine magnifico ctiam vnfaret, fed qn'ofirmkr adverfus 
¡fortuita Rémpttb, capeflzret, Tac, lib 4. Hift, 


3 i Learning, how far neceffhry . Vol.!. 

The firft thing to be iniHlled into a Prince is the 
fear of the Lord which is the beginning of wife> 
dom (16). He who adheres to God is very near the 
fountain ,of all Sciences. To know what is human on- 
ly, is Ignorance, the daughter of Malice, which is the 
ruiné of Princes and Commonwealths. 

Another neceiTary qualification in a Prince is Elo- 
quence, that pleafing Tyrant over the Paffions, that 
iweetly allures Mens Wills to a Submiflion to its Com- 
mands. That great Prophet Mofes knew of what 
Coníéquence this was, and therefore when he was íénc 
into Egypt to conducí: the Children of Ifrael thence, 
made this excufe to God that he was flow of fpeech 
and of a flow Tongue (17). And God took this 
for a reaíbn, and accordingly to encourage him, pro- 
mifed to ailift his Lips and put into his Mouth the 
Words he ihould fpeak to Tbaraoh (18). What did 
not Solomon promife himfelf from his Eloquence? I 
foall be admired, lays he, in the fight of great men» When 
I hold my Tongue they frail hide my Leifure, and when 1 
fpeak they fliall give good Ear nnto me : if I talk much 
they Jhall lay their hands upon their mouth ( 1 9 ). And cer- 
tainly if naked eloquence has power ib lirangely to 
captivate an audience, what can't it do if armed 
with Regal Power, or cloathed with Purple? a Prince 
t who can't fpeak his Mind without the afliitance of 
another (a fault Ñero was firft obíérved to be guilty 
of (20)) is rather a dumb ftatue, and deferves not the 
Name of a Prince. Hiftory is the Miirrifs of Poli- 
tical truth (21), than which nothing can better in- 
itru<5fc a Prince how to rule his Subje&s. For in 
that, as in a clear Mirrour, appears the Experience of 

(16) Pfal. 100 10. (17) O my Lord, I am not eloquent, neither 
heretofore, nor fince thou hail fpoken to thy Servant : I am but 
flow of fpeech, and of a flow tongue. Exod 4- 10. (18) I will 
be in thy mouth, ani teach thee wlut thouflialt fay. Exod. 4. iz. 
(19) V/ifd. 8. ii. Qio) Primus ex iis t qui rerum pntiti ejpnr, Hero- 
rem alien* facur.di: eguijj'e. Tac. 1. Ann. fix J Veriffmom difdplinam, 
excrcitationemq) ad poLtuas aifioncs, fliftoriam ejfe. Poly b. lib. 1. 


Vol.f. in a Prince. H 

former governments, the prudence of Predecefiburs, 
and the Souls of many Men collected Into one (22). 
Hiftory is like a faithful Counfellor, always ready and 
at hand. Of Law the Prince need only ftudy that part 
which relates to Government, turning over fuch Laws 
and Conftitutions of his Kingdom as were by right Rea* 
fon dictated or by Cuftom approved. 

Let him not fpend much time in the ftudy of di- 
vinity ; for how dangerous that knowledge and power 
in conjunction is, England has experienced in K. James, 
'tis enough for a Prince to perfevere himfelf in the faith 
and have about him devout and Learned Men able to 
defend it. 

Laftly Judicial Aftrology has been the ruine of 
many Princes ,» for that deiire of knowing future events 
is in all Men vehement, efpecially in Princes, for they 
promifing to themíélves great Authority if they can be 
looked upon as equal to the Gods, or do any thing above 
the common reach of Mankind, follow thefe fuperftiti-» 
ous and odious Arts: naf ibmetimes arrive to that de- 
gree of madneís, to afcribe all things to fecond caufes, 
and utterly deftroy divine providence by imputing all to 
chance and divination, whence it happens that while they 
attribute more to Chance and Fortune than human Pru- 
dence or Induftry, they are too remifs in their Defigns 
and Actions, and oftner advife with Aftrologers thaft 
their Counfellours. 

. .. . '. ■; 

(ai) Homimm mnltorum mens in umm coffé&a, Greg.Naz. ad Nicook; 





r F'HEJkíences have bitter Roofs, though the Fruit be 
■■■ fweet; for this reafon our Nature at firft has an A* 
verfion for them,and no labour appears fo harm as what 
muft be employed on their firft Rudiments: What Pains 
and Anxiety do they coft 5iouth ? Upon which account, 
and becaufe Studies . require affiduous Application , a 
thing very injurious to Health , and which the Bufinefs 
and Diver/ions of the Court don't permit; the Matter 
fhould be induftrious in inventing íéveral means to qua- 
lify this troublefome Inftitution by difguifing it under 
fome pleafant Game , that the Prince's mind may im- 
bibe what he is to learn infenfibly. For inftance , to 
teach him to read he may uie this contrivance; let 
there be made four and twenty fmall Dice, on each of 
them be engraven a Letter of the Alphabet , then let 
tfbme Children play , and he win who at one Caft 


VoL!. Children to be taught, &c. %f 

throws moft Syllables , Or an entire Word. Thefe lit- 
tle Virones and Entertainments will take off much of 
the difficulty of this Task, for 'tis far more hard to play 
at Cards, which, however Children prefently learn. 
Now, to teach the Prince to Write in a way as íhort j 
I would have the Letters engraven Of a thin Plate, th& 
put upon Paper , and him to go over thefe Trads of 
Characters, as fo many little Furrows, with his Hand 
and Pen ; efpecially exerdfing himfclf in thofe Letters 
of which the relt are framed. Thus , while he Attri- 
butes to his own Wit and Induftry, what is only the 
effect of this artificial Plate, he will by degrees be morci 
pleaied with thofe Labours. Nor is skill in Language* 
lefs neceffary for a Prince; for always to ufe an Inter- 
preter 3 or read Only Tranfactions, is a thing too liable, 
to deceit , or at leáít the truth thereby lofes much of 
its Force and Energy : Not to mention that it can't but 
be very hard for a Subject not to be understood by him, 
from whom he is to expect Comfort in his Afflictions, 
to have his Miferies relieved , and to be gratified for 
his Services. This moved the Patriarch Jvfeph , when 
he was made Commander Over Egypt ,• before all things 1 
to apply himfelf to learn the Languages moft in ule 
there, and which he did not underftánd £i). What 
Love and Efteem does at this day , the Emperor Ferdi- 
nand the Third's Skill in Languages procured him, being 
able to anfwer every One in his own Native Idiom j, 
but a Prince is not to be inftructed in this by way oí 
Precepts , for they confound the Memory ; but rather 
great Perfbns Sons of Foreign Countries ínóuld be taken! 
into his Family , by whofe familiar Conversation he 
may in a few Months rime, and that with a little Pains, 
and as it were by way of Diver fion , make fo great at 
Proficiency , as to be acquainted with the Language of 
each of them. 

That he may alio know the ufe of Geography and Cef- 
mographyt (without which Policy is in a manner blind) 

ÉO^Pfalmffj. 6. 

"\6 Children are to he taught Vol.1. 

it were not amifs to furniih and hang his Chamber 
with Taplrrry fo artificial wrought , as to reprefent a 
kind of General Defcription or Map of the Úniveríé , 
that is, the Four Quarters of the World, and molt Re- 
markable Countries, together with the more celebrated 
Rivers , Mountains , Cities , and other places of Note. 
By the fame contrivance may the Lakes be difpofed , 
that he may fancy he fees in themes in your Sea-Chárts a 
the Situation of the whole Sea, its Ports and Iflands. 
In Globes and Mathematical Spheres, he may fee the 
Extent of both Hemiíphei es, the Motion of the Hea* 
vens, the Sun's Courie, its Rifing and Setting, the Vi- 
ciffitude of Days and Nights , and all this by way of 
•Difcourfe and Divertiiement, leaving the Mathemati- 
cians fubtle way of arguing and demonftrating to the 
Schools. It will fuffice in Geometry, if he know how to 
Meafure diñances , take Altitudes and Depths with In- 
ftruments. s Tis withal neceflary that he learn Fortifica- 
tion , and accordingly for Inftru&ions fake may raife 
Forts of Clay, or fome fuch material, with all forts of 
Trenches, Breaft-works, Pallifadoes, Baflions, Half 
Moons, and other things neceflary for the Defence of 
them ; then he may Aflault and play upon them with 
little Artillery made for that purpofe. But to fix thole 
Figures of Fortification more firmly in his Memory, 
''twould be for his advantage to have the like artificially 
contrived in Gardens, cut in Myrtle, or any other 
Greens, as you lee in the prefent Emblem. 

Nor ought a Prince be ignorant how to Maríhal an 
Army ; to that end let him have Soldiers of all (bits, 
Foot and Horfe, Caft in Metal ,• of theie he may Com- 
pofe an Army, diftribute them into Regiments, Troops, 
Companies, in imitation of fome Mode!, which he may 
have before him for that purpofe. Plays ought always 
to be in imitation of things to be afterwards pra&ifed 
with more ferioufnefs (2). By this means he will in- 

(2) It'aqtte ludi mitgna. ex pane imtationes ejfe debent earm reram t 
apt ferio pejiaa obeund*. Arid. Pol, 7. c, 17, 

I Sénflbíy 

Vol. I. ly way of ' Diverfion, not Task. 57 

fenfibly, and without any trouble take to thefe Arts ; 
and when the light of Reaibn is rifen in him, be more 
capable of a perfeft knowledge of them by Converfa- 
tion of Men of Learning (;), and fuch particularly as 
have been con verfant with, and exercifed in Affairs both 
of Peace and War, who will diicover to him the Caufes 
and Effects of each particular. For the knowledge of 
thofe things is at this time more uíéful, eafier acquired, 
and fatigues the mind leaft (4). 

Let no one look on thefe Exercifes to be of no confé- 
quence in Education of Kings and Princes Children ¿ 
for Experience, the beft Miftreft, teaches us, That Boys 
learn many things of their own accord, which they had 
not attained by the Inftru&ion of a Mailer without 
much difficulty. Much left mould any imagine that the 
variety of thefe methods rather prejudices than promotes 
Education. If to tame and mailer an Horfe, fo many 
Inftruments are ncceffary, as the Bit, Bridle, Rains, Bar- 
nacle, and thofe too of different fbrts ; if fo many Pre- 
cepts are needful as have been written upon this Subject, 
what Care and Induftry mail we think fufficient to form 
a perfect Prince, who is not only to Command the ig- 
norant Vulgar 3 but even the Mailers of the Sciences? To 
govern Men is not the Gift of nature , but rasher of 
Experience and Speculation ; it feems to be the Art of 
Arts,the Science of Sgiences,of which never any one wiil 
attain the Perfection (f ). I am not ignorant, Sir, the 
Perfon your Highnefs has for a Mailer, is for the hap- 
pinefs of our Monarchy, fo well furniíhed with thefe 
Arts and Sciences, that he can't but in a ihort time b,i í ng 
your Highnefs to a coníiderable Perfeótion in shem: 
However thefe Advertifements, I could not omir. puriu- 
ing my defign in this Treatife to be beneficial as far as 
poflible, not only to. your Kighneis, but all other Princes 
now and hereafter. 

OX A wife M an vv i" hear, and will increafe Learning; and a Man, 
Qf underfianding (hail attain unro wife Coyof/.l. Proy. r, 5. Q4) Ecci. 
39' 3« (5) Mihi videtur an artium ¿<r fcientia fitntuirum, oominim, 
ie^tt^ animal tarn varum <¿f multiplex. Greg. NrfZ ÍQ Apolog. 

Dj E ¿U 


E M B I E M VI. 

THE heavenly Bridegroom has made ufé of the Body 
of this Emblem in the Book of Canticles to expreis 
the Ornaments of his Brides Virtues (i) : and the íame 
the Lilies that crowned and perfected the Pillars of So- 
lomons Temple, feem to allude to (2), as do thofe which 
beautified the Candleftick of the Tabernacle (3). This 
put me upon defigning in the preíént Emblem, to re- 
preíént by the Wheat, the Sciences ; by the Lilies, the 
Arts and polite Learning which they ought to be graced 
with. Nor am I without Precedent or Authority, for 
'Procofms long ago by Ears of Corn underftood Diici- 

r "~ — " ' 

( 1 ) Thv Belly is like an heap of Whea% fet about with Lilits, 
Cant. 7. 2. (2.) And upon the tops of the Pillars was Lily work, fo 
was the Work of the Pillars finifhed. 1 /C;n¿r 7. 22. (3) Exod, 


Vol. Í. Arts and Sciences how far necejfary, &c. 3 9 

pies (4), as our Bridgroom by Lilies, Eloquence (f). 
In effed, what is Polite Learning, but a kind of Crowa 
of the Sciences ? Cajfiodorus calls it the Diadem of 
Princes (6) ; and the Hebrews uléd to crown ibme parts 
of it with Garlands: And this I take to be fignified by 
the Poets Lawrels. The Hoods,and Girdies,and coloured 
Silken Tufts, by which the Hebrew Do&ors were diftin- 
guiihed. The Sciences íhould poflfeís the Center of the. 
Spu1,-gentile Learning be inftead of a circumference ; the 
knowledge of one, without the Ornaments of the other, 
is a kind of ignorance ,• for 'tis with the léveral parts ot 
Learning, as with the Nine Mufes, who jovning hands, 
make a Circle in their. Dances. How tireibme a thing 
is Philolbphy if too íévere, and not qualified, and made 
agreeable by Polite Literature and Humanity ? Thefe 
are therefore neceffary for a Prince to temper the harih- 
nefs of Government with their pieafantnels ,• for 'tis from 
that they have the name of Humane. A Prince iliould not 
be altogether lingular , but have Ibmething common to 
the reft of Mankind ,• he íhould difcourfe with them of 
different forts of Studies, and that with a courteous'and 
obliging Carnage ; 'tis not Royai Grandeur which con-r 
founds us, but extravagant indifcreet Gravity ,• as 'tis not 
the Light,but the extream Drinefs of the Sun that dazles 
our Eyes ,• 'tis therefore very proper that Political Science 
be deckt and embelliihed with the Liberal Arts, which 
cafl: as great a Luitre as Rubies in a Crown, or Diamonds 
in a Ring. Nor do fuch Arts fit amifs upon Majefty, as 
require the affiftance of the Hand as well as Mind ¿ nor 
will it in the leaft derogate from a Prince's Authority, 
or obftruft his Management of Publick Affairs/ to a!r. 
low him fome intervals ofleifure for his Diveriion (7): 
Thus Mark Anthony took a delight in" Painting ; >Maxi* 

(4) Spic& nomine, at ego quidem fentio, difciputorum c£tum intellexit. 
Procop. inc. 17. lfk. (5) His Lips like Lilies dropping lwccc imel- 
liog Myrrh. Cant. 5. 13. (6) Diadema, eximium tmpret'uibilis not/da 
titerarnm t per quart! dum veterum providentia, di¡dtur, regJis dignitas 
augetur. Caifi. 12, Var. 1. (7} Net cuiqiia-n judia grave, a*- a fin- 
ails bmfiis (y voluptatibus conceflis impartiré. Tac. 14. Ana. 

D 4 milum 

¿jo Arts and Sciences. how far neceffary Vol. I. 

wilian the Second, in Sculpture ,♦ Theobald, King of Na- 
varre, in Poetry and Muiick,* with which laft Philip 
the Fourth, the preient King of Spain, your Royal 
Highneis's Father, diverts himfelf as oft as difingaged 
from the Cares and Concern the Government of two 
Worlds oblige him to. In this Exercife the Spartans too 
inftructed their Youth; and in general all of this Nature 
are recommended by Plato and Ari(totleja& very beneficial 
to a Commonwealth. And though 'tis true, the Mind 
ihould not repofe its whole fatisfaétíon in them, Policy 
however requires a Prince ibmetimes to ufethem,the Peo- 
ple being ftrangely pleafed to fee their Prince's thoughts 
thus diverted, and not always intent on the contriving 
their Slavery ,• 'twas on this account Drufus's Debau- 
cheries were acceptable to the Romans ( 8 ). There are 
only two things to be obferved in the Ufe and Exercife 
of thefe Arts ,• one is,that they are to be pra&ifed not in 
publick but privately, as the Emperor Alexander Sever us 
uíéd to do, though excelled by none in Mufick, whe- 
ther Vocal or In /frumental. The reafon of this is, we 
are apt to think it a contemptible fight to fee the Hand 
which bears a Scepter, and Rules a Kingdom, filled 
with a Fiddle-ñick or a Pencil,' which we itill look up- 
on to be a greater fault, if the Prince be of an Age, 
wherein one would think the care of the Publick ought 
to take him off thefe private Paftimes : It being our 
Nature not to accufe a Prince of lofs of time, if he's 
idle or does nothing , but rather blame him for fpend- 
ing it at thefe Diverfions. The other Caution is, that 
he lay not out too much time upon them , or be deli- 
rous to excel others (9), leaft he take more pride in 
this vain excellency than in well-governing the Com- 
monwealth,* a thing Nero was guilty of, who aban- 

>•■ 1 I ■ I II II ' mu ■■ III.'. 

(8} Nee luxHsin jxxene ndf) drfplkebat : hor pitiut intenderet, d'um 
adipcati'Kibus, nothm conviviii nahere> ; quoni fitus 1? nullis votuprui't- 
b-if avucarus, rncelias liolftitiaf <¿r m«/«( curas exerceret Tac. 3. Am?. 
(9) Use tria ad difcipl nam fp;tt.ui oporret, at rn-dinm teneaiur, nt fitri 
fjjit t ut detC'it. 


Vol.1, to alleviate the Fatigues of Government. 41 
doned the Reins of his Empire for thofe of a Chariot , 
and valued himfelf more upon acting the part of a Co- 
median in the Theatre than of an Emperor of the World. 
This Abufe which Princes fometimes fall into by ha- 
ving a greater Efteem for thefe Arts, than the Science 
of good Government. Virgil elegantly Cenfures in thefe 

Let others better Mold the running Mafs *%\ 

Of Metals 9 and inform the breathing Brafs y v 

And [often into Flejk a marble Face. jj 

"Plead better at the Bar, defcribe the Skies, 
And when the Stars defcend, and when they rife. 
But Rome, *tis thine alone, with awful ¡way y ji 

To rule Mankind, and make the World obey ; V 

Difpofng Peace and War thine own Maje flick way. j\ 
To tame the Troud, the f titer* d Slwe to free, 
Thefe are Imperial Arts, and worthy thee. 

Dry den s.Virg. 

As for Poetry., though it be a part of Mufick, Accents 
and Rhimes having the fame effecT: in that, as Notes in 
in this; though that be the far nobler Exercife of the 
two ; for this is of the Hands, that of the Brain. The 
one deiigned meerly to divert, the other to inftruft with 
Diverfion ; notwithfianding ic feems by no means pro- 
per for a Prince ; it's ftrange Sweetnefs being a great 
obftacle to Mafculine and Noble Actions ; for when 
the Mind is once captivated with the Charms of its 
Thoughts and Conceptions, as the Nightingal with the 
Melody of her Voice, it never leaves of, and grows ib 
keen with Poetical Niceties, that its Edge is foon turn- 
ed and blunted againft the hard and rugged Trou- 
bles it rauft neceiTaiily meet with in Government (ro). 
Hence it alfo follows, That if a Prince takes not the 

(10) Vile autem cxerc ; tin?n fm*a*dWH r/f, (fy Ars, {<r Dijciplina, 
qujtcurque co'puf^aut animam. eut nuirtw liberi hominis act v{t4>n, ij opeiH 
virtutis inutHem reddant. Antf. Vol. 8- cap. 2. 


4^ Arts and Sciences how far neceffary Vol. I. 

feme delight in Ruling as Compofing, he will in all 
probability leaft regard this greateft concern, wholly 
neglect or abandon it to the care of others ; as did 
John II. King of Arragon , who fquandered away his 
time in the Study of Poetry, and fent for Perfons emi- 
nent for it from the remoteft Countries, till his Subjects 
tired with his Negligence, put a itop to this uíéleís Di- 
veriion of his by an open Rebellion. Neverthelefs , 
iince Poetry is fo much in Vogue at Courts , and does 
much refine and poli/h the Mind, a Prince will hardly 
efcape the Charge of Ignorance, if he have not fome 
fmattering int. He may therefore be allow'd fome 
time for that Study, I mean as much as ihall be thought 
fit to Quicken his Parts, and improve his Judgment; 
for how many excellent Poems have by this means 
come from the Pens of fuch as have govern'd in Church 
and State, with general Applaufe and Approbation ? 
There are abundance of Princes given to the practice of 
Chymiftry, which is indeed a very noble Diverfion, 
and difcovers many wonderful Effects and Secrets of 
Nature ,• but for all this, I would advife a Prince not to 
meddle with it (i i), for Curiofity will eafily lead him 
from thence to Alchymy ; or at leaft, under the pre- 
text of Simple DiiHllation, he will have a fancy to fix 
Mercury, and make Gold and Silver ; things which the 
moft precious of our time is thrown away upon to no 
purpoie, and certain, wafted for uncertain Treafu res. 
'Tis a Phrenzy, that nought but Death can cure, to 
make one Experiment after another, and not confi- 
der that 'tis impoilible to find a better Philofopher's 
Stone, than a good and prudent Oeconomy. Tis of 
this, and of Commerce, not of Chymiftry 3 this Sen- 
tence of Solomon is to be underftood, [ That nothing is 
richer than IViflom] (12). 'Twas by this kind of Tr af- 

(11} Be not curious in unncrcflary matrers •, tor more things are 
(h: wed unco thee, than men undcrftand. Eccl 3. 24. (n) What is 
richer than wifdom that workeih all things ¿ And it prudence work \ 
Drho of all that are is a more cunnin¿ workman than íhee i W'tfd. 8.5. 


Vol. !. to alleviate the Fatigues of Government. 4 j 

fick with the Inhabitants of Tarfis and Ophlr , the fame 
Solomon got his vaft Riches,* for which he had never pre- 
pared fo many and great Fleets 3 expofed to fo many and 
great Hazards at Sea, if he could have faved the labour 
with a Crucible. It is likely, that he who could fpeak 
well of all things (i?)> who was endued by God with 
a Supernatural Knowledge, mould never find out this 
Secret alio, or actually have ufed it, had it been fea íl- 
ble ? Befides, 'tis not credible that God will ever permit 
it, for thereby in probability an end would be put to 
all Commerce, which is maintain'd by nothing fo 
much, as by a Species of Money common to all the 
World, and that made of fome fcarce and precious 

(13) And he fpake of Trees, from the Cedar-tree thai - is in Z>- 
banon, even unco the Hyfop, that /priDgeth out of the Wall. 
iKingtfy 33, 

E M* 




w I l H E Affe&ions are born with us ,• Reafon comes 
•*- not till many Years after, when they are already 
poíTeís'd of the Will, and this deluded with a falfe ap- 
pearance of good fubmits to them, and owns no other 
Empire but theirs, till Reafon recovering ftrength by 
Time and Experience, takes upon it the Right of Go- 
vernment it had by Nature, and begins to make Head 
againft the Tyranny of our Appetites. This Light ufu- 
ally rifes later in Princes, becauie the Delicacies of the 
Court which they're ufed to, render their Affections 
more prevailing ; befides, that their Courtiers ftrive ge- 
nerally to get their Favour, which they know,rather de- 
pends upon the Will than Reafon ,• hence all ufe the 
art of Flattery, and make it their bufinefs to engage 
that, but caft a Cloud on this. A Prince ought there- 
fore to be well acquainted with thefe Artifices, and 


Vol.!. A Prince is to he taught h&w i &c 4^ 

arm himfelf not againft his own Paflions only, but 
all fuch Perlbns as would abufe them to govern him. 
This is a great and general Negligence in thofe who 
undertake to form Princes Minds. Uíeleís and unfruit- 
ful Weeds which grow among Corn, we fpend time in 
eradicating ; yet fuffer vicious Pailions and Inclinati- 
ons, that wage War with Reaibn, to grow. To cure a 
Prince's Body, many Gakns are always ready, the Mind 
often has fcarce one EfiBetus ; though this is fubject to 
no lefs Infirmities than the Body, and thofe ib much 
worfe, as that is more excellent than this. If its counte- 
nance were vifible, and we could diicover in it its ill and 
diftempered Affe&ions, we mould pity the Condition 
of many, we at prefent take for happy Men, whom 
that feveriih Heat of depraved Appetites fo miíérabiy 
preys upon. If the Hearts of Tyrants could be opened, 
one might fee Bruifes and Wounds (i), Alas! What 
Tempefts of Confufion and Diffraction is a Mind in 
that Condition rack'd with? Its Light is all obicu- 
red , his Reaíbn ib difturbed , that all things appear to 
him far different from what they really in themielves 
are. Hence proceeds that variety of Judgments and 
Opinions in the World ; hence few weigh things aright, 
but pais a different eitimate according to the light by 
which they fee them. For 'tis with the Affections, as 
with Tellefcopes^. which at one end magnify, at the 
other diminifh Obje&s. The Cryftals are the fame, the 
Objects nothing alter'd,* this only is the difference, that 
the vifual Rays falling in at one end, are dilated from 
the Center to the Circumference, and coniequently 
diffufe themfelves and multiply more ¿ whereas at 
the other end they are contracted from the Circum- 
ference to the Center, and fb reprefent Objects confi- 
derably lefs : Such is the difference bee ween thefe two 
ways of looking upon things. At the fame time- (tho' 

CO Si rccludantur tyramorum mentes, pjfe afpici ¡aniatut, & iftut, 
quando, ut corpora verberibus, ita fxvitia, libídine, malls confuto s animus 
dilaceretur. Tac, 6, Aim, 


éfi A Prince is to le taught how Vol.T. 

in different Kingdoms) the two Infants, ¿fames, the 
Son of James the Second,King of Arragon ; and ¿llphonfo, 
Son of Dionyfio, King of Portugal, had in view the Suc- 
ceílíon of their Fathers Crown. But fee in how diffe- 
rent a manner, the firfr againft his Father's Will refufed 
to accept -, the other contrary to the Laws of Piety, by 
force of Arms attempted to fnatch it from the Head of 
his. One confidering the tfaft Cares and Dangers of 
Government , bid adieu to the World , and preferred a 
Monaftick Life as the more qaiet and happy ; the other 
look'd upon Life without Sovereignty to be burthen- 
fome and unprofitable, and had more reipect to his 
Ambition than the Law of Nature. This look'd upon 
the Circumference of the Crown which border'd with 
Flowers, was an agreeable fight ; that confider'd rather 
the Point and Center of it, whence the Lines of Labour 
and Care are drawn. All Men propofe ibmething 
that has the appearance of good, as the end of their 
Actions (2) ,• bjt becaufe we are deceived in the know- 
ledge of this Good, hence proceeds our Error. The 
greatefr thing imaginable when in our own Power ap- 
pears little and inconfiderable, in others great and mag- 
nificent. Our own Faults we are not feniible of, thoie 
of others we eafily diicover. Other Mens defecas íéem 
like Giants, ours fcarce fo big as Dwarfs. Nay, further, 
we know how to new name Vices, and give them the 
Colour of Virtue : Ambition we call greatnefs of Mind ; 
Cruelty, Jufticej Prodigality , Liberality ; Rafhnefs, 
Valour. In fhort, few can with Prudence diftinguiih 
Honefty from its contrary, what's profitable from the 
prejudicial ( ; ). 'Tis thus, we are deceived when we 
look on things by that end of the Proipe&ive, which 
Pailions and Inclinations flop. I know nothing but 
Benefits thauare to be looked upon through both ends ; 
thofe we receive, ought to appear great to us; thofe 
1 ■ 1 1 . ■ ,. ., .... 

Q2) Omnia namque ej/#, quod fpeciew bm prsfert. gratil «mites agunt. 
Arirt. Pol. 1. Cap. 8. ($) Fauci pudentia, bonejla J detenohbus^ nu- 
lla ab noxi» difecrmnt, Tac. Lib. 4* Aim. 


Vol, I. rightly to govern his own Tajftons. 47 

we confer, little. This was King Henry the Fourth's 
Cuftom; nay, he feldom fo much as remembred Kind- 
neifes he had done others ,• on the contrary, thofe he 
had received, he never let flip out of his Memory, be- 
ing always careful the firft opportunity to repay them 
as a Debt. A Prince ought not to imagine that a 
Courtefy is, as it were, a Mark of Slavery on the Per- 
lón gratified : I mould not call that Generofity but Ty- 
ranny rather, and a kind of Traffick for Mens Affe- 
ctions, which the Prince buys at the price of Favours, 
as they do Slaves for Money on the Coafts of Guinea* 
He who does a good Office mould not think he lays 
an Obligation ¿ he who receives it ought to think him- 
felf obliged. In a word, A Prince fhould imitate God 
Almighty, who giveth to all Men liberally , and upbraidetb 
not (4). In undertaking and carrying on Wars,* in 
procuring and eftabliihing Peace ; in Injuries as well 
offered as received, let him always ufe the fameCryftal 
of right Reafon , through which he may fee every 
thing equally without difguife or fallacy. That IndifFe* 
rence and Juflice in giving a due Eftimate of things, 
becomes none more than a Prince, who ought to per- 
form the fame Office in his Kingdom, as the Tongue 
of a Balance in a pair of Scales, and agreeable thereto 
.pafs a true and fincere Judgment of all things, that his 
Government may be juft , whofe Balance will never 
.hang even, if the Paffions have place, or all things be 
not weighed in the Scale of right Reafon. Upon this- 
account Mailers ought to come with lingular Care 
and Induftry to infrru¿t the Prince's Mind, difcovering 
thofe Errore of the Will, and the Vanity of its Perfwa- 
fions, that free and difengaged from Pailion, he may 
pafs an unprejudiced Judgment on every thing. For, 
really if we throughly examine the fall of io 'many 
Empires, fo many Revolutions in States, fuch a multi- 
tude of Kings and Princes depofed and murthered, we 
lhall find the firft Origin of thefe misfortunes to have 

(4) James r, 5, 


4 8 A Prince is to le taught how Vol. f. 

been, the Paílíons having /haken off their Obedience, 
and their refufal to fubmit to Reafon, whofe Subjects 
they are by the Law of Nature. Nor is any thing 
more peftilent to a Commonwealth than thofe irregu- 
lar Appetites, or the particular Ends which every one, 
as he pleafes, purpofes to himfelf. I don't hereby con- 
tend to have thefe Paílíons wholly razed or extin- 
guilhed in a Prince, for without them he would be ab- 
folutely incapable of any generous Action; Nature ha* 
ving not furnifhed us with Love, Anger, Hope, Fear, 
and other the like Affections to no purpofe ,• for though 
thefe are not Virtues, they are however their atten- 
dants and means, without which they are neither at- 
tainable nor practicable. 'Tis the abuíé only, and in» 
ordinacy of them, I diíápprove of,* thofe are to be cor- 
rected, that a Prince's Anions be not guided by Pafli* 
on, but his whole Government by Prudence and Po- 
licy. Thofe things which are common to other Men, 
are not allowable in a Prince ($■). Charles the Fifth, if 
at any time he would indulge Anger or Indignation, 
did it in private and remote from Company, not pub- 
lickly when he reprefented the Peribn and Majefly of 
an Emperor ; for in this Capacity, a Prince is rather 
the Idea of a Governor than a Man, and rather his 
Peoples than his own Man. Nothing is then to be de- 
termined out of Affection, but all things examined by 
the Rule and Standard of Reafon ,• not by his Incli- 
nation, but Art. A Prince's Behaviour ihould be ra- 
ther Political than Natural ; his defigns proceed rather 
from the Heart of the Commonwealth than his own. 
Private Perfons ufually make their own Intereft and 
Advantage the Meafure of their Actions : Princes are to 
have the Publick Good in view. In a private Man to 
conceal his Paffions, is lookd upon to be a fign of too 
clofe and referv'd a Temper ,♦ in Princes even Policy 
fometimes require it. There appeared not the leaft 

(¿$) Regum eft it a vivere, ut ñon rindo homini fed ne cuptdhati qui- 
dm feniant, M. Tul!, in Orac. Sy II, 


Vol Í; tightly to govern his own Paftions. 49 

Symptom of Paffion in Tiberius, when Tifo preferred 
[limfelf to him, after having, according to his order, 
3ifpatched Germanicus, which occaíioned no fmall Jea- 
loufy in Pifo (6). He who Commands many, iliould 
with many vary his Affections, or if poíílble appear 
free from them (7) ,• endeavour in the fame Hour as oc- 
casions differ, to feem Severe and Courteous , Juft and 
Merciful, Liberal and Frugal (8). T+bmus was a gnat 
Mailer (9) of this Art, /whofe Mind it was not eaiy to 
difcoven; he knew fo wY'l how to mingle the Symptoms 
of his Anger and Satisftdtion.A good Prince commands 
himfelf, and ferves h* People ,- but if he neglect to 
break, or conceal the/natuial Tendency of his Mind, 
his AcYions will be ápays uniform, whence every one 
will prefently fee thf Scope of his De'igns, contrary to 
one of the principaplaxims of Policy ; whicHÜFór this 
very reafon recomnends variety of Methods in Ading, 
that the Prince's Tjfigns may not be known. Nor is 
|t by any rrieans $e for him to let Others dSfcover ' ; 
Nature and Indi/ations For there's ho ealier ai 
to his Mind than/hat, which 'tis neceífary he keep 
ánd referved, if/"¡e defire to have his Kingdom well- 
governed. For a/foon as his Miniile.s have once difco - 
vered his Inciin/ion, immediately they flatter him, and 
encourage the f me in thefníélves. It in any thing the 
Prince be obipare and opinion ative, they are fo too, 
and now notmg but perverfoefs governs. Bui if it fuall 
be at any tin? the Prince's Intereit to court the Pec 
Favour and /pplaufe, lee him rather fo behave himfelf, 
that what tj People like or difiike, he may feem to 
have a natp] Inclination or Averuon for. Ajifioth 
puts Bafhfoieis in the number of the Paílíons, denies ic 
to be a Mrai Virtue, becauie 3 fear of Infamy, and 

(6) NttRfdgtS exterrilHS cj) , qttdm quod Vtberiurh fine mfjeratione, 
fine ira objth'Hin, claujumqnp ii.tit, m qm affula perwnperetv. T¿c. 3. 
Ann. ("jwHcefl fapere, qui. kbiatojque fyus fit^nimum poffis fleeter?. 
icrent. V TmpsriApari deitr.Seo/m fftéú. (<¿) ffuud f.iciíf qñ 
¿efpexerh f, in cgnitune rtentem Principii ; adso venule mij^uit ua £j 
tUmer.ri^^'- Tac, ¿ Ann, 

E therefore 

50 A Prince is to be taught how Vol.!/ 

therefore fecms incompatible with a great Man, whofe 
A&ions being all fquar'd by the Rule of right Reafon, 
he has nothing to be afhamed of. According to St. Am» 
broje, however 'tis a Virtue which regulates our Ani- 
ons (10) ,♦ by which I conceive, he means that ingenu- 
ous and liberal Shame, or rather Modefty, which like 
ar Bridle reftrains us from the Commiflion of any igno- 
minious or unfeemly AcYion , and is a token of a good 
Genius, and no fmall argument that there remain in 
that mind fome Seeds of Virtue, though not yet deep- 
ly rooted. I am apt to believe Ariftotk fpeaks of ano- 
ther vitious and irregular Baihfilnefs , which is an ob- 
itacle to Virtue; we may fay of toth, as of Dew, which 
falling moderately noüriíhes and refreflies Corn ,• but 
when thick like fmall Snow, burrs up and kills it. No 
Virtue can be freely exerciíéd , when this Paflion has 
once prevailed, nor is any thing more pernicious to 
Princes, for this reafon above alljthat it has the ap- 
pearance of Virtue, as if it were ii a Prince a fign of 
Candor, (and not rather of a meai and abjed Spirit) 
not to be able to deny, contradid, eprehend, or cor- 
red without a Blu/h. Such as thee ftraiten them- 
felves too much in their Grandeur , are in a manner 
afraid of Shadows,* and what is wcfe, make them- 
felves Slaves to thofe they ought to pvern. Befides, 
how unbecoming is it to fee in their ? aces the colour 
of Shame, which none but Flatterers, lars, and in ge- 
neral, all profligate Perlbns ought to b flamed with, 
and for them fo to forget themlelves as :> be governed 
and cOzén'd by others. Whatever is ased , they vo- 
luntarily offer, and give without any reied to Merit, 
vanquimed meerly by Petitions. They readily fub- 
icribe to others Counfels and Opinions, hough they 
don't approve them, and had rather feci Conquer'd 

f 10) Pulchra virtus eft verecundia, gjr Juavis gratiaqu* non Jolum 
infaUis, fed etiaminipfis fpettatur Jermofiibus, re mod*m Atergrediaris 

(o^uendi, ne qttid indecQium fermo refonet tttuj, St. Aiubro. 


Vol.L rightly to govern his own Vajjions* $i 

than Victors ; which is the foundation of the raoft con- 
(iderabie Mifcarriages in a Commonwealth; ihame- 
íácédnefs by no means becomes Princes, who mould 
always appear with a ferene ancj, fteady Afpect (n). 
Princes therefore ihonld make it their whole buíineís to 
correct this Paflion, and moderate their natural Baih- 
fulneis with Valour and Conftancy, with a Reiblution 
not only of Mind , but outward Demeanour to refill 
Flatteries , Lyes , Frauds , and Malice , that they may 
Correct and amend them, and preíérve a Royal Inte- 
grity in their Words as well as A&ions. Which the 
Two Kings , John the Second , and Henry the Fourth 9 
having neglected to do ; what wonder if their Autho- 
rity and Crowns were brought into fuch dangers ? Far- 
ther, in curing this Paílíon, no fmall Difcretion is ne- 
ceiTary ,♦ for whereas other Vices, like Thorns, are to be 
utterly extirpated, this is rather to be pruned^ and the 
fuperfiuity cut off,* that part of Shame left which 
guards Virtues, and regulates Mens Manners and Acti- 
ons ; for without this reftraint, the Prince's Mind will 
be quite unruly ; and except he new and then reflects 
upon Infamy and Indecency, he will follow the force 
of his Pailions , and precipitate himfelf / especially, 
when there's Power to countenance them. If by good 
Arts modefty is fcarce to' be preferved, what will be 
the confequence if we wholly abandon that (12)? 
'Twas then Tiberius gave himfelf tó all manner of Vice 
and Tyranny, when he had caft off Shame and Fear, 
and followed only his own Humour (1;). Hence 
Plato faid , That Jupiter, if at any time apprehenjtve of the 
Ruin of Mankind, ¿iff átch d Mercury for the Earth, to 
difiribute J 11 fice end Modi fly among Men, by which they 
might prevent their Difirutlion. Commiferatiori and Pity iá 
a Pailion not lefs dangerous in Princes, than the other ^ 

(1;) Qvorundam pafurn tenía eft verecundia, r ebus civilibus , qtt& 
f.rtnam frontem defider.<nt. Seneca. (12} Fix artibus horeftit remetur 
pudor. Tac. 14. A en. (13) P.oflremo in fielera fimul ac dedeco'A 
P'orup'u, poftquat/' remoto pudns <& metu, [ho tamnm ¡n¿emc útsbaMi 
Tac, 6. Ann, 

É i ios 

£1 A Prince is to ve taught how Vol 

for when it has once prevailed in the Mind , neitheg 
Reafon nor Juitice perform their Offices. For out 6f 
an extravagant fear of difobliging any by Reprehenfiona 
or Correction , thev negled to apply Remedies toi 
their Subjeds Crimes, and iuffer many to go unpuJ 
niíhed. They are deaf to the Peoples Clamours, nor] 
do Publick Calamities affed them , while at the fame! 
time they are fenfibly touch'd with pity for three or] 
four Men who were the Promoters of them. They feel 
themfelves difordered at other Mens Crimes ; and acJ 
cordingly for fear of any trouble upon their account J 
chufe to connive at , or pardon , rather than punifli i 
them. This is a weaknefs of Judgment, and defed of! 
Prudence, to be remedied with time ,• but that with the 3 
fame Moderation as we mentioned of Baihfulnefs, that • 
part only of Commiferation is to be retrenched which j 
fo enfeebles the Mind , that it can't ad with Vigour! 
and Conftancy. Referving that companionate Affedi-j 
on peculiar to Princes (14) where right Reafon, with-i 
out hazarding the publick Security, perfwades. Both 
thefe Pailions, as well that of Baihfulnefs, as Commi- 
iei at ion , are corrigible , and to be fubdued by Jome 
contrary Adions, which may remove that too great ' 
tendernefs and imbecillity of Mind , and delivering it 
from thofe fervile Fears, render it capable of more msf- 
culine Adions. If a Prince now and then endeavours 1 
( though in matters of the leaft confequence ) to keep 
his Mind firm and refolute, and confiders his Power 
and Quality, he will eafily afterwards be able to do 
the fame in Affairs of greater moment. All's done, if 
he can but once acquit himfelf generoufly in it, and 
make himfelf fear d and reflected. There remain two 
other Pailions confiderably prejudicial to Youth ,• Fear 
and Obftinacy. Fear, when a Prince is fo timorous , 
and in all things diffident of himfelf, that he daies nei- 
ther ad nor fpeak. Never approves any Adion of his 
own, Fears to appear in publick,and Love's rather folitude 

('4) Princifaiut enim profrlum eft mifereri. St. ChrjC 


Vol. L rightly to govern his own Tajfior.s. $ } 

and retirement. This proceeds generally from an effe- 
minate and retired Education ,• as alio for want of Ex- 
perience , the only Remedy for this Diftemper • that 
is, the Prince mould ule himfelf to give Audience to 
Jbis Subjects as well as Foreigners,* often appear in Pub- 
lick that he may learn to know Men, and in general 
ail other things as in themfelves they are, not as his 
Imagination, or Mailer has painted them. Let there be 
always free accefs to his Apartments for thofe worthy 
Perfons, that are his Father's Chamberlains, and all 
other Courtiers that are eminent for Valour, Ingenuity, 
and Experience. Which Cuftom was obferved in Spain 
till the time of Vhilip the Second , who cautious of his 
Son Charles's underhand-dealings, aboliihed that Cuftom 
of free Accefs and Communication; and io declining 
one Inconvenience, fell into ano; her equally danger- 
ous to Princes, for ib is it to be too much abíhaííed 
from Converfation ,• for this ufually prompts them to 
rely too much upon ibme particular Favourit 

Laftly, Obftinacy arifes partly from Fea , partly 
From natural Slothfulneis , when a Prince won't Ad at 
all, but refolutely reje&s all Inftru&ions that are given 
him. That Coídneís of Mind is to be cured by the Fire 
of Glory and Incentives to it, as faults in Tiorfes are 
ufually corrected by the Spur. The Prince therefore is 
to be led gradually into the way, and the Progrefs he 
makes to be commended ; though at firft thofe Com- 
mendations be above his merit, and only for forms 

E 3 EM* 



l E 'MB L E'M VIII. 

IN the Unicorn Nature hath ihewn a piece of admi- 
rable Skill and Providence, in placing Anger's Wea- 
pon exactly between the Eyes. 'Tis abfolutely neceffa- 
ry to have both Eyes intent upon that Paffibn , which 
lb imperioufly tyrannizes over our Actions, and the 
Motions of the Mind. The fame Flame that lights 
it, blinds it, and 'tis differenced only by its ihort conti- 
nuance from Fury and Madnefs. A Man in a Paílíon 
is not the fame as before, for he is thereby as it were 

Í>ut befide himfelf (r). Valour has no need of it ^ 
or what were more iilly, than for this to require Aid 
From Anger, a thing fiable from one inconftant, faith- 
ful from one falfe , found from one difeafed ( 2 ) ? 


(l) Noneteftdtrat fortitudo advocatamiram. Cicero. (2) Quid enim 
ftultim efl t quam banc ab iracundia petere prsfidium, rem Jiabilem ab in- 
eerd, fidelem ab infida } fanam ab ¿igra i Seocc. 'Tis 

Vol. J. A Prince's Prudence feen in concealing^&cc. $£ 

'Tis not this fickle pettifh Paffion obtains Victories, tri- 
umphs over Enemies, nor is that really Courage that is 
without Reafon provoked. In a word, no Vice is more 
unbecoming a Prince , than that ¿ for to be angry, 
fuppofes contempt, or an injury received ¡ nor is any 
thing fo diíágreabíe to his Place and Office, in as much 
as nothing ib obfcures the Judgment which ihould in a 
Governor be ferene and clear. A Prince that is exa- 
fperated, and pnffionate upon any flight occafion, gives 
his Heart into the Hands of the Peribn who provokes 
him, and is fubjed to his pleafure. If not a wrinkle in 
a King's Coat can be diibrdered without offence, what 
will it be if he fuffer any one to diiiurb his Mind ? 
Anger is a kind of Moth which Purple breeds and nou- 
riiries. Pomp engenders Pride; Pride, Paflton,* and Im- 
patience is as it were a Propriety of Power. The Senfe 
of Princes is íbmething too delicate a Looking Glais 
which the leaft breath lililíes , a Heaven that with the 
leaft Vapour is clouded and breaks out jnto Thunder. 
A Vice that generally feizes great and generous Spirits • 
as the Sea, however van and powerful, is with the leair 
blaft of Wind raifed into horrid Diforders and Tem- 
pers, with this only difference, that t.hey are of much 
longer continuance in Princes Minds than in the Sea $ 
efpecially if their Honour be concerned, which they 
imagine 'tis impoflible to retrieve without Revenge. 
What a trifling piece of incivility was that, Sancho, 
King of Navarre , put upon Alphonfus the Third, after 
the Battel oí Arcos, in returning without taking leave of 
him? Which however this fo highly refented, that he 
could never forget it, or reír till he had got him out of 
his Kingdom. The Anger of Princes is like Gun-pow- 
der , which no fooner takes Fire , but has its effect ; 
the Holy Spirit calls it the Meffenger of Death ( ? ) ; 
and barely on this account 'twere fufficiently reafonable 
to curb and reftrain it. 'Tis very indecent for one in 
Authority to fubmit to this Pafííoii. Let Princes re- 

(3) The Wrath of Rings is as MnTengers of Death. Frov. \6. 14. 

E 4 memhei: 

$6 A Prime s Prudence feen in conceding Vol. !. 
member that nothing is put in their Hands for a Scep- 
ter, with which they can hurt. And if fometimes a 
naked Sword is carried before Kings , 'tis in token of : 
Juftice not Revenge,* and then 'tis carried in another's \ 
hand to intimate that between Anger and Execution 
there ought to intercede a Command. The publick I 
Safety depends on Princes, which wiil eaiily be in dan- 
ger, If they hearken to fo rafh a Counfellor, as Anger. 
Who can efcape its hands? For 'tis like a Thunder-bolt i 
when it comes from Supreme Power. And bec.mfe , * 
fays King Alphcnfo, Argei is firongcr in a Kirg 3 and more 
danger cus than in others * in that he can- more readily fatisfy 
jt, he ought to be more prepay d to curb aid cornel it \. ■ 
If Princes in a Pailicn could look upon themfelveSj 
they would find a Countenance unbecoming fiich Ma- 
):iry, whofe Tranquility and agreeable Harmony, both 
of Words and A<itfons>ought to pieafe rather than terrify, 
to :<juire Love rat!, er than Fear. A Prince therefore 
JLcuici qaench the Heat and Violence of Anger ,• if he 
fo,at ieaft to defer the Fury and Execution of it 
fome time : For as the fame King Alphcnfo has faid, 
¿bt to keep in his Anger till it is o'ver , this will 
rreat advantage to him, for fo he will be able to judge 
id act jufily in all things *. The Emperor Tbeodo- 
crienced this in himfelf ,• and for this reafbn 
'a Law j That Capital Puniihments mould not 
~ured till thirty Days after Sentence paifed. Which 
¿us had before him decreed , though for only ten 
. ;ys, and without giving the Senate power to revoke 
the Sentence once pronounced (4). Which indeed had 
been commendable , if his defign had been to make 
room for Pardon, or give time for a fecond hearing of 
the Caufe. But Tiforius was a Man of too much Cru- 
elty and Rigor to give that indulgence ('j .) It Was the 

f L. 10. tic. p 2, * L. tit. 5 p 2. (4} Uque vit.i fpstium 
datnnatis -prorogue: «>, fed non fenatt-i libe*?as ad fcenuer.dum erat. Tjc 
3. Ann. ($) N'fue Tileeius UJerjeiiu lempris múi&abafUr, Tac. 3. 


Vol. I. his Refent went of Affronts, $j 

Counfel of Athenodorus to Augustus Cafar , to determine 
nothing in a Paffion till he had repeated the Twenty 
four Letters of the Greek Alphabet. 

Since then. Anger is a íhort Madneis, dire&ly oppo- 
fite to mature Deliberation ,• there is no better Antidote 
againft it than prudent Reflexion ,• that the Prince be not 
tco haft/ in Execution , before he has had Council to 
examine a matter throughly. King Ahafuerus, when his 
Queen Vajhti refufed to come at his Command, though 
he had reafon to think himfelf contemned , and highly 
refented the Affront, yet would not be revenged till 
he had fii ft called a Council , and taken the Advice of 
his Noblemen (6). To talk of an Injury received, in- 
flames Anger more ,* hence that of Vytbagoras , Stir not 
Fire with a Sword , for Motion increafes the Flame ; 
nor is there any more effectual Remedy for Anger than 
Silence and Solitude. By its felf it infenfibly confumes 
and wears off,- whereas the moft foftning Difcourfe is 
often like the Water Smiths ufe to make their Fire burn 
fiercer? Farther, Anger has its feat in the Ears , or at 
leaft keeps watch there • thefe therefore a Prince is to 
fecure, that they be not too ready to hear ill Reports, 
that may enrage him (7.) This I imagine was the 
reaibn the Statue of Jupiter Cretevfis had no Ears, be- 
caufe they do more mifchief to Governors than good. 
However, I think them neceffary for Princes , provi- 
ded they be cautious and ruled by Prudence , and let 
not themfelves be moved at the firft hearing of every 
trifling Story. Anger is to be commended when kind- 
led by Reafon, and moderated by Difcretion ,• without 
fuch as that, there can be no Juftice (8). Too much 
Indulgence gives licenfe to offend , and makes Obedi- 
ence bold. To endure all things with content, is ig- 
norance, or ihews a fervile Temper of one who has a 
mean Opinion of himfelf. To continue in Anger when 

(6) Efth. 1. 2. C73 Lct every man be fwifc to heir, flow ro 
fpeak, llovv to wrath. Jamts r. i£, (8_) Nunc Irujci convent, jufiitui 
(ausa. S:ob. Scrn. 20. 

$8 A Prince's Prudence feen in concealing Vol. !. 

'tis to puniih Offences , or make Examples of fuch as 
affront Regal Authority is no Vice, but a Virtue, and by 
no means derogates from Mildnefs and Clemency. Was 
any one more meek than David (9), a Man after God's 
own Heart (1^)? So mild in Vengeance, in Anger fo 
moderate ; that when he had Saul, his greateft Enemy, 
in his power, was fatisfied With cutting off the Skirt of 
his Robe, and even that afterward repented of (11): 
Neverthelefs with feverity did he revenge the Injury 
King Hamm did to his Ambaffadors. David had fent 
them to comfort the King for the Death of his Father, 
but he groundlefly fufpe&ing they came rather to fpy 
out the State of his Kingdom , fent them away with 
the one half of their Beards ihaved off, and their Gar- 
ments obfcenely cut off in the middle. David, a Man 
other wife very peaceable, could not brook this Affront, 
but made War againft him , and all the Cities of his 
Kingdom which he took , he utterly defholiihed ,• and 
the People that were therein, ( to ufe the Scripture 
Words) he hr ought forth and put them under Saws and un- 
der Harrows of Iron , and under Axes of Iron , and mads 
them pafs through the Brick-kiln (12). This may feem 
to be Cruelty, and an Excels of Anger , to any one 
that knows not that the Wounds injuries make , are 
fometimes to be fo cured, as not fo much as Scars 
Jhould be left. Artaxerxes threatned Fire and Sword 
to force Cities, if they obey'd not an Edift he had pub- 
lilhed, refolving, if they refufed, to make ib fevere an 
Example of their Contempt and Difobedience, as ihould 
extend to Brutes as well as Men (15). The moft Juft 
God taught us this piece of Policy, when with the ut- 
moft Rigour, yet without prejudice to his Infinite Mer- 
cy, he puniihed the Syrians Army for blafphemoufly 

(9) Lord remember David and all his Afflictions, Lat. Verf. Man- 
fuetudinis e)m. Pfal. 131. f . 0°) ' have found David, the Son of 
Jeffe, a Man afrer mine own heart. A'fs '3. 2 ~- (") A °d ' c Cámc 
to pad afterwatds that David's heart fmore him, becaufí he h»d tuc 
off Saul* Sliirc. 1 Sam. 24 5. (12J 2 Sam. il. 31. (13) Eflb. \6. 


Vol.1. his Refentrnent of Affronts, S9 

calling him the God of the Hills (14). The Supreme 
Authority and Power of Princes makes a part of a Com- 
monwealth, fo that they can't put up Affronts and In- 
juries at all times. 

That Anger too is praiíé-worthy in Princes, and pro- 
fitable to a State, which kindled by Incentives of Glo- 
ry, elevates the Mind to difficult and noble Enterprizes, 
for without it nothing extraordinary, nothing great, 
can be undertaken, much lefs perfe&ed and accompliih- 
ed. That, that is it which nouriihes the Heart of 
generous Spirits , and raiíés it above its felf to defpife 
Difficulties. The Academicks called it the Whetftone, 
Vlutarcb the Companion of Virtue. But particularly, 
in the beginning of his Reign, the Prince ought to lay 
afide Anger, and forget pait Injuries ; as Sancho, Sir- 
named the Brave, did when the Succeilion of the 
Crown of Caflile fell to him. With Government, a 
Prince changes as 'twere his Nature, why mould he not 
alfo his AffeoHons and Paffions ? 'Twere an Abufe of 
Government to take Revenge of one who already ac- 
knowledges himfelf your Subje&.Let the Peribn offend- 
ed think he has Satisfaction in having got Authority 
over him, who before injured him. Fortdne could not 
give him a nobler kind of Revenge. So Lewis XII. 
King of France , thought , and therefore when fome 
perfwaded him to revenge the Injuries he had received, 
while Duke of Orleans, he made anfwer, That it did not 
become the King of France to revenge the Quarrels of the 
Duke of Orleans. 

Particular Injuries done to his Peribn , not Dignity , 
a Prince ought not to vindicate with his utmolt Power ,• 
for though they feem infeparable, yet 'tis convenient 
to make lome Diítin¿tion between them, leaft Majefty 
become odious and too formidable. To this tended 

Q14) Became the Syrians have faid, the Lord is the G r d of the 
Hills, but he is not God of the Values ', therefore will ! deliver this 
great multitude into thine hand , and ye Hull know that I am the 
Lord, 1 Kivgs 20, 28. 


6o ' A Prince s Vrudence fe en in concealing Vol. f. 

that of Tiberius, when he laid, Thar if Pifo had com- 
mitted no other Crime , hut the rejoydng at Gcrmanl- 
ais's Death, and his grief for it, he would revenge thofe 
Injuries done him as a private Perfon, not as a Prince, 
and in a publick Capacity (k). On the other fide, 
thofe done to his Dignity or Publick Station, he ought 
not to vindicate as a private Perfon, fo as in a tran- 
fport of Pa ilion to think his Honour and Reputation 
loft, except he have immediate Sacisfa&ion , efpecially 
when it were fitter to be deferred ,• for Anger ihould 
not be a Motion of the Mind, but of the Publick Good 
and Advantage King Ferdinand , the Catholick, un- 
doubtedly had this before him, when the King of Gra- 
nada refufed to pay him Tribute, as his Anceftors had 
done ; and witha! , infolently fent him word , that 
they were long fince dead; that in his Mints they la- 
boured not to Coin Silver or Gold , but Forge Swords 
and Launces f. Ferdinand concealed his Refentment 
of this Liberty and Arrogance for a time , and 
made a Truce with him , deferring Revenge till his 
Affairs were more quiet and fettled ,• in which he con- 
fulted more the Publick Good, than his own Particular 
AfFe&ions ( 1 6). Nor is it lefs prudent to diifemble 
Anger, when one has reafon to prefurne, that a time 
will come when it will be for our difad vantage to have 
ihown it. For that reafon, King Ferdinand t the Ca- 
tholick , though highly affronted by the Grandees of 
his Kingdom ,• yet, when he abdicated that of Caftik , 
and retreated into Arragon , very difcreetly concealed 
that Indignation of Mind , took no notice of the Inju- 
ries he had received, but mewed himfelf friendly and 
affectionate to all , as if he then forefaw he mould be 

C15) Nam fi leg at us officii termino t , obfeqttium erga Imperatorem 
exn'tt, c'iufdetn>.]ue norte, <fr luflu meo Utatus e/f, cdero : feponamque a 
domo mea <£r privatas inimicitras, non Piincipis, ulofcar- Tjc. 3. Ann. 
f Marian. W(\. Hifp. lib. 24. cap. 16. (16) A. Kool's wrath is prc- 
fencly known \ but a prudent Man co?crcih Hume. Lat. Verf. In)n^ 
rum dijjiimlat. Prov. 12.16. 


Vol.!. his Ref entine tit of Affronts. 6t 

fometime refiored to his Kingdom , as indeed it after- 
wards happened. A generous Mind hides its Refent- 
ments of Injuries , and iirives not by the impetuouf- 
nefs of Anger, but rather by noble Aftions to fmorher 
them ,• the beft certainly, and a truly heroica! kind of 
Revenge. When King Ferdinand 3 the Holy, befieged 
Scull, a certain Nobleman reproached Gardas Perez, 
¿e Vargas for wearing a waved Shield , which was 
not allowed his Family ,• he then pretended to take 
no notice of the Affront , till the Siege of Triana , 
where he fought with fo much Valour , that lie 
brought his Shield back ituck with Darts , then re- 
turning to his Rival, who was then in a íécure Poft, 
and /hewing him the Shield , Toa have rea¡on } fays he, 
to think much that I wear this Shield, that expofe it to 
fo many Dangers ¿ without doubt no one deferves it beyond • 
your felf , who would take fo much care to pr:fyve it. 
Thofe ordinarily bear Affronts moil patiently , who 
are the leaft fubjeél to give them ; nor is it a lefs 
Virtue to Conquer this Paffion , than an Enemy. 
To kindle a Pi ince's Anger is no lefs dangerous than 
to fet Fire to a Mine cr Petard ; and though it be 
done in our own behalf, 'tis prudence tq moderate it, 
efpecially if againft Perfons in Power : for fuch An- 
gers generally ¡all on the Author's own Head. This 
was the reafon the Moors of Toledo took fo much 
pains to pacify King Alpbonfo the Sixth's Wrath , a- 
gainfl: the Archbiiliop of that place, and the Queen, 
who had taken without his Order, their MoGne from 
them. From which I draw two Precepts : One is, 
that Minifters ought , when the Duty of their p'acs 
requires them , to tell the Prince of any thing that 
may create Diftaft or Anger, to reprdent them ii 
the moil foftening terms imaginable (r)j - or it of- 
ten happens that an Iñceníéd Mind Vents its Fa, y 
upon the Perfon who gave the míf Información uf 

(17} CmVui temen ad Imperat» cm in mollus Tac. \, \ m. 

6z A Yrtnce s Yrudence Jeen in concealing, ore. V ol. I. 
the thing , however Innocent he may be , however 
good his Defign was in doing it. The other is, That 
they endeavour not only to moderate Princes Anger, 
but cover and conceal it handiomely. Thofe Sera- 
phims (Minifters of Love) which flood above God in 
Ifaiatis Vifion, with two Wings covered bis Face, and with 
two covered his Feet (18). Leaft his angry Countenance 
ihould flrike fnch as were guilty of any fault with fuch 
Terror and Deipair , that they would wiih the Moun- 
tains to fall on them , rather than fee the Face of an 
avenging God (19). The heat of Anger is no fooner 
cooled, but Princes are ibrry and vexed to have had 
any Witneifes of it, or Spectators of its Effect, for both 
are equally difagreeable to the Dignity of a King. And 
God himfelf for this reafon turned Lot's Wife into a Pil- 
lar of Salt (20). 

(18) Ifaiah 6. 1. (19) Rere!. 6. 16» (to) Gen. 19. i6. 





' ~1T I S to its own damage that Envy oppofes the Tro- 
•* phies and Glory of Hercules. To what end does 
it attempt to bite his iharp pointed Club , but to make 
its Jaws bloody ? In íhort 5 'tis its own avenger. Ic 
feems to me like a Swprd which from the fame Blood 
it fpills gathers Ruft , and by that is afterwards eat up. 
AU other Vices take their rife from fome appearance of 
Good j or from Pleafure j on the contrary this proceeds 
from an inward Grief and DhTatisfa&ion at the good 
of another. Other Vices their Puniihment follows, this 
it even preceeds. Envy fooner exerts its Fury upon its 
own Bowels (i), than on the Honour of its Neighbour. 
'Tis the ihadow of Virtue >• he that would avoid that , 
muft fly the light of this¿ The Owl's Sight being by 

(i) Enyy is the rottenncfs of the Bones, Fisv, 14. 30. 


6*4 Envy its own Avenger. Vol. f. 

Nature ftrong enough to bear the Sun's Rays, is proba- I 
bly the reafon other Birds hate and envy her: Whereas 
would ihe be confined to her private Places , and con- 
ceal her felf in the darknefs of Night, ihe need not J 
fear their Perfecutions. Between Equals there's feldom I 
Emulation ,• when one's Fortune, the other's Envy en- 
creafes. Men are naturally apt to look with an ill Eye I 
on upitart Happinefs, and deiire to reduce the For- 1 
tunes of none more than thofe whom they have once \ 
feen upon the Level with themfelves ( 2 ). Envy is 
like the Tare which never feizes Corn till it be confi- 
derably grown, and its Fruit begins to ripen (3). lie 
muft therefore fly Fame, Dignities, and honourable 
Employments, that would got be expofed to Envy's 
Darts. A mean Fortune is leaft dangerous (4). Regu- 
las in the midft of Nero's Cruelty lived fecure, becaufe, i 
fays Tacitus, his Gentility was of a fmall ftanding, and 
his Eftate inconfiderable (5) ,• but this fear would be 
unworthy a generous Beaft. Others envying us, ihews 
we excel them , but to be abfolutely free from Envy is 
a very ill flgn. 'Tis afliiredly better to endure it, than 
be looked upon by all with indifferency. Envy is the 
Sting of Virtue ,• as the Thorn preferves the Rofe , fo 
does that Virtue. This would eafily be negle&ed, were 
there none malicious and detracting. Many has Emu-* 
lation advanced, many Envy made happy. That Emu- 
lation of Carthage raifed the Roman Glory, as that of 
Francis, King of France, did the Fame of the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth. 'Twas Envy* gave the Rowan , nay , 
the Univerfal Church to Sixtus Quintas , thence came 
all his fortune. There's nothing better in this Cafe 
than Scorn , and being always endeavouring to mount 

(2) In fit a rjtvtalibui natura , recentem aliorum falicitatem sgr'n oculis 
intrgfpicere , vnod*mq*c frty.:ut a nn/lis wagu exigere , quant qitos in ¿quo 
lidere. Tac, 2 Ann. ($) But when the Blade was fprung up, and 
brought forth Fruit, t> en appeared the Tares alio, Mattb. 13. 26. 
(4 J Ex mdiocritate fntunji pandora pericula funt. Tac. 14. Ano. 
(s") Qyia nova generis i la) ¡indine, r.eque v.viitofis opibus c>at. Tac. 14. 


Vol. Í. Envy ¡ts own Avenger. 6f 

higher till the. envious Man's Eyes, fail him ] and he 
lole fight of you. The Shadow of the Earth reaches 
the Moon , that loweft of the Cceleftial Orbs , fo near 
the Elements , and overcafts its Splendor ,• the higher 
Planets it does not in the leaft injure: The force of 
the Sun, when at height , fcatters and difpels Clouds. 
Where's great Inequality, there's ño room for Envy, 
and consequently this is the only remedy againft it. 
The more expeditioufly a Man advances himfelf , the 
lefs will he be expofed to Envy. No Snioak comes 
from a Fire foon lighted. Whereas, while Merits wre- 
ftle, as it were, with one another, Envy grows and 
takes up Arms againft the .Perfon preferr'd. Pride 
and Supercilioufnefs are things which in good Succeis 
provoke Envy, and ftir up hatred. On the other fide, 
Modefty quells it ; for no one envies him as happy, who 
looks not upon himfelf as.fuch. For this reaibn, Satd 
immediately after his Being anointed King , betook 
himfelf to his Houfe ; and to ihew he was not exalted 
with Royal Dignity laid afide the Scepter for a time, 
and fet his Hand to the Plough (6). There s yet ano- 
ther Remedy, which is not to enlarge. one's Fortune at 
Home, but in a Foreign Country ,• for 'tis, very obvi- 
ous for one, Who before knew another to be of a mean 
Extraction, but now fees him in. a high degree of Dig- 
nity, to envy him* this happinefs ; this Evil infinuate* 
its felf more by .the Eyes than Ears (7). Many emi- 
nent Men have declined Honours" to avoid being envi- 
ed. The Confuí Tarquinius voluntarily chole Exile to 
efcape the fight of this Fury. Valerius Tublius fet his 
own Houfes on Fire 3 becaufe their Magnificence pro- 
cured him Envy. Fabius abdicated the Confuliliip, fay- 
ing , Now I hope Envy will ccafe to trouble the Fabii (8). 
They were however in my opinion in the wrong, for 

.(6) 1 Sam. 10. r 1. {j) Vt effu^iamns nornen inwdi.t, quod i : irhurt 
dn£ium ejiy a nimis intuendo .fortunam alteans. Cic. in Tuf.. (8) Non 
enim foterimus uüa ejfe invidia fpo'.inti op>bus > is M* fetuttmd pteftaie* 
tic. ad Atr, 

F %\M 

66 Envy its own Avenger. Vol. I. 

this is rather to put the Sword in the Enemies hands, 
and give further occasion to Envy,* which when it 
has once undertaken to perfecute any one, never leaves 
him, till it has driven him to the extremity of Mifery. 
The Sun calls no Shadows fo long as 'tis in the Zenith j 
but as it declines and comes nearer us , they proporti- 
onately increaíé and grow longer. In the fame manner 
Envy purfues him with the greater force , who is near 
ruin, or begins to fall ; and as it generally lodges only 
in mean fpirited Peribns , is always afraid he íhould 
raiíé himfelf upon his Legs again. Even after Daniel 
was thrown among the Lions, Darius thought him not 
yet íécure enough from thofe who envied him the 
King's Favour ,- and fo fearing more Mens Envy than 
the Wild Beafts Cruelty, he fealed the Stone which was 
laid upon the Lions Den with his own Signet , and 
with the Signet of his Lords , that no mifchief might 
be done him (9 ). Sometimes to avoid Envy, and its- 
Inconveniences, 'twere advifable to embark thofe in 
the fame Fortune, whofé Emulation may be feared. 
Thus the Remora , which flicking to the outfide of the 
Ship flops its Courfe , lofes its ftrength when taken? 
in (10). 

Envy does not always gnaw lofty Cedars ¿ fome- 
times ihe tires her Teeth , and bloodies her Lips with 
the loweft Thorns, which Nature her felf feems to have 
in a manner hated. Inlbmuch as not to look on even 
the Miferies and Calamities of others without Spite and 
Indignation ; whether it be , that her Malice is wholly 
mad and unreafonable , or becaufe ihe cannot endure 
the Sufferer's ftrength of Mind and Conftancy, or the 
Fame Fortune's Injuries ufually beget. There are to 
be found in the Perfon of the prefent Author, many 
things to make his Café defervedly deplorable ; none , 

(9) That the purpofc might not be chang'd concerning Daniel» 
Lnt. Verf. He qui fieret coma Danielem. Dan. 6, 17. (10J Peculia» 
titer miramn, quo modo adharens temffit, nK idem ¡mlleret in navi¿inm 
tecepHt, Piin, lib. 31, c. 1. 


Vol.1. Envy its oven Avenger* 67 

or very few, to render him envied ,• neverthelels there 
are fome who envy him thefe continual Cares and Fa- 
tigues, though little acknowledged or requited. There 
feems to be fomething of fatality in this Emulation 
againft him ,* it produe'd it felf without any reaibn, 
and often aiperfes him with things, he had by hear-fay 
from others, before he could have ib much as imagined. 
Notwithftanding his mind fo full of Candor, and 
¿pindful of his Duty, is ib far from being difturbed at 
thefe things, that foe rather loves that Envy and Indig- 
nation, perceiving it to awaken his Courage, and daily 
excite it to make a further Progreis. , 

Princes therefore, whoare ib far in Degree and Dig- 
nity fuperior to others , ought chiefly to endeavour to 
defpife Envy. He that has not Spirit enough for that, 
how will he have enough. to be a Prince? To go 
to fubdue it by kindnefs or rigour were plain Impru- 
dence. All other Monfters Hercules tamed ,* againft this 
neither Force nor Obligations were to any purpofe. 
Nothing can filence the Peoples Clamours ; for what- 
ever Favours you confer, they take for Debts ; nay, 
always promife themfelves greater than they receive. 
•Obloquy and Detraction ought not to quench in a 
Prince the delire of Glory, nor deter him front execu-* 
ting his Enterprizes : Dogs bark at the Moon , but me 
eafily defpifes them, and proceeds in her Couríé. The 
principal Art of Government is to be able to endure 
Envy. Envy is not very prejudicial to Monarchies, 
but rather generally enflames Virtue, and makes it more 
illuftrious ; efpecially, if the Prince be Juft and Con- 
ftant, and don't too eafily give credit to Calumnies. 
But in Republicks , where each Man goes for a part, 
and can execute the Defires of his Pailions with the 
'help of Friends and Relations* 'tis very dangerous 
raifing Difcord and Clandeitine Confpiracies , whence 
afterwards arife Civil Wars , which are the Caufes of 
all Revolutions in States. 'f was that in former times 
ruined Hannibal , arid many other great Men ,• and in 
this our Age has called in queftion the unparallel d Fi- 

F z: delity 

6* 8 Envy its own Avenger* Vol.!. 

delíty of Angelo BaJuero , that famous Venetian 3 whom 
you may defervedly call the Glory and Ornament of 
that Commonwealth : A Man fo defirous of, and paffio- 
nate for the Publkk Good, that even while under ba- 
nifliment , and unjuftly opprelTed , and perfecuted by 
envious Men, he was in all things ftrangely follicitous 
for the Prefervation and Welfare of his Country. 

The mod Sovereign Remedy againft Envy in Re- 
publicks, is an Equality of all the Members of them, ib' 
as that all Pomp and Oftentation be prohibited ,• for 5 
nothing ib excites Emulation as the Splendor and Plen- 
ty of Riches. This made the Romans take ib much 
care to regulate and reduce the fuperfluous Expences 
of Feafts, and to divide their* Lands and Pofleflions, 
that their Citizens might be all equal in Strength and 

Envy in Princes is very unbecoming their Eminency 
and Grandeur, as well for its being the Vice of an In- 
ferior towards his Superiors , as becaufe it muft be but 
a very inconfiderable Glory which can't fhine without 
obfcuring others. The Pyramids of Egypt were rec- 
koned among the Seven Wonders of the World for re- 
ceiving Light on all fides of them, without calling the 
. leaft Shade oil any Bodies near ( n ). 'Tis a fign of 
weaknefs to want that which we envy in others. But 
nothing is more unworthy a Prince , than to envy the 
Excellence and Prudence of his Minifters, for they are 
in a manner Parts and Members of him ,• the Head 
envies not the Feet for being fo itrong as to fupport 
the Body, or the Arm?, becaufe they can labour; it 
glories rather in being furnifhed with Fuch Inftruments. 
However,felf-love fometimes is the reaibn,that as Princes 
are Superior to others in Power , fo alio they are defi- 
rous to furpals them in the Gifts of Mind and Body. 
Even the fame of Lucan's Verles was a difturbance to 

00 Pyr amides in Egypt* y antrum in fno Jiatu fe umbra confumens r 
ultra coWruilioms fpatia wtia parte refpicitur. CalTiodor. 1» ¿# Var. 

Vol. f . Envy its own Avenger, 69 

Nero in the midft of all his Grandeur (12); Wherefore 
thofe who have to do with Princes , ought to be very 
cautious, not to feem to enter into a Diipute with them 
for Knowledge or Ingenuity ; or if at any time they 
are by fome accident obliged to it, fubmit rather, and 
"voluntarily yield them the Vi&ory ; this being not only 
Prudence, but Helped due to Princes. The Cheru- 
bims (thofe Spirits of Knowledge and Wifdom) which 
flood before the Throne of God in Ezekiefc Vifion , 
with lingular Modefty covered their Hands with their 
Wings (1 ?). This I wifh indeed, that the Prince would 
be jealous of that Veneration , which ibme to get the 
greater Intereft in him .too ambitioufly demand , and 
accordingly moderate a little the excels of thofe his 
Favours. Yet, by what Charm I know not, this love 
and kindnefs inchants a Prince's Mind, agd blinds En- 
vy. Saul could not but look upon David with an ill 
Eye, when he faw his great Exploits, though done for 
his Service, more applauded than his own (14). Where- 
as Abafuerus could eafily fuffer Haman , that great Fa- 
vourite of his, to be worihipped and honoured by all 
as a King (if). No Envy has rnore danger in it than 
that between Noblemen; care ihould therefore be taken 
that Honours and Great Places feem not to be Heredi- 
tary to particular Families, but be transferr'd from 
one to another ; yet , fo as that the wealthieit of the 
Nobility be employed in Places that require Pomp and 
Expence,* the poorer fort in thofe by which thty may 
rane their Fortune, and maintain the Splendor of their 
Birth. There is fome Emulation that is glorious, I mean 
fuch as envies the Virtue and Merit of another , but 

(11) iMcamm propri* caufe accendebmt % quod famam carmimm ejus 
premebat Nero. Tac. lib. 15. Ann. ("13) $.nd there appear'd in, ths 
Cherubims, the form of a Man's hand under their Wings, £^e£. io.8. 
(14) And Saul eyed David from that day, and forward. 1 Sam.iZ.j. 
00 Ant * all the King's Servants that were in the Gate, bmv'd and 
reverenced Hmm y for the King had fo commanded concerning him. 
tflb. 3. 2. 

F 5 grieves 

yo Envy its own Avenger. Vol. 1. 

grieves to want them it felf, and endeavours by all 
the Efforts both of Valour and Wit to acquire them ;\ 
this , I fay, is commendable,* nor is it to be reputed a. 
Vice, but a kind of fpark of Virtue proceeding from 
a noble and generous Mind. The Honour Mltiades) 
got by his Vi&ory over the Verfians , kindled fuch 
Flames in Themift odes' s Breaft, as immediately confum-j 
ed all his Vices ; he like another Man ran about Athens! 
crying, The Trophies of Miltiades "would not let htnA 
Sleep. As long as Vitellius had Competitors, he abftain^ 
ed from Vices ; but as foon as he was without them, 
both he and his Army abandon'd themfelves to Cru- 
elty, Luft, Rapine, and Licentioufneis (16). This is 
the Emulation Commonwealths ihould encourage , by 
propofing Rewards , ere&ing Trophies or Statues ; 
for that is the Soul and. Spirit by which they are pre- 
ferred, and ^grow daily more flouriihing. And this I 
take to be the Reafon the Republick of Switzerland 
takes fo little pains to extend its Limits , and why it 
produces fo few famous Men ; though otherwife Na- 
ture has been by no means niggardly of Valour , and 
Strength of Mind to its Inhabitants ,• for their princi- 
pal Defign is to eftablifli a general Equality, which 
puts a nop to all Emulation ; and cónfequently all no- 
ble and Military Virtues are buried like burning Coals 
in Afhes. But though this Emulation among Mini- 
flers may feem ufeful, yet 'tis not wholly without 
Danger, in that the People who fuffer no Man to be 
without a Rival are varioufly afTe&ed (17)^ hence, 
while theie favour one, thofe applaud another, there 
ariies a Contention between both Parties, and thefe Fa- 
ctions breed Tumults and Seditions. Befides that, the 
heat of Ambition , and defire of advancing themfelves 
above others , ufualíy puts them upon unlawful Tricks 
and Artifices ,• and that which at firft was honourable 

(16) Turn ipfe , exercitufqtte, f&vitia , libídine, rafti in extremos mo- 
res proruperunt. T?c. 2. Hilt. (17) Scientia militU & rumore populi t 
qui nem'mem fine muh (kit. Tac. 14. Aiui. 


Vol. T. Envy its own Avenger. 7 f 

Emulation, degenerates at length into Hatred and En- 
vy. Metellus offended that Tompey was nominated to 
be his Succeifor in Farther Spain, and envying the Glo- 
ry of this Great Commander , disbanded the Soldiers , 
weakned the Army, and carelefly neglected all Provi- 
iions. Tompey did afterwards the fame , when he un- 
derftood Marcus Vompilius was to fucceed him in the 
Confulihip, and for fear, poflibly, the Honour of 
Conquering the Numantines might redound to him, 
made a Peace with them very diihonourable to the Ro- 
man Name. In our own times, Grol was loft upon no 
other account but a Difpute that arofe among the Offi- 
cers, that were fent to relieve it , about Preheminence. 
In ihort , nothing is ib pernicious to Princes , nothing 
more needs a Remedy. Nor is here connivance to be 
admitted , but both are to be puniflied , as well he that 
ieems to be Innocent, as the Peribn in Fault. "This 
forgiving the occaíion ,• that becauíé he renounced not 
his Right, and let flip an opportunity of managing 
Affairs to advantage. Which Rigour, if it Teems to 
any one exceilive, wilt be excufed, by confident the 
Emolument of the Publick Good , and of the Exam- 
ple it will leave to Pofterity. There's no great Refo- 
lution without fome mixture of Injury. A Subjeft 
ought to look upon the Duty he owes his Prince , be- 
fore his own Honour; let him demand Satisfaction 
for the Injury received afterwards, and think he has 
acquitted himfelf of his Duty to his Prince, in having 
a little while put it up. Patience in fuch a Cafe, ihews 
extraordinary Courage; for a generous Mind ought 
to prefer the Service of the King before its own Paffi- 
ons ,• and lay afide private Feuds when the Públick In- 
tereft is concerned (18). Ariflides and Themiflocles were 
bitter Enemies, yet being both fent on an Embaify to- 
gether, when they came to the City-gate, AripAes 
faid, Let us here, Themiftocles, leave for a little time our 
private Grudges y and at our return refume them again. 

£18) Privara odia publicis ut Hit atibas remittere, Tac. i. Ann. 

F 4 The 

7¿ Envy its own Avenger. Vol. I. 
The fame did Henry Guzman, Duke of Medina, who 
though otherwife an Enemy to Rodrigo Tontre, Marquiis 
of Cadiz,, yet out of Love of the Publick Good, went 
to his Afliftance at the Siege of Alhama. But becauié 
'tis much eafier to prevent thefe Dangers than remedy 
them afterwards $ the Prince muft take care not to put 
two Minifters of equal Authority in the fame Office, 
for 'tis very difficult to make Power and Agreement I 
fubfift in the fame place (19). Tiberius being to fend • 
another Minifter into Afia of equal Quality with the 
then Governor of that Province, thought that might be 
of dangerous confequence ; and therefore chofe M. Ak~ 
tus, a Praetor, leaft their equality might breed Emulati- 
on., and chat occafion fome Impediment (20). 
* ; — '■ — *~ — i 

(19O Arduum eodem loco potentiam, iy concordiam effe.' Tac. 4. Ann. 
£20} Deleílusejl M. Aletus é pr&toriis> ne Confuían obtinente Afiam* 
¿mulatto inter pares, & ex eo impedimentum oriretur. Tac, %. Ann. 





THE Faulcon's no fooner let fly, but he drives 
with his Beak to get off the little Bells that are 
hung at his Feet, knowing them to prejudice his Liber- 
ty; for their tingling ihrill found is like a Voice, which 
with the leaft motion raifed, prefently calls the Faulco- 
ner, and fo is the occafion that the poor Bird is brought 
again to Confinement, how far foever it hid it felf in 
the thickeft Woods. Alas ! how many Men has the 
noiíé of their Virtues , and brave Exploits, been mi£ 
chievous to ? How many has Fame brought into Envy 
and infupportable Slavery ? Nor is great or good Fame 
left dangerous than bad (i). Miltiades had never ended 

CO Nee mims $ericnlum ex magna fama quant ex mala. Tac. in Yjt. 


74 Fame, or Vulgar Applaufe y dangerous* Vol. I. 
his Days fo unhappily in Priibn, had his Valour been 
conceal'd and unknown, or moderating his high Spirit, 
he had been content # with a fortune equal to that of 
other Athenian Citizens. But the Reputation of his Vi- 
ctories increafing , and the Eyes of Envy being not 
able to bear Fame's fo bright Rays , this Republick be- 
gan to miitruft what merited Efteem and Recompence j 
they feared, forfooth, their own Necks might at length 
be obliged to bear the Yoke he had put on that of their 
Enemies ,• and dreaded more the future and uncertain 
Danger of Miltiades's Infidelity, than that prefent, and 
far greater one which threatned them from thoíé , who : 
openly defigned the' Ruin and Deftrudtion of their 
City.Sufpicion never admits Reaibn into its Councillor 
does fuch fear ftand to weigh the Importance of things, 
or fuffer Gratitude to get the better of it. That Com- 
monwealth chofe to let one, though the moft defer- 
ving, of its Citizens lie in Priibn and Infamy, rather 
than all the reft ihould live in continual Jealoufies. 
The Carthaginians took the Government of Spain from 
Sappho, under pretence, indeed, of adminiitring the 
Commonwealth at home ', but the true Reafon was, 
that they could no longer fuffer his Power and Autho- 
rity. Thus they baniined his Succeffor, Hanno, who 
was ib eminent for his Navigations , only becaufe he 
had more Ingenuity and Induitry than they thought 
fafe for a free People. He was the firft Man they ever 
faw ftroke a Lion , and make it tame , and began to 
apprehend he would at laft fubdue them, who had 
vanquiihed the Savage Beafts. Thus Commonwealths 
are ufed to recompence Services and great Anions. No 
one of the Citizens takes himfelf in particular to be ho- 
noured , or obliged by any good Office is done to the 
Commurfity ,• as to Offences and Sufpicion, every one 
thinks himfelf concerned. If any one's to be reward- 
ed, very few give him their Votes ,- on the contrary, 
to find a Man guilty all are zealous. He that is more 
excellent than others, is thereby in danger ; for his 
Zeal for die Publick Good accufes their negligence ; 


Vol.1. Tame, or Vulgar Applaufe, dangerous. J$ 
his Prudence their Ignorance. Hence 'tis fo dangerous 
jo be ferviceable and obfequieus to Princes; hence Vir- 
tue and Induftry become like Vices , odious. Sallufl, 
who had a Capacity fit for the moft important bufineis, 
to avoid Envy, feigned himfelf to be idle and drow- 
fy (2). But the worft of all is, that fometimes a 
Prince is difpleafed at being awakened by a vigilant 
Minifter , whom he would rather have as careleis as 
himfelf. To remedy this, as there is an Hypocriiy 
which counterfeits Virtues, and diiTembles Vices ; there 
is need of another to conceal Valour and Excellency 
of Mind, and to flop the mouth of Fame. 'Twas un- 
doubtedly nothing but the fear of Envy made Agrícola 
fo careful to hide his , that they who faw in him ib 
much Humility and Modefty , unieis they had other- 
wife heard of his Fame , could never guefs at his Re- 
nown by his Peribn (3). Time made Germanicm fen- 
fible of this inconveniency, but he chofe to bear rather 
than amend it , when after the Conqueft of ib many 
Nations , he ereéted indeed a Trophy, but for fear of 
Fame put not his Name to it (4). $>t.Jahn concealed his, 
in the relation of the ilgnal Favour our Saviour fliew'd 
him at his laft Supper (?), which if 'twas not humane 
Policy , was at leaft prudent Modefty. Even meer 
Dreams about ones own Promotion breeds Envy a- 
mongft Brothers. Jofepb almoft hazarded his Life, when 
jkwith more ingenuity than Difcretion, he told his the 
Dream he had of the Sheafs of Corn that made obeifance 
to his that flood upright among the reft; for the very 
Shadow of Eminence, nay, the bare poftibility of ex- 
celling makes Envy folicitous. Glory is dangerous, as 

(l) Cut vigor animi ingentibus negotiis par fuberat , eo magis , ut in- 
vidiam amoliretur, fomnum (¿y inertiamoftentabat. Tac. $. Ann. (3) Vi~ 
fo afpefloque Agrícola qu&rerent famam, pauci interpretarentur. Tac. in 
Vit. Agr. (4} Debellaiis inter Rbenum , Albimque nniionibus exercitum 
Tiberii Claris ea Manumenta Afarti, & Jovi, (¿y Augufto facravijfe, de 
Je nihil addidit^metu invidia, an ratus confcientiam fatli ejje fatk. Tac. 1. 
Ann. (5) Now there was leaning on Jefus's bofom , one of his 
Difciples whom Jefus loved. John 13. 23. 


y 6 Fame, or Vulgar Applaufe, dangerous. Vol. Í. 

well becauíé of our own Virtues , as other Mens 
Vices ( 6' ). Vice is not ib feared in Men becauíé it 
makes them Slaves, as Virtue that makes them Matters ¿ 
for Dominion is by nature her íélf given to it , and 
this Republicks won't fuflfer to be lodged in the Perlón 
of one, but would have equally divided among all. 
Virtue is a kind of voluntary tyranny over Minds, has 
no left influence on them , than Violence it íélf, or 
Compuliion ; and indeed, to excite Republicks to Imi- 
tation, 'tis the fame thing abfolutely whether the Peo- 
ple be induced by Reafon or by Force, conftrained to 
obey one only ; for the firft Tyranny, the jufter 'tis, . 
the more dangerous and irrefiítible. This very thing 
gave rilé to the Oitracifm, or Ten Years Baniihmenr, 
to which Ariflides, among others , was condemned ; 
whofe only Crime, was his having the Reputation of 
a good and juft Man. The Peoples Favour is a very 
dangerous Friend to Virtue j for their Applaufe and 
Approbation is puniihed as a fault, as you may fee in 
the Perlón of Gakrian (7). So Germankus learned by 
experience, that the Reman Peoples love was fickle and 
unfortunate (8). Neither Princes nor Commonwealths 
much defire Minifters of extraordinary Excellency, but 
fuch as have a competent Skill to manage Affairs , and 
this realbn Tacitus gives why Voppaus Sab'mus was con- 
tinued Four and twenty Years in the Government of 
the molt confiderable Provinces (9). 'Tis therefore a 
piece of great Prudence to know how to conceal ones 
Fame , and conlequently to beware of all Oftentation 
of Wit, Valour, or Excellency, and cover all fublime 
Thoughts, as they fay, with Aihes ; though I confefs, 
'tis difficult for a noble Mind to confine to the narrow 
compaís of its own Breaft, a Flame that breaks out on 

(6) Agrícola fimul fuis virtutibus, fimul viti'ts aliorum tn tpfam gto- 
riant pr&ceps agebatur. Tac. in Vir. Agr. (7) Nihil aufits , fed nomen 
infigne, & decora ipfi juventa, rutmre vulgi celebrabantnr. Tac. 4. Hi it. 
(H) Breves ¿<r infaulks populi Romani amores. Tac. 2. Ann. (9) UuL- 
lam ab eximiam artem, fed quod par negottis, ñeque fnpra erat. Tac. <$. 


Vol. I. Fame] or Vulgar Applaufe^ danger out jj 
all tides, and daily requires new Fuel to increafe it, 
and make it fhine with the greater Luflre. But this 
we may be perfwaded to by the Examples of thefe Illu- 
ítrious Heroes, who heretofore from the Di&atorihip 
returned to the Plough j and of thofe that after a Tri- 
umphant Entry into the City of Rome by Breaches , 
becaufe the Gates were not large enough ; that after 
the Conqueft of whole Nations, have retreated to poor 
defpicable Cottages, whither a forwards the Common- 
wealth has come to find them out. Nor had that ever 
brought them ib foon into play again had it not feen 
they were not ambitious of Honour ; for that like a 
Shadow flies him that purfues it , follows him that flies 
it. His Fame and Reputation is greateft , who ftrives 
to conceal it. Rubellius Tlautus was thought to deferve 
the Empire becaufe he lived retired (to) $ but 'tis not 
¿o in Monarchies, where one afcends higher by having 
begun to afcend. Á Prince has Men of Courage and 
Bravery in great efteem , Republicks fear them rather; 
that animates them by Rewards and Prefents, thefe 
difcourage them by Ingratitude : Nor is fear of their 
Liberty always the reafon of it, but 'tis alfo a pretence 
to Cloak their Envy and Emulation under* If any one 
be the Objed of all Mens favour and applaufe , he is 
ufually fuipe&ed and envied j which rarely happens in 
Princes, who don't eafily envy their Subjeds Glory ; 
but if they do any thing commendable, they attribute 
it to themíélVes, as being the Execution of their Orders. 
This has been obíérvable in the Emperor Otho (n). 
Prudent Minifters ought therefore to attribute to the 
Prince the happy Succeis of things; taking warning by 
the Example oí Silius , who incurred Tibmuh Diiplea- 
fure by boafting that he alone kept the Legions to 
their Duty ; and ufing to fay often , that Tikrius was 

(10) Omnium ore Ritbettius Flautas eelebratw, cm nobilitai per mo- 
trem ex Julia familia, ipfc placita majcrvm colebat, habit h fezero, calta 
<¿T fecretd domo, quantoque meta rccultior, tanto plus fama adeptus. Tac. 
14. Anh. (11) Gloriam in fe trábente , tar.quam , & ipfe fcelix belh t 
& fitis ducit/Hfy & [nit exccitibns Kemp, euxtjfet. Tac. 1 , Hift. 


yS Tame^or Vulgar Applaufe, dangerous. Vol.T. 

indebted to him only for his Empire : For Cafar 
thought at this rate his Fortune would be defrroyed,and 
that he was unable to make return to fo great Merit (12). 
Nor was Feffafian difpleafed with Antomus Trimus for 
any things but too frequently mentioning his own Me- 
Tits (13)- Agrícola was far more prudent, who never 
magnified his Exploits for his own Fame, but attributed 
all his Succeis to his Superiors (14). Joab has left art 
Illuftrious Example of this to all Generals,* who, when 
he had forced any City to Surrender , fent word be- 
fore to King David to bring up new Forces, that the 
Surrender might be aicribed to his Conduit (if). The 
Ancient Germans were above others commended for 
this, who lay under a ftricl: Obligation, not only to 
defend and preferve their Prince, bat alfo to attribute 
the Glory of their own brave Actions to him (16). For 
thefe reaibns a Perfon is much fecuref of a Recompence 
for the Services he does a Prince , than thofe done a 
Commonwealth ,• and will with more eafe get the 
Favour of the one than the other (17). Befides, that 
there's leis danger in offending that than this ; for the 
Multitude knows not what Connivance, Mercy, or 
Danger are¿ it is equally raih in its Refolutions, whe- 
ther the thing to be attempted be dangerous or unjuít j 
for either the Fear or Blame is divided among many , 
and each Man perfwades himfelf the danger is not! 
like to fall on his Pate , that the Infamy belongs nod 

(n} Dejirui per bac fortunam fuam, Cafar, impar emque tanto menté 
rebatur. Tac. 4. Ann. (13) Nimias ccmmemorandis qua meruiffet. 
Tac. 4. Hift. ("14) Nee Agrícola mquam fuamfamam geflis exult avit, ad 
auttorem & ducem, ut Mmtjier, fortunam referebat. Ita virtute in obfe- 
quendo, verecundia in predicando extra invidiam, nee extra giorum cat. 
Tac. in Vic. Agr. ("15) Now therefore gather the People together , 
and encamp againft the City, and take ic, leafl I rake the Cicy, and 
it be called after my name. Lot. Verf. Et nomini meo aferibatur vina- 
ria. 2 Sam, iz. 28. (16) Principem fuum defenderé, tucri, fua quoque 
fortia facia glorie ejus affjgnare, precipuum Sacramentum erat. Tac. lib. 
dc Germ. (17) Tarda funt qua in commune expofhlantur , privatarn 
gratiamjfatim mereare^ Jiatim resipias. Tac. I, Ann. 


Vol.!. Fame, or Vulgar Applaufe, ¿angerouu 79 

to him (18). A Community has no Forehead to blufh, 
as a Prince has , who is with great reafon folicitous for 
his own Perfon chiefly, as well as for his Reputation,and 
that of his Pofterity. All Men flatter a Prince, fet- 
ting before him the things that lead to Glory , in Re- 
publicks few are concerned for the Publick Honour, 
almoft all for Security (19). A Prince has his Subjects 
to content, in a Community that care and trouble 
ceafesj for what it undertakes or does, is by the Com- 
mon Counfel of all, and fo every one is thought to be 
concerned in it. And hence I imagine it comes to pafs, 
that Commonwealths (I mean not fuch as are in a 
manner Kingly) a£e ib unconflant and falfe in the 
Obfervation of Treaties ; for that only is juft with 
them, which feeras to be for the Intereft of their 
Prefervation, Grandeur, and the Liberty they fo much 
advance^ in which they are extreamly SuperiUtious. 
They imagine they worfhip true Liberty , and with 
a fervile Submiilion adore infinite tyrannical Idols. 
Every one thinks he Commands, apd all Obeyj they 
are all provided with an Antidote againft the Poyfon 
of Monarchy , and the Sovereignty of many they 
greedily and fecurely fwallow ¿ they fear nothing 
more than the Tyranny of Foreigners , take no no- 
tice of that at home. Liberty is talkt of every where, 
found no where. All are pofíefíed of it in Imagina- 
tion , none id«Rea!ity. Let the United Provinces now 
make a Companion between the Liberty they formerly 
had, and that they enjoy at prefent, and diligently ex- 
amine which of the two has the Advantage ,• whether 
they ever underwent the fame Slavery then , fuffered 
thole Lofes and Taxes they at this day fenfibly experi- 
ment. Let the Subje&s of fome Commonwealths, nay 
the Magiftrates themfelves , in whofe' Hands the Go- 
vernment is , think whether it -were poilible for any 
Tyrant to enflave them more than tliofe very Peribns 

("18) Ita irepidiy <& utrinque anx:i cocunt •, nemo privantn, cxpedrti 
confilio t inter multes , focietate cuipx tuúor. Tac. 2. Ml}. (_i^Q tain» 
decus publicum cur£, f tures mu dtyrmt. Tac, xz Aon. 


86 Fame] or Vulgar Applaufe, dangerous. Vol. F. 
they have fet up to AflTert their liberty, when there is 
^not one that really enjoys it in his A&ions. They are all 
miferable Slaves to their own Jealoufies; the Magiftracy 
is its own Tyrant ; and it may be truly faid of both, 
that they live without a Matter , but not with Liber- 
ty (20) 1 for the more they ftrive to diíéngage them- 
felves from the Bonds of Slavery , the fafter they are 
bound with them (21). 

(20) Magis fine Doming quam in libértate. Tac. 2. Ano. (21) Sed 
dim veritati confulitur, libertas corrumfebatw. Tac. 1. Ano. 


THE Tongue is an Inftrument, by the help of 
which the Mind difcovers its Sentiments , for it 
«J^reiTes it felf either by that, or by the Pen, which 


Vol. L which is the índex of the Mind* Sí 

like a filent Tongue ibmetimes fupplies its place, draw- 4 
ing on Paper the Words which fhould have been utter-» 
ed by the Voice. From both the one , and the other s 
one may draw a probable conjecture of a Man's Parts 
and Capacity. For by Speech , Wifdom (liall be known 5 
and Learning by the Word of the Tongue (i). Hence King 
¿dlphonfiy the Wife, fpeaking in his Laws how a Prince 
ought to carry himfelf in his Converfation , what Mo- 
deration he íhould ufe in fpeaking ; among othef 
things fays , Multiloquy makes their Words unregard- 
ed, and if a King be not a Man of good Senfe , his 
Tongue foon difcovers the defed ; for as an Earthen 
Pot is tried by the Sound , fo is a Man's Senfe by his 
Words f. A Comparifon which he feems to have bor* 
rowed from this Paflage of Verfim : 

— >■— — — Sonat njit'inm bercujfa maligné . 
Refpondet z>irid¿ non cocía fidelia limo* 

Speech is the minds Countenance 5 - by that is dífcovér-' 
ed whether it be found or not (2). To reprefen? this á 
I have made ufe of another nobler Emblem, and more 
accommodated to the Subject ; 'tis a Bell 5 the tiud 
Emblem of a Prince * for as that is hung up in thá 
moft eminent place of the City, it times, and regu* 
lates all the Citizens Actions ¡ and if the Metal be not 
good , or it has any ether fault in't \ 'tis by its Sound 
prefently diicerned ( ; ). So a Prince is a kind of ge- 
neral Clock to all his Subjects, who in a great meaiurd 
depend, as I may fay, upon the Motion of his Wordsj 
and by them he either gets or lofes a Reputation, eve* 
ry one giving himfelf to gueis at his Genius, Wit, and 
Inclinations, b/ his Difcourfe. Net a Word efcapes his 
¡Hearers, each one makes a deep Impreilion on their. 

(0 Ecclef. cap 4.29. f L 5. ric. \. p. t. (2) Ot\tt'n vultus avi- 
mi eft, fi cinumtorfa eft & funtt<i % ¿y tn úVif.$u y ojtendit Mum non cjj* 
fincerum, {<r habere (tliquijt jraifj. ¡S«|i F.pitt. 115. ("3) Vas pthls 
\iin ¿r fono> bemo, jerjtwm vroh*t*r, Mciiii". S,«rwn 4 3, Tom. 5. Bib). 

Q Memory 

8 % A Prince is to le Cautious in his Difcourfe, Vol. (.' 
Memory, they are repeated to others, and expofed to 
the Cenfure of all , who ufually put various Conftru- 
¿Hons upon them, as they think fit. Nay, even, what 
comes from him in private and unawares, pafles for 
profound ¿md myitcrious, and not for cafual and acci- 
dental. It were therefore very proper for them not to 
be extemporary but premeditated (4), not fpoken with- 
out a previous Coniideration of all the Gircumítances 

of Time, Place, and Perfons. For Ñefcit vox mi£'a 

7 evert /,« as Horace fays, feconded by King Alpbonfo , 

For this reafoti all Men, especially a King, ought to take great 
care of his Words before be utters them , for when they are 
once out of the Month , there is no Man can rccal them f. 
Whence may arife very great Inconveniences, for the 
Words of Kings are the principal Inftruments of Go- 
vernment ($ ). Death and Life are in the Power of the 
Tongue (6); as alio the Honour and Ignominy, the 
Profperity and Ruin of Subjedls. This made Arijlotle, 
when he fent Callifthenes to Alexander the Great, advife 
him : to talk little with him, and only upon agreeable 
Subjeéls," for that 'twas a dangerous thing to Treat 
with one who carried the Power of Life and Death at 
his Tongues end. There's not a Word comes from a 
Prince's Mouth without a peculiar Emphafis : Is it about 
Buiinefs, they are Commands ,• if of Crimes, they are 
Sentences ,* if of Promifes, Obligations ,• by his Words 
he is either obeyed or difobeyed. Let Princes there- 
fore take care how they ufé this Tongue of theirs, 
which Nature has not meerly by chance fenced and 
inclofed with , as it were, a Wall of Teeth ;' nor is 
there lefs need of a Bridle for the Tongue, than for a 
Hoife (7). 'Tis, it is true, one of the leaft Members. 
of the Body, but 'tis like the Rudder of a Ship, on 
whofe Motion the lois or fafety of the whole Veflel de- 

(5) A Fool cravailerh with a Word , as a Woman in labour cf a 
Child. Eccltf. íq. 1 1, f L. r. cic. 4. part. 2. (5) Where the Word 
of a King is, there is power. FaV. 8. 4. (6) Death and Lite arc in 
the Power of the Tcngae, Frov. 18, 11 * (7) Ecel, 28. 2?. . 


Vol.1. which is the Index of the Mind, %% 

pends. The Tongue is placed in a wer place , and ib 
eafily flips, unlefs flai'd by Prudence. Hence that Prayer 
of David ; Set a Watch 3 O Lord , kfu're my Mouth 3 keep 
the Door of my Lips (8). 

For a Prince to condeicend to a familiar Converia- 
tion with any one , leflens his Character, proftitutes 
his Authority, and brings many other inconveniences 
upon him , unlefs he do it for Information ,• for every 
Man defires to have a wife Prince, and one that under- 
ftands his Affairs very well ; which is next to an impof* 
fibility, for a Prince can't know all things (9) ; and if 
he anfwer in the leaft from the purpoie , he fhall be 
prefently condemned for Infufficiency or Negligence. 
Befides , that Princes Talents and Endowments very 
rarely anfwer the generally received Opinion of them $ 
therefore to avoid the danger of this , the Roman Em- 
perors chofe to Treat with their Subjects by Notes 3 
and give them Anfwers in Writing , as well to get 
time for Deliberation , as becaufe the Vtn is leis fub- 
ject to miftake than the Tongue ,• for this can't hand- 
fomely defer an Anfwer, that can. St jairas, however 
great a Favourite of Tikrius's, C3nferr"d only with him 
by way of Memorial (10). There are, however, fome 
Affairs which may be better treated of by Word of 
Mouth ,• particularly, when there s ibmething of dan- 
ger in leaving ones Sentiments in anothers hands , 
which are a kind of perpetual Evidence , and more 
liable to be wrefted to different meanings than Words , 
which as they quickly pafs , and ñick not deep in the 
Memory, are not fo eafily adicnable. But whether a 
Prince gives his Anfwers this,or the other way,heJhou!d 
always remember , that brevity is the moil prudent, 
and moft becoming a Prince s Majeiry (n). Hence 
Tacitus gives that Epithet Imperial to Brevity (12), 

(8) Pfalm 140. 3. (9 ) Nequ'J \?fy. Frinop^n fna ¡dsntia cunc},t 
complefti. Tac 3. Ann. ( o) ad Cxfarem codicilliS : moút 
quippe turn erat qnamqium prjcjentam fcttpto adíe. Tac. 4. Aon. (1 ¿) MA- 
rum brevi fermone ineji pradentix. S.j¿íii'jcI. ( 2) LnfcxAlv'ut brevi* 
tate. Tac. u Hift; 

G i You 

o 4 A Prince is to he Cautious in his Difcourfe, Vol.!. 

You íhould ufe the Tongue as your Sword, that is, 
not lay your felf too open to your Adverfary,- he that 
difelofes his whole Mind , expofes himfelf to Danger. 
Concife Diicourfes have the greateft Efficacy , and 
leave molt room for Reflection. Nothings fo like a 
King, as to talk little, and hear much. Nor is it lefs 
requisite for him to know how to be filent , than how 
to fpeak. In this, Men are our Mailers. In that, God 
himfelf, who always injoyns Silence in his Myiteries. 
He refembles the Divinity moit , who has learnt to 
hold his Peace. Even a foci when be holdetb bis peace 
is counted wife, and he that Jliutteth bis Lips is e ¡teemed a 
Man of under ft anding (j.%). The heart of fools is in their 
mouth , hut the mouth of the wife is in their heart ( 1 4). 
This is Prudence to avoid both Extreams, for each has 
its danger : 

All to Talk, cr none, 
Are dijlantj and yet neighbouring Faults, Aufon. 

'Tis then only convenient to fpeak, when Silence pre- 
judices either the Prince or Truth. Majefty by a Nod 
only fufficiently explains its felf. Silence well-timed, 
35 in Princes great Eloquence ; and a grave and modeft 
Carriage are ufually more iignificantly expreffive of 
one's Thoughts than Words themfelves. But if one's 
obliged to ufe thefe at any time , they ought to be 
iincere , and with liberty in thinking becoming a 

Tour free Conceptions drefs in plain Words. TaiT 

For by too many AiTeverations , Oaths, and unnece£ 
lary Proofs, they either quite lofe their Credit, or at 
lealt are rendred fuipiciousj they ought then to be 
Grave without Moroíénels ; Graceful without AfFeéta-- 
tion; of Force without Roughnefs; laftly, Common 

(13} Prov\. cap, 17. O 4) Ecclcf 21.19, 


Vol.T. which is the Index of the Mind. 85 

not Vulgar. Even with God, Words well ordered, feem 
to have moft weight and influence (15). 

But the Tongue and Pen require no where more 
prudent Moderation than in Promifes, in which Princes 
either out of a natural Generofity, or to obtain their 
Ends with more eafe, or to avoid a Danger, are ufu- 
ally extravagant; which when they can't perform } 
they lofe their Credit , and procure themfelves Ene- 
mies, ib that it had been better not to have been fo la- 
yiih of them. There have been more Wars occafioned 
by the Breach of Promifes than by Injuries. For In- 
tereft is feldom in thefe fo much concerned as in them. 
And Princes are generally moved more by their own 
Advantage than by Injuries received. To make large 
Promifes, and not keep them, is interpreted by a Supe- 
rior, an Affront ; by an Equal, Injuitice ,• by an Infe- 
rior, Tyranny (16). The Tongue therefore ihould not 
be too forward to promife , without affurance that the 
Promife can be performed (1?). 

In Threats alio , £he Tongue eafily goes beyond its 
Limits ; for the Heat of Anger foon puts it in Motion, 
and when Revenge can't equal the Paffion, of neceffity 
Prudence ; nay , and Supream Power muft lofe not a 
little of their Credit. 'Tis therefore much more advife- 
able to diiTemble Injuries, that the Effects of Satisfa&i»* 
on may be confidered before the Prince threatens it. 
He that ufes Menaces before' his Hands ^ deilgns either 
to make them the only Inftruments of his Revenge, or 
to give his Enemy warning. There's no more terrible 
threatning than Silence. If mine's already let off, no 
one is afraid ; thofe are always more formidable that 
lie ftill conceal'd under-ground; for the Effects of. 
the Imagination are ufualiy greater than thofe of the ■ 

(15) Job4t. 3. (j6) Better is ic that thou ílnuldeít not vow,chan 
that thou íliouldeft vow and not pay. Ecclef. $. ■>. (17) be not 
luity ia thy Tongue, and in thy Deeds ftx;k and remifs, Eccl. 4. 29. 

G $ Detraction 

8(5 A Prince is to he Cautious in his DifcourfefocVol. T. 

Detraction has in it a great mixture of Envy and 
Oftentarion ; it is always almoft of an Inferior towards 
his Superior , and consequently much below a Prince , 
by whofe Lips no Man's Honour ought to be brought 
in queftion. If he fees Vices, he mould puniih them; 
if other fmall Defects, correct or connive at them. 

The praife of biave Actions and Services is a part of 
their Reward; excites the Perfon commended to, as 
it were an Emulation of himfelf , and is a Spur to 
others. However., to commend all Subjects indifferent- 
ly , is not without danger. For the Judgment they 
pais on them being various and uncertain , and that 
Praife, a kind of definitive Sentence , time may difco- 
ver to have been raihly given ; in the mean time, the 
Prince's Honour will oblige him not to retract eafily 
what he has once approved. As well therefore for this 
reafoiv as not to give occafion to Envy, great Circum- 
ipectior» is required in praifing Peifons , which is alio 
of the Holy Spirit's Oracles , Judge no one bhjjtd 
his Death (18). It was a principal Maxim among 
. icfa , to commend no one raihly, becaufe fcarce 

y thing can be affirmed with certainty, and we are 
often deceived in things that appear to us moil praife- 

(18} Vid. Lat. Verf. Ante mortem ne laudes bominem quer.quam. 
JLpcIef. ii. jo. 


VóLl 87 


TH E Heart of Man, Nature, that skilful Architect 
has hid in the moil retired part of the Breaft ; 
however, leaft probably, feeing it ielf thus concealed , 
and without Witneffes , it ifcould do any thing againft 
the Law of Reafon, /he has withal given Man that na- 
tive Colour or Fire of Blood , for Moceity to inflame 
his Countenance withal , and accufe his Heart , if it 
deviate from Honour in any thing, or think otherwife 
than the Tongue fpeaks , both which ought always tó 
have the fame Motion, and a mutual Agreement in ail 
things. But Malice by degrees effaces that Mark which 
is uied in Children to íhew its felf. Hence the Ro- 
mans well-knowing the importance of Truth for the 
eftabliihment of Society, and maintaining Commerce 
in the Commonwealth ¿ and defiring nothing more 

G 4 than 

88 Falfity /onetimes to he hid under Vol. I. 

than to preíérve the ihame of deferring it among Men, 
hung about their Childrens Neck a Golden Heart , 
(which they called Bulla) an Hieroglyphick , fays Au- 
foniusj invented by Pythagoras, to iignify the Ingenuity 
Men ought to profefs in Conversation;, and the Sin- 
cerity they ihould obferve in Truth , wearing at their 
Breaft, a Heart uncovered , as it were , and open, the 
Genuine Emblem of that Truth. And this we commonly 
mean, when ipeaking of a Man of Veracity, we fay 
he carries his Heart in his Hands , or that he is open- 
hearted. The fame the Egyptian Priefts iignified by the 
Sapphire they put upon their Princes Breads, to repre- 
fent emblematically the fame Truth ¿ as their Minifters of 
Juftice slfo ufed to wear about them fome Figure of it. 
Nor ihould any one imagine, thac for the Prince to be 
o, and p felled a Lover of Truth, would per- 
: out give an occafion to Deceit and Cozenage,- for 
on the contrary, nothing is more effectual in prevent- 
ing tholé Cheats, and driving away Lyes, which never 
p'are look Truth in the face. The fame Obfervation 
I take that advice of Tjthagoras to allude to , never to 
fpeak with one's Back towards the Sun ,• thereby inti- 
mating that nothing ought to be uttered repugnant to 
Truth ,• for a Liar can't bear the bright Rays of Truth, 
iignified by the Sun upon a double account, both be- 
caufe of the Sun's Unity ; as for that it diiperfes Dark- 
nefs, and drives away Shades, reftoring to all things 
their true Light and proper Colours, as the preient Em- 
blem fhews ,• where as foon as that Luminary is got 
above the Horizon , the Obfcurity of Night immedi- 
ately flics, and the No&urnal Birds retire to the Woods 
dark Coverts , which in that's abfence , and favoured 
by the Silence of Night, ufe while others fleep, to feek 
their Prey. What Confufion is the Owl in , if by 
chance ihc comes into the Sun's prefence ? In that glit- 
tering Light ihe Staggers to and fro , and is confound- 
ed, that Splendor quite blinds her, and fruitrates all 
her Tricks. Can any one have ib much Subtilty and 
Craft, but they will prefentiy fail him when he comes 


Vol. Í- the fpecious Name of Truth. 89 

before an ingenuous Prince, and one that is a particular 
Friend to Sincerity and Truth (1) ? 

There's no force able to penetrate into the Defigns 
of a candid Mind, if that Candor want not fome Re- 
tirements for Prudence. Is there any thing more open 
and evident to the Eyes of the World, any thing more 
refplendent, more oppofed to Shadows and Derkneis 
than the Sun? Neverthelefs, if any one will look tfed- 
faft upon its Rays, he will difcover I know not what 
Abufes, as 'twere, and Obfcurities of Light, which ib 
darken the Eyes , that what they faw, they can't tell. 
Thus Knavery is blinded with the Light of Truth, and 
its Foundations overturned, nor can it find any more a 
way to delude with its Artifices. 3 Tis a Victory truly 
worthy a Prince, to conquer Frauds and Cheats with 
Ingenuity, Lyes with Truth. To lye is a ílaviíh Vice, 
and coniequently very unbecoming the generous Mind of 
Princes,who above all Men fhould endeavour to render 
themfelves like God, who is Truth it felf (2). Whence 
Kings, (fays King Alphonfo) who keep its place upon Earthy 
and to whom it particularly belongs to guard it, ought to take 
[pedal care not to contradict it by falfity' if a Kingjlwuld once 
give himfelf to Lying, he will not be believed, even when he 
¡peaks truth , and will farther give incouragement to others to 
follow his Example. This inconveniency Tiberius experi- 
mented, who often pretending to reftore Liberty and 
the Confular Government to the Commonwealth, and 
to remit the Management of Affairs to others , caufed 
'the People to miftruft him when he meant really and 

honeftly (?)• 

The greater Monarchs are, they are the more ex- 
1 pofed to Vanity and Lyes (4). The Rays of a plenti- 
ful Fortune eafiiy contraed the Clouds of Detraction. 

C I ) Magni prxfentia vert. Virgil. ( ?. ) Excellent Speech be- 
goateth not a Fool ; much lefs do lying Lipi a Prince. Prov. 17. 7. 
(l) Ad van* & roñes irrtfa. revolutas de reddenda Rtvub. urque con- 
futes , fcu anís alius, rrgimen fufciperet, vero quoque & honejto jidem 
deir.fft. Tac. 4 Ann. (^j CmúU tn^gás impe its olftefttvi jolitus. 
Tac. 4. A,nn. 


90 Faljtty fometimes to le hid under Vol. Í 

In great Empires all things have the worft Conftruftion 
put upon them , and are obnoxious to Reproaches. 
What open Force can't do , Calumny by fecret Mines 
attempts , in which thing he that hath the Rule over 
others, has need of great Courage, not to change his 
Courfe, or fuffer himfelf to be ftopt by the Clamours 
of Cavillers. This conftancy and firmneis of Mind 
has always eminently appeared in the Kings of Spain, 
to whom it has been, in a manner, natural to defpife 
Envy and Calumny ; by which means alone , many 
Clouds of that Nature have been difpelled, which as 
Majefty raifes, fo it alfo by the force of Truth diili- 
pates, as the Sun's Heat does Vapours. What infamous 
Libels , what manifeft Falfities, what forg'd Stories, 
what Calumnies have malicious Men often fpread 
againft the Spanifh Monarchy ? Nor for all this, could 
that Envy be able to caft the leaft Blemiih upon its fo 
juft Adminiftration of the Kingdoms 'tis poflelTed of 
in Europe , becaufe that is open to the World, and vili- 
ble to all. Among other things, by new contriv'd De- 
vices , and ftudied Lyes to render its Government odi- 
ous, and fo make the Rebellious Princes lefs defirous of 
a Reconciliation: I know not what Author, under the 
Name of the Bifhop of Chapa , has publiihed a Book, 
wherein he gives a large Account of the Inhumane 
and Barbarous Ufage the Indians received from the 
Spaniards ; and that thofe Lyes might have a more eaiy 
Credit; the Book was firft fpread about in Spain, as 
Printed at Semi, afterwards Tranflated into other Lan- 
guages. An ingenious Invention indeed, and accute 
piece of Malice, and, of more confequence than per- 
haps can be believed, for upon fome eafy Minds it had 
very ill EfFe& , though moft of the more prudent fort 
foon diicovered the Cheat; in as much as all thofe things 
are abundantly confuted by the extraordinary Zeal 
for Religion and Juftice, the Spanijli Nation always 
with great Conftancy exercifes and maintains all over 
the World , nor is it unlike its felf in the Indies only. 
I won't however deny, but at the firft Invafion of 


M. V the [pcctous Name of Truth. 9 1 

America, fbme things happened not altogether to be ap- 
>roved, but this was only by their fault, who thinking 
his Known World too little for their vaft Minds , had 
he boldneis by the PermiiTion, rather than Command, 
)r Choice of their King tp try their Fortune in other 
?arts, and difcover New Countries hitherto unknown , 
inhere they found a barbarous People, Idolatrous to 
>uperftition , more Savage than Beafts, who brutally 
ived on Man's Fleih , whofe Inhumanity was incorri- 
gible but by force and utmoit rigour. But it was not 
long before their Catholick Majefíies provoided a Re- 
medy againft thefe Diforders , for they fent to thoíé 
Coafts CommiíTaries to puniíh thofe feverely they found 
had been guilty ,• and to maintain entire Juftice among 
rhe Indians , they gave afterwards many Paternal Or- 
ders for their Prefervation, of which it was none of 
the leait to exempt them from thofe fevere Labours 
they daily underwent in the Mines, and in other things 
before the Difcovery of thofe Countries. They fent 
befides, Divines with great Zeal to teach them the My- 
fteries of the Chriftian Faith ,• founded Bifhopricks at 
their own Expences, and thofe of the Crown, and 
maintained Religious Convents for the benefit of that 
new planted Church, without fuffering them from the 
time thoíé vaft Countries fell into the Spaniards hands, 
even in the abfence of their new Mafters, to want any 
any thing which 'tis a King's Duty to fupply his Sub- 
jects withal. In which the Government of this State , 
and the Vigilance of its Minifters, may in a manner 
feem to furpafs that of the Sun it's felf , of the Moon 
and Stars , and the Influence they have over things 
below ; for but a few hours , in which the Sun's pre- 
iehce lightens one Hemii'phere ; the other is in Confu- 
iion, while Malice cloaths and covers its felf with the 
Darknefs of Night, and under the Mask, as it were, of 
that Obfcurity commits Murders, Robbefies, Adulte- 
ries, and every thing that's ill, the Sun's providence not 
being able to prevent them, though, indeed, even in the 
Night he fpreads ibme Twilight above the Horizon, or 


91 Falfity fomettmes to he hid under Vol. F 

in the interim leaves the performance of his Office to 
the Moon as his Vicegerent, and the Stars as his Mini- 
flers, and communicates to them the Authority of his 
Rays. From this our World, the Kings of Spain govern 
that other in Juftice, Peace, and Religion, with the 
fame Political Happinefs the Kingdoms of Caftik enjoy 
to their fatisfa&ion. But leaft the Envious and Ene- 
mies of the Spanijh Monarchy /hould triumph with thefe 
their Artifices, and that all the Calumnies of that Book 
mav be entirely overthrown , let us fuppofe all thofe 
Evils, which Malice has feigned the Indians to have dif- 
fered , to be true,* and compare them to what have 
been really undergone in our own time in feveral Wars, 
as well againft Gcnoa } as in Germany ¡Burgundy ,and Lcrrain y 
and 'twill appear clearer than light, that that lye comes 
far ihort of the truth of thefe. What cruel Torments 
have Tyrants ever invented againfr. Innocence , which 
in thefe our times we have not feen put in practice, not 
againft inhumane and barbarous People , but civilized 
Nations ; and thofe not' always Enemies , but even 
their own Members, without refpeft to Propinquity 
of Blood, or Piety towards their Country ? How often 
have we feen Auxiliary Forces turn their Weapons upon 
them that fent them ? Defence been more bloody than 
open Offence ? Protection become immediate Deftru- 
ction; Friend/hip, Hoftility ? Not a ftately Edifice, not 
a Sacred Place, has been fpared by Fire and Sword : 
In a little time we have feen an infinite number of 
Towns, Forts, and Cities, buried in their own Aihesj 
and Countries very populous changed into moft Soli- 
tary Deferts. Nor yet, could that Thirft of Humane 
Blood be quench'd or fatisfied.'Twas no new thing then 
to try Piftols and Swords upon Mens Breafts, as Bodies 
of Trees, and that not only in the heat of Battel, but 
in cool Blood, 'twas then a very agreeable Spedacle to 
fee the deformed Looks , and ttimbling Limbs of Men 
exfpiring. How often have Mens Bellies ript open 
ierved for Mangers? Sometimes in thofe of Women 
('tis dreadful to mention it) their tender Embryo's 


rol. I. the jpecious Name of Truth. 95 

irere mixt with Straw and Oats , and made Provender 
or Horfes; At the Expence of Life, 'twas try'd, how 
ouch Water a Man's Body would hold , or how long 
me could live without Suirenance. Nuns were viola- 
ed , Daughters of good Families difhonoured , Wives 
aviihed in the very light of their Parents and Hus- 
>ands. Women j as all other Spoil or Plunder, were 
ither fold or exchanged for Cows or Horfes , and 
.abourers were put to Chariots, and compell'd to draw 
hem as Horfes ; and to make them difcover where 
heir Riches lay, hung by the Feet and Members , and 
hus let down into hot Furnaces. There Children 
vere barbaroufly murdered before their Eyes, that Pa- 
ernal Affection might in the Giief of thefe their dear- 
:ft Pledges effect what felf-love could not oblige them 
o. In Woods and Forefts where Wild Beads find 
efuge, Men could not • for the Blood hounds chafed 
hem thence, and brought them to the Stake. The 
leepefr Lakes were not fecure from fo ingenious Co- 
'etoufneis and Rapine ; the Eife&s of thefe wretched 
5 eople were rak'd thence with Hooks and Nets. Not 
b much as dead Mens Bones were differed to reft, 
rombs and Grave-itones were thrown down to fearch 
inder them for Treafures. There's no magical, no de~ 
rilifh Art which they put not in practice to difcover 
:heir Money. Many thoufand Men periihed by Cru- 
ilty and Covetoufneis , not by their own Bafeneis, as 
:he Indians, whofe Extirpation Divine Juftice permitted, 
or having been fo many Ages Rebels to their Creator. 
[ mention not thefe things to accufe any Nation in par- 
:icular; for I am allured molt, if not all, have adkd 
rheir Parts in this Barbarous and Inhumane Tragedy ; 
but only to vindicate that of the Spaniards from Ca- 
lumny. The fweeteft and beft fram'd Mind is fome- 
times in danger of tranigreffing its Limits. 'Tis the 
weakneis of our frail Nature, to be fubje<5t. to commie 
the moft brutiih Action, if it want the Bridle of Reli- 
gion and Juftice. 




St* \ 

i -O- * 

r .... ' 

T* H E Moon fupplies the Sun's abfence, in prefiding 
•** over Night ; upon the various Motions , upon the 
Increafe and Decreafe of that, depend the Vigor anc 
Coníérvation of things here below; and although thai 
is as much more beautiful as thefe be obfeure , and o) 
themíélves weak , as receiving their Being from it: 
Light ; yet there's no one , either upon that account 
or for its other innumerable Benefits , takes much no- 
tice of it, even, at the height of its Splendor. But i! 
it be at any time by the Interpofition of the Eartr 
Eclipfed , and difcover the defeás of its Body, not a 
before illuminated by the Sun , but dark and opacous 
immediately all Mens Eyes are upon it, all obferve it 
nay, this Accident Curiofity long before anticipates 
and meafures its Steps every moment. What are Princes 


Vol.! A Prince fbotiU le afllired that his Defefts&c. 9 ? 

bur a kind of Terreftrial Planets and Moons, on which 
that Divine Sun of Juilice diffufes its Rays for the Go- 
vernment of the Earth ? For if thofe Stars have Power 
over things , thefe have over minds. This I imagine 
made the Terfian Kings endeavour by a fort of falie 
Rays to imitate the Form of the Sun and Moon } to 
make themielves efteemed equal to thofe Planets. Sa- 
for, one of them in a Letter to the Emperor Conftant'ws, 
called himfelf Brother to the Sun and Moon ( 1 ). 
Princes , their Dignity makes confpicuous among 
other Men , as placed m the higheft Orbs of Power 
and Empire, and fo expofed to all Mens Cenfures. 
They are Coloffi, or vail Statues, whofe Parts can't bear 
the leaft Diiproportion one to another , but others 
Eyes will prefently be upon it. They ought therefore 
to be very circumipecl: in their A&ions, lince they are 
the Objeás of the whole World's Attention ; and tho* 
their good ones pais fometimes without Remark , their 
Faults will never efcape Obfervation. Curiofity em- 
ploys a hundred Eyes, and far more Ears, to penetrate 
Princes moil Secret Thoughts. They feem like that 
Stone in Zackariab-, upon which were Seven Eyes (2). 
For which reafon, in the higheft Grandeur there is leaft 
Liberty (5). 

The Prince's Hand keeps time in that Mu ileal Con- 
fort, . which good and prudent Government makes • if 
this time be not regular and even , there arifes a Con- 
fufion of Voices, and the Harmony is difordered in 
others, in that all follow the Motion of that. Hence 
'tis, that States generally refemble their Princes , and 
fooner the ill than the good ,• for as Subje¿b ufe ío 
carefully to obferve their Vices, they make an Imprei- 
fion on their Minds, and are eafily afterwards i mit a ted 
out of Flattery. For Vicious Princes not only commit 

£l) Rex Regum Sapor, paniceps fiierum -, <& frater foiis, & Lur,£j 
Conjiantisfrairimeofalut.m. Amnuin. Marcel, lib 4. (-j ) Zach. 3.9. 
(3) -ftf' magno imperio \rsciiti in excelfo átatern agunt , to <umqne jaH* 
■lunHi metales novére , va máxima, fort mi minima itcemúi ejt. 


96 A Trhcejhouldle affured that his Defefts Vol. I. 
Vices themfelves , but infufe them into their People, 
and are more blameable for the Example than the 
Fault j and experience tells us, that bad Habits com- 
monly do more mifchief than the very beft do good • 
for fuch is the perverie Inclination of our Nature, that 
it rather itudies to imitate Vices than Virtues. How 
Great, how Excellent, were thofe of Alexander the 
Great ? Yet , the Emperor CaracaUa ftrove to refemble 
him in nothing but that Habit he had of leaning his 
Head on his Left Shoulder. Though, indeed, ibme of 
a Prince's Vices prejudice himfelf only; others affect 
alfo the Commonwealth, as Tacitus has obferved in Vi- 
tellltts and Otho (4). Yet they are all extreaml y pre- 
judicial to Subjects by the Example they give. Our 
eafy Tempers are biafs'd by Princes (f)>* we follow 
their Example, whether they be Good or Evil, like 
thofe Wheels in Ezekiel's Vifion , which in all things 
exa&ly followed the Motion of the Cherubims (6). 
Each Action of Princes ieems to be a Command to be 
obeyed by Imitation ( 7 ). Subjects imagine they do 
their Prince an agreeable piece of Service in imitating 
his Vices, and feeing theíé are Mailers of the Will; 
Flattery eafily perfwades her felf this muft be the way 
to gain it. Thus Tigcttinus grew daily more Bold and 
Confident, thinking his ill Practices would be leis un- 
acceptable, if he could engage his Prince (Nero) to be 
his Affociate in them ?( 8 ). By this means 'tis the 
Commonwealth is difordered, and Virtue confound- 
ed. Princes ihould therefore lead fuch a Life, fo form 
their Manners, that all may learn by them to be Vir- 
tuous and Honelt ,♦ which advice they have given them 
by King Jlpbonfo, in the Sixth of his Law. 

(4) ViteUiut ventre % fy gula fibi ipfi hoflis : Otho luxu, fruitta, audd- 
t'ta Reipub. exitiofior ducebatur. Tac.2.Hift. (5 J Flexibites in quamcunqu; 
pa< tern ducimur a principibus, atque, ut ita dtcatn % fequentes fumus. Pil n. 
in Paneg. (6) Ezek. 10. 16. (7) Ea conditio prweipum, ut quicquid 
faciant , prácipere vidcantur. Quintil. (8} Validiorq'te indies Tigeütnn< % 
<¿y matas artes quibus polk bat •, grathres ratus, fi principem focietate fee» 
lens objlringertt. Tac. 14. Aon. 


fcfól.í. will le the Suljéft ofOhloquy. gy 

For if Vices extinguifh the Lamp of Virtue in a 

5 rince , who ought like a Beacon to give Light to all , 

md ihew them the fecureft Courfe to Sail in , he can- 

iot avoid da ining again ft Rocks the VeiTel of the 

Ikmimoñwealth ; it being imponible for that Govern- 

nent to be well ordered , where the Prince has aban- 

loned himfelf to Vice: For, fays King Alphenfo, the 

nature of Vice is fuch , that the more a Man ufes it y the 

tore h» loves it. 

The People eafily flight and contemn Laws, if they 

e him that is the very Soul of them not obferve them. 

Thus, as the Moon's Eclipfes prejudice the Earth , fo 

le Prince's Faults are the Deíírudion of his Kingdom : 

("or the Puniihment due to them, God Almighty gene- 
illy infii<5is upon the Subje&s too , and that deferved- 
r , for that in following his Example , they make 
íemfelves Acceifary to the fame Crimes; as 'tis rela- 
:d in Scripture of the People of ifrael under Jero¿ 

)am (^' j 

The bare Shadow of an ill A&iori , which obicured 

ing Roderigo's Fame, kept the Liberty of all Spain in 

•arknefs for many Years,* wherefore that barbarous 

uftom óf the Mexicans is in fome meaiure excufable ¿ 

ho at the Inauguration of a New King, obliged him 

11. \ take an Oath he would Adminifter Juftice, not op- 

eis his Subjeóts ; that he would be in War ftrenuous 

id valiant : íñ a word, that he would f take care the 

in continued his Courfe, and preierved his Splendor; 

at the Clouds fho'uld give Rain, and the Rivera Water, 

d that the Earth fnould produce its Fruit plentifully. 

)r the Sun himfelf obeys a Holy Prince, as Jojlm* 

perienced for a Reward of his Virtue, and the Earth 

more than ordinary Fertile out of Gratitude, in a 

lanner to the Juftice of Kings towards their People.- 

i lis is what Homer would lignify by thefe Ver fes ; 


",j '9) ^ nc * l ' ie Lord ihill ghc Ifrael up, becaufe of the Sias of 
•nboam , who did fin , and made Ifrael 10 i'ia. i Kings i^. ió». 
¡Lop. Gamar, 

H fk 

9 8 A Prince fhouU he ajfured that his Defers, VolS 

The King, who takes Religion for his Guide ; 
Who dees for s Sub j eels wholtfome Laws provide } # 
For him the willing Earth fhews all its Stock, 
Corn, Wine, and Fruit • for him the teeming Flock 
Brings double Births ,• the Sea opens all its Cells : 
Where Jujlice reigns , their Peace and Plenty dwells. 

The goodnefs of a Year is not to be judged of fc 
>much by good Fruit, as the Juftice of the Prince (10) 
And 'tis very much the Opinion of the Vulgar , thai| 
thoíé who Govern them, are the only Caufe of theú 
Happineís or Mifery ; nay , they often impute to th<! 
Prince , even Cafualities , as the Roman People did ■ 
Tiberius ( 1 1 ). 

Let not a Prince perfwade himíélf that his Vio? 
will be left cenfured , for fuffering them to go unpu 
riiihed in others, or having them in common with tto 
People , as 'tis related JVttiz,a did : For though Subject 
love libertinifm , they hate the Author of it; whicL 
was the reafon it coil him afterwards his Life, beiqj| 
by all Men hated for his fcandalous way of livinl 
What we ufually Cenfure in others as highly Baíé arj 
Infamous, in our felves we fcarce allow to be Infirm* 
ties of Nature. The greater): Defect in our íelves w 
eaiily connive at, but in a Looking-Glafs can't fuffc 
the leaft Spot. Such a one is a Prince, in whofe Perty 
His Subjects have a view of themíélves, nor is any thin 
more unpleafant to them, than to fee him fullied wit 1 
Vice. Nero was not at all left infamous for havin 
many Companions in his Debaucheries; however r 1 
thought thereby to avoid Scandal (12). 

Nor fhould Princes imagine themfelves fecure froi 
a felf-confcioufnefs of their good Actions j for who 


(10) Annum bertum non tarn de bonk fruflibus, quam de jufle*r epu 
tibas exijUmandum. Boctius. C ' O Of* mos vu l&° f'MHtta ad cnlp 
tfabentes. Tac. 4. Ana. Qn") tXatufaux dedeens emotiri, ji piares j 
d»JJet, Tac. 14.. Aüa-. 


v*ol. I. will le the Suljeá of Otloquy'. £# 

»ver the People can't inform themíelves óf their Adri- 
ans, they begin nicely to examine them , and always 
put the worft Interpretation upon them ; wherefore 'tis 
lot enough for them to do well , but neceffary, alfo, 
ftat the means they ufé have no appearance of Evil. 
r\nd how will that Man have any thing fecret, who 
bán't be without his own Grandeur , and a Retinue of 
Qourtiers, nor do any thing alonen whofe Liberty 
Jraws with it fo many Fetteri and Golden Chains, 
iyhofe noiíé every one hears? This was iignifTedin the 
píerfon of the High-Prieft , by thofe little Bells that; 
iung round the bottom of his Garment, leaft he Ihould 
forget that his Steps were expofedtó all Mens Ears (13). 
ftll the Guards both within and without á Prince's Pa- 
ace,all the Courtiers that attend him in his Chamber 6i 
31ofet,aré íb many Spies of his Words and AcYionsjnayy 
md very Thoughts,attentively observing all his Geftures^ 
md the Motions of his Countenance , that difcoverer 
>f the Heart. Thus, according f o the Pfalmift's Ex'pref. 
ion, Their Eyes look tinto bis Hands (14). But if they ob- 
erve any failing in a Prince, though they pretend to 
:onceal it , yet they love to difcover it , either to get; 
he Reputation of Perfóns dífcreet, and well acquainted 
fthh the Government, or that of Zealots. Here they- 
pok on one another, and no one daring to open hiá' 
^íouth, they fpeak molt by their Silence. The Se- 
cret boils and bubbles within them, agitated by the 
iervent defire they have of revealing it , till at la'ft it 
bverflows (if)» Tongues run to Ears. This Mari 
3ifclofes it to that , having firit obliged him by Oath 
o Secrecy ; that in the fame- manner to another $ io 
|hat while no body knows, 'tis known to all. Thus , 
is 'twere in a moment Calumny pafles from the Clofet 

(13) And he compaffed him with Pomegranates, and wirh goldctt 
Bells round about , rhac there might be a found , and a noife made, 
ihat might be heard in the Temple, ¿re/. 4$. 9. (14) Pfcl. 122. 2. 
£lO His word was in mine heart as a burning fire IIV'jc up in my 
Jones , and I was weary with forbearing , and I could not nay, 
fir. 20, ?. 

Ha ttf 

¿00 A Prince fowldle affured that his Defefls Vol. I 

to the Offices, thence to the Streets and Pnblick Places 
But what wonder is it, if this happens among Dome- 
nicks , when Princes are not alíiired , even , of theii 
own faithfulnefs, however defirous they are to conceal 
their Vices and Tyrannies ; for 'their own Confcienct 
accufes them; as it happened to Tiberius , who coulc 1 
not forbear difcloíing to the Senate the Miferies which* 
he. fuffered from his Crimes (16). However, Prince! 
ought not to be difcouraged , if by their Induftry and 
Diligence they feem not to fatisfy every one; for thai 
is a thing impoilible, nor will ever Paflion, Envy, and 
the fo different Judgment of the Mob concur to com- 
mend him, much lefs can this our frail Nature in all 
things a& without Fault and Error. Is any one more 
careful and follicitous in giving Light to this World ¡ 
any more perfect than that Eye of it , that Prince ol 
Light, the Sun, who gives Being, Colour, and Beauty 
to all things ? Yet not withftan ding the Splendor of his 
Rays , Curioiity diicovers therein I know not wha$ 
Spots and Obicurities. This care of the Prince to re- 
gulate his own Life and Actions, ought to be extended 
fo thofe aiib of his MinifterS , the lleprefentatives of 
him, in as much as both God and Men hold him to ba 
rib left obliged to do the one than the other. Tis not tha 
Moon's defed, what it fuffers in an Lclipfe, but that of 
die Earth,which interpofes its Shadow betwixt it and'thd 
Suri;'neverthelefs every one imputes it to the Moon; 
and this Shadow only is fufficient to darken its Rays, 
and Create fo much prejudice to things here below; 
Prince's Vices we only attribute to his depraved Will $ 
but to let Crimes in his Minifters go unpunifhed , is 
efteemed bafenefs of Mind. The vehemence of the 
Paffions and Affe&ions is fome excufe for our particular 
faults, but to indulge them in others, is wholly inexcu- 
fab!e. A Vicious Prince may have Virtuous Minifters./ 
but if he begin to connive with them, both he and they 

(ió~) Quippe Tibermm non forturct, non folitudines protegebunt , 
i merit* pttfrrtSi fnafqw ipfe pañas fat ¿retar. Tac. i. Ann. 



VoiL will he the SaljeS of Ohloquy. ioi 

will be bad. Hence it lbmetimes happens, that an ill 
Prince's Government may be good, provided he take' 
:are others follow not his Example : For that Rigour 
Puffers not any A&ion to be mimick'd out of Flattery, 
aor lets that natural Inclination of the Will prevail, 
yy which every one loves to refemble Princes by imi- 
:ating their Actions. Grant ilicha Prince bad for him- 
!elf, he will be good for the State. To give abfolute 
Liberty to Minifters , is wholly to abandon the Reins 
>f Government. Wicked Princes are as cyfficuk to be 
aired as tainted Lungs,* in thatRemedie^jjcan't be ap- 
>lied to them. | For thefe confi|t in hearingfand feeing, 
>oth which they are equally averfe to ,• nay, love not 
hat others ínoiild hear or fee; at leaft>thei^ Domefticks 
tnd Miniirers, ,who rather applaud Princes, Vices, don't 
iiffer it; but as the Ancients were'uíéd*to make a 
;reat noife with Brais and Cymbals , while the Mccn 
vas in Eclijpíé (17); ib they malve it their bufineis 
vith Mufick, and other Divertifements , to amuze the 
knee's Mind, chiefly to keep/his Ears continually em- 
tloyed, leaft the Peoples Glamours, or the Voice of 
[ruth , which difcovers Cheats, íhould reach them : 
Ind laftly, that the Prince being plunged in the fame 
''ices with themfelves , there may be none to Reprove 
nd Correa them. 

07) Igitur ms fono y tub arum , cormumque concent* ftrtfere , pout'' 
¡endMior, obfeuriorve aut mcerere. Tac 6. Ann. 


H j E M- 

ioi Vol.L 


' f T T HERE> fcarce any one Infrrument can by Us felf 
■*• make a Work of Art entirely perfect. What the 
Hammer can't , the File finifhes. Yea , faults of the 
Loom the Shears ( the Body of the prefent Emblem ) 
corred^ grid give an additional neatnefs and beauty to 
Cloath. The Cenfure of others re&ifies our Manners ; 
they would be full of Knots, did not the Tongue clip 
them offc ! Thofe whom the Law its felf can't Curb or 
Reform, oftentimes fear of Blame only reitrain,that be- 
ing the Spur of Virtue, and Bridle to keep it in the right 
way. Reproofs upon the obedient Ears of a prudent 
Prince^ are ( as Solomon fáys ) like Ear-rings of Gold and 
glittering Pearls X0> wonderfully Ornamental and great 

CO Pfor, 15. ix. 


Vol. T. The Ohloquy of the People Jhould loth fixe. \o\ 
Accompliihmentsto him. There's no more mortal Enemy 
to Vice than Cenfure, it has far more Efficacy than 
Exhortation and Inftru&ion ,° 'for Exhortation propofes 
at a diftance future Fame and Glory ,• Cenfure imme- 
diately accufes what is Bafe and Dimonou rabie , and 
infliíls prefent Punilhment , by divulging the Infamy. 
That incites us to do well j this not to do ill, and the 
Mind more eafily abftains from what is Ignominious , 
than it enterprizes a thing Difficult and Honourable. 
In effed: , 'tis with reafon Honour is reputed to coniift 
in ihe Opinion of others, that we may dread that Opi- 
nion, and feeing our A&ions depend upon each Man's 
Judgment , make it our bufinefs to fatisfy all. Thu?., 
although Murmur be bad in its felf, \tis however good 
for the State ,• in that there's nothing has more Power 
and Influence over Magistrates and Princes. What 
would not Power dare, did not Blame .refi ft it ? What 
Crimes would not that fall into, were there no fucli 
thing as this? There's no better Counfellors in the 
World than Murmurs , for they proceed from experi- 
ence of Evils. Could Princes hear them, undoubtedly 
things would fucceed better. Satyrs and Libels I dare 
not altogether approve, for they generally either exceed 
the bounds of Truth, or give rife to Scandals, Tumults, 
and Seditions ; however poíííbly fome allowance ought 
to be made therein, in confideration of the good Éf- 
fe&s they have. Obtre&ation is a fign of liberty in a 
Commonwealth, for in that which Tyranny oppreffes, 
'tis by no means tolerated. 'Tis a happy time when 
you have liberty to think what you pleafe , am] fpeak 
what you think (2). 'Tvvould be unjuft in him tisaV- 
governs to deiire to put a Door upon his Subje&s Lips^ 
and forbid them to complain under the Yoke of 
their Slavery. Let them Murmur, let them Revile, 
while they let us Reign, faid Pope Sixtus V. to thofe 
who toid him how ill Rome fpoke of him. indeed, not 

(1) Kara temporum fcc!icit.ite, ubi [entire qua veils, & qua f:r.ti:is 
freer e lictt, Tac. 1, Hilt. 

H 4 to 

1 04 The Ohloquy of the People ¡bou] J loth Vol. 1 
to be concerned or moved at all by Detra&ion , wer< 
to have caft off all Sentiments of Honour ,• than whicr 
nothing is worfe in a Prince., for he then makes a Pleafure 
of Infamy ,• he ought therefore ib to reient them, a: 
thence to, learn fomething, not with a defign of Re- 
venge. How will one be able to put up greater things 
who can't connive at fuch inconfiderable Trifles (%) ¡ 
'Twas no lefs Virtue in the Great Captain f to fuffer 
the Complaints and Clamours of his Army at the Ri- 
ver Garigliano , than undauntedly to withftand fo emi- 
nent a Danger. 'Tis impofiible to reprefs this Licenfe 
and Liberty of the People. Thoíé Princes are miitaken, 
who think by their prefent Power to extinguiih the 
Memory of the following Age, or imagine their Maje- 
ity is able to gild bad Adions (4). Not all Nero's Li- 
berality, nor feigned Piety could wafh away his Infa- 
my, for having fet the City on Fire ($-). Flattery, 
'tis true, can take care that Slanders come not to the 
Prince's Ears , but can't help but there will be Slander- 
ers. A Prince, who forbids his A&ions to be ipoke of, 
renders them fufpe&ed ,• and as the Commonalty are 
apt to prefume the worft, they are pub/iihed for bad. 
Thoíé things are leaft aggravated, which are not much 
valued. Vitellim forbad any one to mention his bad 
Actions ,• hence many, who, if they had been at liber- ' 
ty, would have faid otherwiíé , meerly becauie of the 
Prohibition , ipoke more to his difadvantage (6). A 
Prince ought to pais over Commendations and Inve- 
ctives, ib as not to be tickled with them, nor by thefe 
dejected. If Praifes pleaie him, and he give ear to 

them , every one wHl try to make himfelf Mailer of 

\ ; ' 

f 3) Magnarum rerum curas non difllmulaturos, qui animum etiarq le- 
viffimti advert erent. Tac 13. Ann. f Gonfalvo otCordoua. (4) Quo 
magif focordiam eorum irridere liber, qui prsfenti potenriá, credunt extin- 
guí pojfe etiam fequentis <svi memonam. Tac. 4. Ann. Q$) Non ope 
humana, non largitionibuf, aut Deüm piicamentis qtcedebat infamia, qmn 
jujjum incendium crederetur. Tac. 13. Ami. (6) Probibiri per civitatem 
fermonesy eoque plures, ac ft liceret , vera nawatun , quia vttabamur , 
«trociora vuigavcrnnt. Tac, 3. Hift, 


¡Tol.1.. rep.rove and amend the Prince. 105" 

lis Mind by Flattery j if Murmurers be a difturbance to 
lim, he will decline difficult and glorious Enterprife?, 
md become íluggiíh in his Government) To be vain- 
ly puft up at ones Praifes , is a fign of a (lender Judg- 
ment ; to be offended at every thing, is for private 
Men. To connive at many things is the part of Princes ,♦ 
to pardon nothing, that of Tyrants. This, thofe Of eat 
Emperors, Theodojius, Arcad'ms, and Honor im , very well 
knew when they commanded Rvffinus, their Captain of 
the Guards , not prefently to puniih the Peoples Cla- 
mours againft them ; for, faid they, if they proceed 
From Inconftancy, they are to be deipifed ; if from 
Madnefs or Folly, to be pitied ,• if from Malice , and 
a defign to injure us, to be pardoned (7). Once, while 
jhe Emperor Charles the V. was at Barcelona , an Ac- 
cufation was brought him in Writing againft ibme , 
who had traduced his Actions, in order to confult with 
him about the Sentence to be paífed upon them ,• but he 
inraged at the Perfon who prefented it, threw the Pa- 
per immediately into the Fire , by which he then acci- 
dentally flood and burnt it. It belongs, I know, to a 
Prince to inform himfelf of all things , but nicely to 
examine each Word, is unworthy a generous Breaft (8). 
In the Roman Republick, Actions only were punilhed , 
not Words (9). There's a wide diftance between in- 
confiderately fpeaking and malicioufly acting (ro). The 
Crown would be too Thorny, did the lea it thing prick 
it thus. That Injury, which the Perfon againft whom 
it was defigned, don't look upon as fuch, is very little, 
if at all offenfive. 3 Tis too much eafinefs in the 
Prince, and a iign he has a mean Opinion of himfelf, 
to be moved at every trifling Report ,* and 'tis an ill 
Conicience that incites Men to purúíh Detraiters ; a 
Xlind pure and undefined defpifes things of that Nature. 

* (7) Q¡ioni¿tm ft id ex levitate procefferit conremnendum eft ; fi ex 
¡nfania, miferatione digniffimum, fi ab injuria, remittendum. L. unica C. (i 
quis imperar. Maledic. (8) Omnia ¡cue non omnia exequi. Tac. n\ Vic. 
Agr. (9) Fatfa arguebantur , diña impune erant. Tac. I. Ann. 
(io_) Vana a fi.elejiis l diila a malejiciis diffcrnnt. Tac. 3. Ann. 


i 06 The Olloquy of the People ¡houU hoth Vol. I 
If the Afpcrfion be true, the Prince's Amendthent mud 
wipe it off ; if falfe, it will of its íélf difappear. F01 
Contempt makes fuch things wear off; Refentment i 
a feeming acknowledgment of them (n). The Roma* 
Senate commanded Cremtttiufs Annals burnt, 
which made the People more eager and defirous to reaa 
them. 'Twas the fame with the Scurrilous Pamphlets 
of Vejentus , which were eagerly fearch'd for , and fre* 
quently read, while not to be had without danger, but 
by being liccnfed, ibon forgot (12). Curipiity fubmits 
to no Judges, fears no Punilhment. What is moil for- 
bid, it chiefly engages. The very Prohibition inhances 
the Value of Satyrical Pieces ; and when Men of Wit 
are punilhed , their Authority increafes (1;). Nor 
have thoíé Kings , who have ufed fuch Rigour , procu- 
red themfelves any thing but Pifgrace , but to the Au- 
thor's Honour and Efteem (14). Now, as 'tis much 
For a Prince's advantage to know what 111 others fpeak 
of him, fo it is not a little prejudicial to be too ready 
to hear Defamers: For as we eafily believe what is 
accuíéd in others to be true ; 'tis very obvious for the 
Prince, either to be deceived , make ibme unjuft Refo« 
lution , or err in giving Judgment. This is a thing 
very dangerous, efpecially in Courts, where Envy, andj 
{the gaping after Preferment, and the Favour of PrincesJ 
are Whet-ftones to Defamation ,♦ and Courtiers arc] 
ufually like thofe Locufts in the Revelations, having 
Mens Faces , but Lions Teeth , with which they gnaw) 
and feed on Honour as Ears of Corn (1 f). The Holyj 
Spirit compares their Tongues to a iharp Sword O 6)1 
as alfo to Arrows that privily ftrike the Innocent (17)- 
bavid deftroyed them as Enemies (18). No Courts 

Qi\) Namque fpreta exolefcunt, (i ir afeare agnfta videntur. Tac. 4. 
Add. ( r a) Conquifitit leilitaiofque donee cum perkuh par abantar, m«? 
Ikentia babendi oblivionem attulit. Tac. 4. Ann. (13) Funitis ingeniti 
gltfcit Autbentas. Tac 4. Ann. (14} Keque aliud externi Reges, out 
qui eadem fávit'ta ufi font, nifi dedecus fibi % atque illts gltriam peperere. 
Tac. 4. Ann. (i$) ReV. 9. 5, (16) Pfa!, 5$. 5. (17J Pfal. 10. 2. 
CiC) Pial. 100. <S, 


Volt. reprove and amend the Prime. 107 

where they are tolerated, can be at reft; and their 
Whifpers will give the Prince no lefs trouble than Pub- 
lick Affairs. The Remedy is, not to hear them, letting 
two Porters at the Ears , Reafon and Judgment , that 
they be not opened without confiderable occafion. A 
Guard is no leis neceflary at the Ears, than the Palace- 
Gates ; and yet Princes are mighty follicitous about 
theie, take little or no care about them. He that giyes 
ear too eafiíy to Detra&ers, makes them audacious. No 
one traduces others , but before one who loves to hear 
it. It would do well alio to bring there Bablers, and 
the Períbn accuíéd , face to face , telling him what 
they fay , that for the future they may be aihamed to 
be the Authors of Diicord. This T if I miftake not, is 
meant by the Holy Spirit in thefe Words , Hedge thy 
Ears about tyhb Thorns (19): That he that ihould put 
his Mouth to them , to tell malicious Stories , might 
there find his Puniihment. The Prince has reafon to be 
jealous of one, who dares not publickly (peak what lie is 
not afraid to whifper (20); and although this care may 
conceal abundance of Truths from the Prince, which* 
indeed, 'tis for his advantage, there being many Dome- 
ftick things, 'twere better for him to be ignorant of 
than to know, and the beft way to baniih all Defama- 
tion in general; yet, when Accufations proceed not 
from Malice, but a kind of Zeal to ferve the Prince, 'tis 
by all means requifite to hear, and well examine them, 
looking on them as Informations abfolutely neceiTary, 
not only for good Government , but his own Security 
alio. Hence the Emperor Conftantwe, in a Law for that 
purpofe, aííign| a Reward to thofe who would accufe 
his Minifters and Domeiticks of .any real Crime (21). 

("19) Eccl. 27. 13. Lac. Vcrf. (20) Er banc velun generalem tibi 
conflituas regular», ut ommm qui palam ver etur dicer e, fufptthm habeat. 
S. Bern. I. 4. de Conf. ad Eug. c. 6. (21) s * <?"** e fl cujufawque loci 
erdinH. dignitatis, qui ¡e in quemcwque Jndicum, Comfiium, Amicnrum, tfyt 
Palatinorum tneorwn aliqmd veraciier fa manifelte probare pojfe conjidit, 
quod non integre, atque jujie geffijje videatur , intrepidm , a'q^e fecmas 
audi at, intetpeUet me, jpfeaudiam omnia, ipfe a¿no¡ca¡n, fa ji fuer it com' 
frobatutn, ipfe me vindica bo. L. 4. C. de Accuf» 


ic8 The Obloquy of the People fhould loth Vol. I 

This is abfolutely neceflary, that the Prince may know 
all that paffes in his Palace,at his Council-Board, and in 
(lie Courts of Judicature, where Fear flops the Mouth, 
and the Favours of the Prince conferred by his Minifters 
make the Perfons gratified dumb, and not dare to difco- 
ver their Faults, as if, forfooth , this were to acknow- 
ledge the good Office, and to fliew their Gratitude, 
which is rather to be efteemed Difloyalty and Treafon : 
For that Obligation they lie under to undeceive their 
Prince , and if they obferve his Minifters to be faulty 
to inform him^is a natural Obligation of Fidelity, and 
more binding than any other. Tis an infinite preju- 
dice for a Prince to diftribute his Favours by the Hands 
of his Favourites • for thefe buy, as it were, others at 
the price of them, who are affifting to the neglect of 
their Duty, at leaft approve and defend it,* atid thus de- 
luding the Prince , are the reaibn he continues his Af- 
fection to them. The Ancient Republicks very fcnfible 
how conducive Satyrs were to reftrain Vice by the fear 
of Infamy, allowed them upon Publick Theatjjes ¿ but 
thefe from a general Cenfure of Mens Morals infen- 
iibly degenerated into particular Reflections, not with- 
out confiderable Injury to the Honour of fome ¿ hence 
proceeded Factions, and from them popular Infurrecti- 
ons : For as the Holy Spirit fays, a backbiting Tongue 
difturbs the Peace , and is the Ruin of whole Families 
and Cities (22). So, lea ft the Correction of Manners 
fhould depend on the Malice of the Tongue or Pen, 
there were inftituted Ceníbrs, who by Publick Authority 
took cognizance of every one's Behaviour, and correct- 
ed their Vices. That Office was in thofe times of great 
ufe, and continued long in Vogue, becaufe its Jurifdi- ¿ 
¿Hon was upheld by Modefty ¿ however in ours 'tis 
impoffible to be executed : For Pride and Libertinifm 
would prefently make all the Oppofition to it imagina- 
ble, as they now refifr the Magiftracy, however armed 

(zz) Curfe the whifpcrcr , and double tongued ; for fuch have 
dettroyed many chat were ac Peace, Ecclef. 28. 13, 


Vol.!. reprove and amend the Prince. 109 

with the beft Laws in the World and Publick Autho- 
rity, and confequehtly Cenlórs would be ridiculous, 
not without great danger to the Stare ; there being no- 
thing more hurtful , nothing that makes Vice more ar- 
rogant and infulting, than for iiich Remedies to be ap- 
plied to it, as Delinquents turn into Contempt and 
Ridicule. But as the Office of Cenibr was introduced 
for the Reformation of Manners , fo was it alio to 
Regifter the Goods and Eftates of every Citizen , and 
to take the number of them ; and although that Cuitom 
prevailed a long time , both among the Greeks and La- 
tins, with great Advantage to the Com mbn wealth, yet 
at this day 'twould be very odious and fubjea to 
vaft Inconveniencies } * for to know fo accurately the 
Number and Effects of Subjects , is of no ufe , but to 
burthen them with more Taxes and Impoíítions. That 
numbring of the. People of Ifrad under King David, 
God punifhed as a moft heinous Crime (2;): For what 
is fo hard and inhuman, as by publishing and pro- 
claiming every ones Eftate at once, to difcover the ad- 
vantages of Poverty, and expoie Riches to Envy, Ava- 
rice, and Rapine- But if in thofe States, the Office of 
Cenfor, could heretofore be executed without theie 
Inconveniencies ,* 'twas becaufe its being newly inftitu- 
te& made it generally received and approved, or elíé 
becaafe People were then lefs proud and aiTuming, kfe 
Rebels to Reafon, than in thefe our Times (24). 

(23) 1 Sam. 24. 10. (24) Quid enim tain durum, tamqite inhumo- 
mnt ejt quant publications pmpaqwk rerum familiarium , & paup¿ruux 
detegi utilitatenty & inv'uha exponer e divitiar. L. 2. C. quan. & quii>» 
<jaam. pars. 


í* o 

Y 01. 1. 


HOW I wiih I could read oh all Princes éreaífsy 
the Symbol of the prefent Emblem, and that as 
Balls of Fire flying in the Air imitate the Splendor 
of jhe Stars , and mine immediately from their being 
thrown out of the Hand , till they turn to Aihes ; fo 
in them alio ( for the Holy #pirit compares them to a 
bright Fire (i)) would continually burn the defireof 
Fame (2)^ nor ihould they much care, for that Flame's 
wanting Matter to feed on, or that what burns moft 
fiercely, is withal iboneft confumed. For though 
length of Life be the common defire of Man and Beair, 
yet have thefe no other end than meer living, but 
Man of living uprightly. 'Tis no happineis to live but 

(1) tcclcf, 50. p. (2) Fsx mentis hmtftx ghria. 


vol. T. A Fnnce jbould value his Reputar ton, &c. lit 

:o know how to live, nor does he live moft, who lives 
longeíí, but who lives beftj for Life is not meafiired 
by time, but the ufe that's made on't. He, whofe Life 
like a Star in the midft of a Cloud, or like the Full 
Moon, ihines upon others with Rays of Bounty and 
Munificence in its Seaibn , does undoubtedly live 
long (?) : As on the contrary, he who lives only to 
himfelf, though he lives to a great Age, lives but little. 
The Benefits and Improvements which flow from a 
Prince upon the Stare, number the Days of his Life (4), 
thofe who live without them , Oblivion dedu&s from 
the Sum (7). Titus Fefpafian, the Emperor, calling to 
mind once at Supper , that he had done nothing for 
any one that Day, pronounced that remarkable and 
¡uftly admired Sentence, Friend, I have loft a Day. And 
tis reported of Peter , King of Portugal , that he was 
WOnt to lay, That he deferves not to be a King , who does 
not each day heftow fome Favour or Benefit upon the State. 
No Man's Lire's fo ihort, but it affords time enough to 
execute fome glorious Exploit. A brave Spirit in one 
Moment refolves , and in few more executes its Refo- 
lutions. What matters it if he falls in the attempt , if 
the Memory he left behind raiíés him to Life Eternal. 
It only can be called Life which is bounded by Fame, 
not that which confifts in Body and Vital Warmth , 
which no iboner begins y but begins to die too. Death 
?s naturally equal to all, but is difiinguiihed by the 
Glory or Oblivion we leave to Pofterity. Who dying 
makes Renown a Subftitute for Life, lives ftill. Strange 
force of Virtue, which even againft Nature, makes 
that which is of its felf fading and periihable , Immor- 
tally glorious. Tacitus did not think Agrícolas Life 
fhort, though he was fnatch'd away in the prime of his 
¡Years : for his Glory prolong'd his Life (ó). Let no 

(3) He was as the Morning Srar in the midft of a Cloud , and as 
¡the Moon at the Full. Ecclef. $c 6. (4) Ecclef. 41, 16. ( 5 _) The 
number of years is hidden to eppn flor?. Job 1 5.20. (6) %ujrq.%.nn 
medoin ftaib meg'& £tatis ereftKJ, quantum ad gi riam hnyftmHin xvus* 
féregit. lac. in Yit. Agrie, 


1 1 x A Prime fhouU value his Reputation 
one defpife or flight Pofthumous Fame , for in as mu< 
as the Mind covets it, 'tis an acknowledgement 
one time or other 'tis to be enjoyed • but they are 
the wrong, who think it fufficient , if they leave it 
hind them in Statues , or in Pofterity ,* for in one 
fading , in t'other 'tis none of theirs. That only 
their own which fprings from Actions , which if not 
extraordinary Merit no Praife ; for Fame is the 
Daughter of Admiration. To be Born, only to make 
One in the World , is for the Vulgar Rout ,• 'tis for! 
Princes to appear perfpicuoufly eminent among others. 
Others ftudy what they think their own Intereft, but the' 
utmoft and only aim of Princes fhould be Glory (?).■ 
Avarice, and defire of Riches, fill their Breafts ; but, 
a Prince mould be inflamed by an Ambition of] 
Fame (8). 

A heavenly Heat ivffires our "Prince's Veini. Virg,, 

A generous Spirit knows no mean ; 'twill be either, 
Cafar , or no body ¿ either a mining Star , or a dark] 
Cinder ; nor will this , if honourably extinguifhed,] 
ihine lefs glorioufly on Obelisks, than t'other. Norj 
indeed, is that Soul truly great, which, like the befl 
Gunpowder fired , does not immediately burfl 
the Body that includes it. The Breaft is too narrow 
to contain a brisk and active Soul. Garci Sancho 
King of Navarre , going to ingage the Enemy, trem , 
bled all over, yet in the Fight behaved himfelf bravelj ] 
and coüragioufly. His Body dreaded that great Muí 
titude of Enemies , into which his Courage prepare» 
to carry it. Let it therefore be the whole Aim of 
Prince to live glorioufly, that he may be a Light in th ¡ 

(7) Caterh mortalibus, in eo flare confllia, quid fibi ctnducere putei 
Principum diver f am ejfe [irtem, qúbus pr£cipua rerum ad famam d« 
genda. Tac. 4. AOn. (8) A*gcntum quidem , (¿r pecunia eji commiti 
omnium poffeffio , at btmejinm> ¿7 ex eo laus, <¿r gloria Deorum cjl é , 
coram, qui a <tik proximi cenjentut. Pol)biui. 


SToLí. more than his Life. 113 

World (9). All other things will come with eafe, but 
Fame not without Affiduity and Application (10). 
But if in the beginning of his Reign he lofés his Repu- 
tation, he will very difficultly recover it ; for what the 
People once conceive of him , they will never after- 
wards forget. He, who lets too great a value upon 
Life , avoids Toils and Dangers, without which two, 
Honour can never be attained. This Tacitus obferved 
ii King Mar abofo , who quitting his Kingdom , lazily 
ind ihamefully fpent his Days in Italy, loiing much of 
lis Reputation through a too fond defire of Life (1 1). 
Let a Prince fo Itere his Courfe , be the Sea Calm or 
Fempeftuous, as ftill to keep his Eye upon that ikining 
¡Jeacon of Glory ; ever and anon calling to mind (that 
K may admit, or think of nothing unworthy himfelf ) 
¡hat Hiftory will publifh his "Fame, his Exploits and 
plorious Atchievements to all- Ages , and to all Nati- 
ons. Princes have no other Superior than God, and 
fame ,• they alone by the fear of Punifhment and In- 
Hmy oblige them to Ad honourably ; for which rea- 
*on they often fear Hiftoriáns more than their Enemies, 
ind are more aw'd by the Pen than the Sword. King 
$althafar , though he faw only the, Hand and Pen, as 
pet not knowing what they would write , was ib dif- 
)fder'd , That he quaked all over , and the Joints of his 
Back were loofened (12). But if they neither regard 
Sod nor Glory , nothing Glorious or Honourable can 
5$ expected. For who e're flights Honour , defpifes 
Vjirfue. A generous deiire of Glory avoids the ble- 
mifh. of Vice or Injuíticé. Nor is there a more Savage 
Brute than thac Prince, who is neither moved by re- 
norfe of Confcience, or defire of Glory. Nor is there, 
íevertheleís , no danger in Glory ,• for its brightneis 
)ften dazles Princes, and leads them headlong into 
i , - 

(9) Let your Lighr fo fh'me before Men, thac diey m3y fee your 
ood Works, Matth. 5. 12. (10) Cetera Prinápibus jíatim adeffe % 
num infatiabiliter parandum , pmjperam fui memonam. Tac. 4. Ann. 
1 1) Confemitque y multum immutata darhate, obnintiam vivendi cupiJ'i- 
iem. Tac. 2. Ann. (n) Dan. 5. 6. 

I Rafeneá 

ii4 A P rince flould value his Reputation, &c Vol.1. 

Raíhneís and Temerity. That which feems Honour- 
able and Glorious to them, is Vanity or Folly, fome- 
times Pride or Envy , and oftentimes Ambition and 
mere Tyranny. They propofe great matters, egg'd on 
by the Flatteries of their Minifters, who fet before 
them many things under the appearance of Glory, 
concealing in the mean time the unjuft and inconveni- 
ent Means by which they are to be attained ; by which 
being feduced, they oftentimes find themfelves deluded 
and ruined. 

That Glory is fafe which fprings from a generou* 
Spirit, and keeps within the Bounds of Reafon and Pof- 
fibility. Since therefore Honour and Infamy are th€ 
ftrongeft Excitements to good Acüons, and that both 
are by Hiftory delivered down to Pofterity ; 'twould 
be convenient by Rewards propofed to excite Hiftori- 
ans to write , and to countenance Typography , the 
true Treafury of Glory, where the Rewards of grea 
A&ions are depofited to future Ages»- 





5 yíS ah old faying, Purple is to be judged by Purple» 1 
-*• by which the Ancients íigniñed, that things were 
then beft diftinguiihed , when one was compared with 
the other , efpecially if they were fuch as could not 
eafily be diftinguiih'd by themfelves. Thus Merchants' 
do , who compare Colour to Colour , that they may 
ihew each other , and that a furer Judgment may be 
given of both. In the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus y 
there was a Cloak (a Prefent of fome King from Perfia) 
pf fuch an excellent Grain, that the Robes of the Rowan 
Ladies, nay, even of the Emperor Aunlian himfelf, 
Compared with it, look'd as faint as Aihes. If your 
Royal Highnefs, when raifed to the Crown, would ex"* 
mine , and know the true worth of the Royal Purple , 
éxpofe it not to thefalfe Light of Flatterers and fawning' 

f 2 Knaves y 


5 1 6 Let a Prince compare his own Atlions Vol. 

Knaves, for that will never fliew you its true Colour 
Nor rely too much upon felf-love,for that is like an Eye, 
that fees all things but its felf. 'Twill be therefore n 
ceifary, that as Eyes are known by their own Species 
like Forms reprefénted in a Glafs; ib your Highnefl 
would compare the Luftre of your Diadem to that of 
your Glorious PredeceiTors, ferioufly reflecting if an_ 
Virtues ihine more bright in theirs than yours, by view 
ing your felf in them as in a Glals .( i ). Let you 
Highnefs , I fay , compare your own Actions to thofé 
of your Anceftors, and you will eafily fee the difference 
between yours and theirs, that you may either give a 
true Colour to their Actions , or rejoyce in the Worth 
o£* your own, if in any thing you happen to have 
out-done your PredeceiTors. Let your Royal Highnefs 
therefore pleafe to confider , whether you Equal your 
Father in Courage, your Grandfather in Piety ; Philip 
the Second, in Prudence ; Charles the Fifth, in Great- 
nefs of Spirit; Philip the Firft, in Affability ; Ferdinand 
the Catholick, in Policy; in Liberality, that Alpbonfo, 
who was Nick-named from his broken Hands ; in Ju- 
nice, King Jlpbonfo the Eleventh; and laftly, King 
Ferdinand the Holy, in Religion : And that moreover, 
your Highnefs would be ftir'd up by a generous Emu- 
lation, to a glorious Defire of imitating theie Great 
Men. Quintus Maximus and Puhlius Scipio , were uied 
to fay, that when e're they beheld the Images of their 
Anceftors, their Souls were fired and excited on to 
Virtue : Not that they .were moved by the meer Wax 
or Stone 3 but that comparing their own Actions to 
thofe of others , they could not reft till they equall'd 
them in Glory and Renown. Elogies infcribed on 
Tombs, fpeak not to the Dead , but to the Living : 
They are certain Summaries, which for Memory's fake, 
the Virtue of the Predeceifor leaves to the Succeflbr. 
Mattathias faid , That by calling to mind the Actions 

(t) Tanquam in fpeculo ornare , & ctmfawe vitam ¡Mm ad alien/ts 
wttutni Plirarch. 


Vol.!. with thofe of his Anceftors. \\y 

of their Anceftors, his Sons ihould acquire preíént Glo- 
ry and eternal Renown (2). For which Cauíé alio, 
the High Priefts , who were Princes of the People , 
wore upon their Breafts the Virtues of the Twelve Pa- 
triarchs , their Predeceffors , engraven upon as many 
Stones (2). In effect, it becomes a Prince to vie with 
his Anceftors in Glory, not with his Inferiors , for 'tis 
no praife to excel them , and, to be out- done by" them , 
the greateft Scandal. The Emperor Tiberius obíérved 
as Law, all the Sayings and Exploits of Auguftus ( 4 ). 
Moreover, let your Highnefs compare the Purple you 
wear at preíént , to that you wore formerly ,* for we 
are oftentimes defirous to forget what we have been, 
for fear of upbraiding our felves with what we are. 
Let your Highnefs confider, whether you are grown 
..better or woríé, for we find it often happens,, thafrat 
the beginning of their Reigns , Princes minds are glo- 
rioufly bent upon the Execution of their Office, in 
which afterwards they grow more remifs. Almoft all 
begin their Reigns with Great and Glorious Spirits; 
but at laft by degrees, either they fink under the Weight 
of Affairs, or grow Effeminate by Luxury and Eafe, 
with which they eafily fuffer themfelves to be taken , 
forgetting they are obliged to keep and preferve their 
once gotten Glory. This very thing Tacky* remarks 
in the Emperor Tiberius, that at laft, after a long Ex- 
perience in Affairs, he was altered and ruined by the 
mere force of Government (5). A long Reign creates 
• Pride, and Pride the hatred of the People ; as the fame 
Author obferves in King Vannius (6). Many begin 

(2) Call to remembrance what Ails our Fathers did ia their 
'time, fo fhall ye receive great Honour, andan everhíling Name, 
1 Mace. 2. 52. (3) And in the four Rows cf Stones, was the Glory 
of the Fathers graven , Wifd. 8. 24. Q%) Qui omnia fafta ditfaqn: 
ejus vice legis obfervem. Tac. 4, Ann. (5) An cum Tiber iw poji tant..m 
Terum experientiam vi domina'ionis convulfus, (¿r mutatus fit . Tac.ó.Aim. 
£6) Jfjim* Imperii a* ate clams accepiufque popularibus ; rrjox dm ur nit a- 
tern , in fuperbiam mtfans , ¿r Mfjo accolarwn fimul domejiicis difcordi's 
circumventis. Tac 12. Aon. 

I 2 their 

1 1 8 Let a Trince compare his own Anions Vol. \ 

their Reigns with extraordinary Modefty and Juftice 
but few continue fo ; becauie their Miniiters are Flat- 
terers, by whom they are taught to Ad boldly and un- 
juitly. As it happened to Vefpafian, who in the beginning 
of his Reign was not fo much bent upon Injuftice; un- 
til by the Indulgence of Fortune and Advice of Evi 
Counfellors, he learnt it (7). 

Let your Highnefs compare not only your own Vir- 
tues and Actions, but thole of your Anceftors with one 
another , by confronting the Purple of ibme itain'c 
with Vices, to that of others glolTy and mining with 
great and noble Actions: For Examples never move us 
more than when they are confronted one with another. 
Let your Highneis compare the Royal Robe of King 
7 Hermenigildusy with that of Peter the Second, King of 
Jrragon; one glittering with Stars, and died with Blood, 
which he had glorioufly fpilt in the War againft Lewvi- 
gildus, his Father, who was infected with the Arrian 
Herefy ; the other trampled under the Feet of Horfes 
in a Battle at Girone , when he brought Succours to the 
Alhigenfiam in France. 

Let your Highnefs caft your Eyes back upon paft 
Ages, and you will find Spain ruined by the licentious 
Lives of the Kings, Witiza and Roderick , but recovered 
again by the Piety and Courage of Pelagius. You'll fee 
Teter depoled, and killed for his Cruelty ,• and his Bro- 
ther, Henry the Second, advanced to the Crown for his 
iingular Mildnefs. You'll fee the Glorious Infant, Fer- 
dinand, bleiTed by Heaven with many Kingdoms, for 
that he would not accept of that of his Grandfon , 
King John the Second , although there were thole who 
freely offered it him : On t'other fide, the Infant Sancho 
accuied by his own Father of Difobedience and Ingra- 
tude , before Pope Martin the Fourth , for that he 
would have ufurped the Throne in his life-time. This 

(7) lpfc VeffaftartO) inter initia Imperii ad obt'mrdai iriquitates haud 
ferinde obflinata - y donee, indulgentia fortune & praxü M/tgiJhis, diditit, 
aufafque e>JI. Tac. 2. Hift. 7 Marian. Hift. Hilp. 


Vol. f. with thofe efhis Anee ft on. 119 

Companion your Highnefs may follow as a fure Guide 
in the Management of your Affairs ; for, though by 
Difcourfe and Converíátion you may know the Luftre 
and Brightnefs of Heroick Exploits, as alio the Baíénefs 
and Infamy of 111 A&ions ; yet all thefe move us not 
(b much, confidered in themfelves, as in thoíé Peribns, 
whom they have made Glorious in the World , or De- 


A Tree bedeck'd with Trophies, is ftill a Trunk as 
afore,» thofe which were an Honour to others, 
are but a burthen to it. So truly, the glorious Exploits 
of Anceftors are but a Shame and Dilgrace to the Suo- 
ceiTor, unleis he imitates the fame, Nor does he inhe- 

I 4 n* 

lio A Prince fhould not content himfelfwith the Vol.I. 

rit their Glory, but their Actions only, by an Imita- 
tion of which he will obtain the other. Juft as light is 
reflected from a Diamond , becauíé it finds fübftance , 
but quickly pierces Glafs which is thin and tranfparent ; 
ib if the Succeflbr be Stout and Brave , the Glory of 
his Predeceflbrs adds yet a greater Luftre and Brightnefs 
to him ¿ but if like thin and paultry Glafe , he can't 
withftand the Luftre, it íérves only to difcover his vile 
and abjeft Soul. The Actions of Anceftors , which 
are only Examples to others, are Laws to the Succef- 
for, for the whole Efteem and Prerogative of Nobility ' 
is grounded upon this Suppofition, that the Defendants 
will imitate the Actions of their Forefathers. He, who 
vainly boafts of thefe without imitating them , only 
ihews the difference between himfelf and them. No 
one is to be blamed for not equalizing the AéHons of 
them to whom he bears no relation. For this Reaibn, 
the Nobility of Rome were wont to place before their 
Doors the Statues of the Illuftrious Men of their Fami- 
lies, that they might fhew to Pofterity what Obligation 
they lie under. Bodijlaus the Fourth, King of Poland , 
always wore his Father's Pifture in Gold about his 
Neck ,• and whenever any Affair of great coníéquence 
was to be determined , he put it to his Mouth, and 
luffing on Y, with Veneration us'd to fay, God grant I 
way never do any thing unworthy your Royal Name, How 
many fuch Medals of your Heroick Anceftors might 
your Highnefs find ? Which would never permit you to 
ad any thing beneath their Royal Blood ,• nay, would 
rather encourage and excite you to out-do them in glo- 
rious Exploits ? Now , if this Emulation of Anceftors 
enfiame the Minds of the Nobilit^, they certainly de- 
ferve the principal Employments in the State. For as 
'tis likely thofe ihould be beft who proceed from the 
beft(i); as alio Prefumption and Experience teach, 
for Eagles hatch Eagles , and Lions beget Lions. And 
oft-times felf-worth and fear of Infamy ftirs up noble 
^ i n i ' ■ 

(i) Par ejl metieres effe eos <pii ex melioribifj, Arift. 


VoU.Trophies and Honours won hy-his Tredeceffhrs. in 

Thoughts in the mind. Yet, I grant that this Rule holds 
not always good, either becaufe Nature can't do what 
flie would (2), or becaufe of ill Education and Effemi- 
nacy ; or becaufe Mens Souls themfelves are not equal- 
ly noble and generous, but a& differently according to 
the Affection of the Body, in which they are as 'twere 
drowned. There are fome too, who feem only to in- 
herit the Trophies and Glory of their Anceftors, with- 
out their Virtues, and are in all things wholly different 
from them. Of this we have an Example in the Eagles 
themfelves , who altho* they commonly breed Eagles ; 
yet there are fome, who think that Oftriches are a cer- 
tain Species of them , tho' wholly degenerate, having 
neither the genero fity , ftrength , nor fwiftnefs of arj 
Eagle ,• this fine Bird being transformed into a loath- 
ibme dull Animal. 5 Tis fcarce credible how prejudicial 
'tis to the Publick Good, without any difcretion or 
regard to Merit, to elect only the Nobility into Pub- 
lick Offices , as though the Experience and Virtue of 
Anceftors ran in the Blood to Pofterity. Induftry will 
languiih, Virtue will grow fluggiih and lazy, if only 
grounded upon Nobility, which will look upon Re- 
wards as its juft due ,• nor will the hopes of obtaining, 
or the fear of lofing them , be a means to make them 
act honourably : Which very Argument Tikrius uied 
to the Senate to perfwade them not to aílíft the Family 
of M. Hortalus, which tho' very Ancient, was fallen to 
Poverty (;). In time of Peace, indeed, Men of Great 
and Noble Families may be well preferred to Places of 
the greater): Authority, in which the Splendor and Re- 
putation of the Family is of great advantage. In Mili- 
tary Offices the cafe is altera, for thefe require activity 
and ftrength both of Mind and Body : But if thefe are 
found in the Nobility, though not in altogether fo 

(i) Nam ut ex homine hominem> ex b'.Ums belkam, fie ex bonis bonum 
generari putant j at hoc qwdem natura f&pé ejjicere vult, nnn falten potcfi. 
Arift. I. Pol. c. 4. (3) Languefcet alioqui injuria, intkndetur focoráia t 
fi mllus ex fe metus , ant [pes, ¡tj fecuri omnes aliena fttbjuiia expettt- 
bant, fibi tgnavi, nobis grave*» Tac. 2. Ann. 


112 A Prince JhouU not content himfelf with the Vol 

great Perfection as in others , the Merits of their An( 
ftors, or the common Efteem and Reipeft of Men wil 
eafily compenfate for the reft , yet can they by 
means fupply an intire defeft. For this reafbn Tacto 
defervedly ridiculed the Election of Vitellius , when hi 
was fent to Command the Legions of Lower Germany \ 
not confidering his Incapacity for fuch an Office , 
feem'd enough that he was the Son of ViteUius, who hi 
been for three times Confuí (4). Tiberius acied not 
in the beginning of his Reign , he conferr'd Honoui 
refpe&ing both the Nobility of the Family, the Excel, 
lency of the Perfon in the Art of War ,• as alio hi ; 
worth in time of Peace, that it might appear he die 
not without Reafbn prefer one before another (5). \ 
grant that the Efteem and Authority of Nobility may 
do much in War j but 'tis not that , but Bravery anc 
Induftry that routs the Enemy. The Germans formerly 
chofe their Kings for their Nobility, but their General; 
for their Valour (6). Then Arms "flourifh when Valoui| 
and Virtue are in efteem , and in poifeflion of th<| 
greateft Pons in the Army ; in which they may eithei 
acquire Nobility , or enlarge and illuftrate that which 
they have already. The hope of this furniflit paft Age;; 
with brave Heroick Generals ,• but where this is want- 
ing, Art Military is neglected and flighted ,• for nothing 
but the Honour of Preferment in the Army can recom- 
pence the Inconveniences and Perils of War. Nor is ii 
true as fome fuppofe, that the greateft Refpect anc 
Obedience is paid to thofe of the nobleft Families ,• for 
if they are not qualified with thefe two great Qualities 
Conduct and Valour, all the deference paid to cheii 
Blood will be only meer Ceremony , not real Refpecl 
The Heart values and admires only fuch a Virtue anc 
preatnefs of Soul, as is the Maker of its own Fortune 

(4) Cenforis VtteUii ac ter Confulii filius , id fans x'tdebatur. Tac. I 
Hilt. C^) Mandabatque honores, nobilitatem tnajorum, claiitudinem ná 
litis. , ilh\trts domi arles , jpetlando , ut I at U confiar et , non alios potiort, 
fnijfe. Tac. 4. Ann. (6) Reges ex nobihtate, Duces ex vtrtute fnmunt 
Tac, de mor. Germ, • 


J(A\.Trophies and Honours won ly his Predecesor s. \ x } 

Columbus gave Laws to the Ocean , and Herman Cortez, 
o the New World ,• thefe, though they did not fpring 
ronHlluftrious Families, yet did thev procure a Nobi* 
tty for their Poiterity, equal to thofe of the greateft 
Rank. The moft noted Rivers take their rifé and begin- 
ning from the fmalleft Rivolets, and a little after take 
peir Name and Glory from the Channel. In War , 
where Courage and Bravery are moft efteenfd , 'twill 
be expedient to promote thofe to the higheit Honours 
who have merited it by noble Exploits, though they are 
perhaps but of mean Extraction ; yet, in time of Peace, 
'twill be very dangerous for a Prince to commit the 
Government to mean and worthlefs Perfons ,• 'twill 
immediately incenfe the Noble and Brave againft him 
for flighting and miftrufting their Integrity (?). Which 
then chiefly happens, when the Subject is not endowed 
with good Natural Parts, not when he is cried up and 
admired by all, the obfcuiity of Birth being fufficiently 
brightned by the excellent Endowments of Mind. We 
lee many, who feem to be born of themfelves, as Tibe- 
rius ufed to fay of Curtius Rufus (8). To fuch as theie 
Claudians Praife of a good choice of Minifters is well 

Mirit , not Birth , he does prefer f ,• 
Nor cares he whence , but what they are. 

But if the Nobility be corrupted by Eafe and Luxury, 
'twere advifeable to reform it by Rewards and Exei- 
cife, rather than to inftitute an entire new fet. Silver 
and Gold are eafily purified and clean'd , but to make 
Gold out of Silver, is a vail labour beyond the Art of 
Chymiflry to perform. Henry the Fourth , was there 
fore very ill advifed by fome to ruin all the Grandees 
of his Kingdom, and to promote thofe of mean Fortune. 

(7) Si Rernp. gnar'is^ <fy non magni prern himn'ÓM comm'tttas, fííttin 
{j mbiltum ac Jhnaorfm iram in te pmvncabu ob contempt am e rttm jiiem^ 
& inaxtmti in rehm damna p^tiens. D en. CáíTb. £ 8 ) Vidcntur aubi 
ex fe nuti. Tac. 11. Ann. | Claud. 


«¿4 ^ Prince [houtd not content himfelf, &c. Vol. 

Though the Licentioufnefs and Difobedience of tin 
Nobility may fometimes require that it be a little hum- 
bled ,• for too much Greatnefs begets Pride , and ac 
Averfion to Subje&ion and Obedience (9). The weak- 
eft always feek Juftice and Equity, but the itrongei 
trouble not themfelves with it ( 1 o) • and the PeopU 
are generally more quiet, when there are no Great Ones 
to proteo them, and to foment their Innovations (n), 
For this reafon , the Laws of Cafiik don't allow twc 
Great and Noble Families to incorporate , that fo th< 
Eftate might be more divided , and that it might noi 
create Jealoufy and Envy among others (12). There 
are ways under the pretext of Honour and Favour to 
remedy excefs of Riches, in giving opportunity of em- 
ploying it to the Service of the Prince and People. But 
Prodigality and Luxury are now grown to that height, 
that there is no occafion for fuch means; for all the 
Nobility are fo much ftraitned by Debts, and neceflary 
Expences , that they want means to execute fuch 
Thoughts, or to attempt Innovation* While they would 
be great beyond what they can, they become even lefs 
than what they are. v 'Tis certain, that the nobleft and 
moil renowned Families are ruined by a defire of 
Grandure and Magnificence (15). But as too much 
Riches are dangerous, fo alfo is extream Poverty. For 
when any of theíé Great Ones have iquandred away 
their Eftates, they prefendy fet up for Innovation (14). 

(9) £r revocante NobUitate, cm in pace durius fervhium eft. Tac. 1 ■ 
Ann. C 10 ) N am Imbeciiliorei fempev equumfá )uflum qu&rmt^ potentii- 
ribut autem id nihil cura. Arift. Pol. 6. C. 2. (11) Nihil aufuram ple-t 
bem principibut amotU. Tac. i.Ann. fn} Comtnodum eft etiam , ut 
b&reditates non donatione , fid jure agnationis tradantur, utque ad eundem 
ma, non piares bweditates perveniant. Arift. Pol. 5. c. 8. (13) Ditet 
olim familu nobilium, ant claritudine infignes, ftudio Magnificentu prola- 
hebantur. Tac. 3. Ann. (14} Sed cum ex Primariit aliqui bona diffipa- 
rmt t hi res novas moliuntur. Arift. Pol. 6. c. 12. 






VIRTUE has given Empire to many. Vice to 
few. In thefe the Scepter was a violent and dan- 
gerous Ufurpation, in thofe a juft Title and lafting Suc- 
ceffion. Virtue by a certain occult and íécret Force, 
does as 'twere compel Men to love and admire it. 
The Elements obey the Heavens for the Perfection and 
Excellency of them ; íb Men too think none worthy 
the Sovereign Power , but thofe of Sovereign Juftice 
and Virtue. For which caufe > Cyrus thought no one 
was fit to govern s but he who was better than thole 
he governed (i). Subje&s pay more Reverence to a 
Prince, in whom they diicern more than ordinary En- 

(i) N<m cerifebat convenir e cuiquum < Impsrvm qui nm tntlm ejjet ik 
qaibfts impfraret, Xenoph, lib. 8, 


ji6 Let a Prhce always acknowledge Vol.f. 

dowments of Mind ; the greater they are , the greater 
is their Reipeci: and Efteem, for all believe that to fuch 
a Prince, God is more propitious and ready to aflift 
him in all things, and to direct his Government. 'Tis 
this alone made Jojlmas Name celebrated all the World 
over ( 2 ). All the A&ions and Counfels of a good 
Prince the People receive with Joy, and through a cer-i 
tain zealous Confidence promife themfelves Succefi; 
from them; but if it fall out otherwife, they perfuade 
themfelves that for fome fupernatural and unknown 
Reafons 'tis convenient it ihould be fo. For the fame 
caufe among fome Nations , the High Priefts were 
Kings (3), that the People receiving Holy Ceremonies 
and Divine Worihip from them, might acknowledge 
in them a certain more fublime Nature , more allied 
and familiar to God himielf, which as a Mediatrix 
they might make uíé of in their Prayers, and againft' 
which they durft not attempt any thing (4). The 
Crown upon Aaron % Mitre attracted the Eyes and De-¡ 
fires of all (f )• 

Jacob worihipped Jofepb's Scepter , on the top of 
which was a Stork , the Emblem of Piety arid Reli- 
gion (5). 

Let none imagine that the time is loft,which a Prince 
employs in the Exerciíé of Goodnefs and Virtue ; nay, 
God does then chiefly difpofe and dire<5fc the Events of 
things. Ferdinand Antol'mé was at his Devotions, while 
Count Gardas Fernandez, fought the Moors at the Ri- 
ver Duero, and an Angel in his likeneís fupplied his 1 
place in the Fight , by which he not only efcaped the 

(2) 5o, the Lord was with Joflma,zx\á his fame was noifed through- 
out all ihc Country, Jofl). 6. 27. (3) Rex enim Dux erat in bello, 
& Judex, fo in its qua ad cuttum Deorutn pertinerent, fummam pot eft at em 
babebat. Anft. Vol. 3. ig¿ (4) Minufque injidiantur ik, qui Dev$ 
auxiliares habent. Anil. Polk. ( 5 ) He fet a Crown of Gold upon 
the Mure, wherein was engraved Holinefs, an ornament of Honour, 
a fafety- work, the defires of the Eyes goodly and bcautiful.£rc/.4$.i^ 
£0 And he worihipped leaning upon the top of his Staff. Vid. Lac» 
Verf. Et adoravit faftigmm virgx ejut. Het>. 11. n. 


Vol. I- his Rule and Scepter from God. 127 

difcredit of not being at the Battel, but alfo gained the 
chiefeft Praife of Honour of the Vi&ory. Something 
like this is related of that Renowned General , Count 
Ttlly, that true Chriftian Joflma, not lefs Holy and Re- 
ligious, than Warlike and Brave, that while he was at 
Prayers , the Army was drawn up by another in his 
ihape. The Emperor, Ferdinand the Second, had more 
Standards and Trophies preíented to him in the time 
of Divine Service 3 than many of his Anceftors had 
gained from the Enemy (7). The Israelites flood iKll, 
and God wrought Wonders for them (8). That Crown, 
which like Ariadne s íhines with refulgent Stars of Vir- 
tue, (hall laft to Eternity (9). The Emperor Septimus 
told his Sons as he was dying, That he left them a firm 
and la/ling Empire if they were good ; if ivicked , hut of 
jhort continuance. King Ferdinand, who from his great 
Virtues, was iirnamed the Great, did by thefe wonder- 
fully increaíé the Glory of his Kingdom, and eírabliíht 
it to Pofterity. His Piety was fo great, that when the 
Body of St. IJidore was carried by Sevil , he and his 
Sons, barefoot, carried thefe Holy Relicks from the 
River Durio , quite to St. Johns Church in the City. 
For 'tis God by whom Kings Reign, and upon whom 
all their Power and Felicity depends ,• they could 
never err , if they would make him their only Objeét 
The Rays of the Sun never forfake the Moon ,• ihe, 
as if ihe knew me received all her Light from the Sun, 
looks on him continually, that me may be enlightned 
by him ; which Princes muft fo imitate, that they may 
always have their Eyes fixt upon that Eternal Light, 
which affords Light and Motion to the World, and 
from which Empires take their encreafe and decreafe , 
as is intimated in the prefent Emblem by the Scepter, 

(7) Fear yc norland ftill,and fee the Salvation of the Lord, which 
he will (hew you to day, Exod. 14. 13. (8) And the Lord God of 
Jfrael fought for Iftael , Jojh. 10. 42. (jf) And that turn not alide 
from the Commandmenr, to the right, or to the left \ to the end that 
Ae may prolong hit days in his Kingdom, he and his Children in the 
ttidft of Ifrael, Deut. 17,10, 


ii8 Let a Trince always acknowledge Vol 

on the top of which is the Moon looking towards th 
Sun, the true Emblem of God, as well becaule m 
other thing comes nearer his Om n i potency ,* as alio, 
becaufe that alone gives Light and Being to all. 

Which 'cattfe it folely all Surveys, 

Is properlj call d Sol. Boet. 

For there is vo Volver but from God ( i o ), Kings arc 
crowned in his Eternal Mind before they are here orr 
Earth. He, who gave the Orbs Coeleftial firft motion/i 
gives it alfo to Empires and Republicks. He, who har ¡ 
appointed a King over Bees, has not left meerly toil 
Chance or Humane Choice , thefe Second Caufes of : 
Princes, who are his Vice-Roys upon Earth, and as- 
like him as may be (u), being reprefented in the Re* , 
velations by thofe Seven Planets, which God held in his' ¡ 
Hand (12) ; upon them he darts his Divine Rays, ther i 
Reflexion of which gives them the utmoft Power and 1 
Authority over their Subje&s. Without that Splendor, jj 
all Power , how great foever , is in a manner dark ¿4i 
the Prince who flighting this Light , ihall follow ano- 1 
thef, an appearance may be of fome good, which his 1 
own convenience, not right realbn offers, will ibon fee ■ 
the Orb of his Power eclips'd and darken'd. What e'er (1 
avoids the Sun , muft neceiTarily be in darkneis. The'* 
Moon , although it finds its felf oft'times quite dark, ¿ 
does not therefore turn away from the Sun , but looks I 
on't with fo much the more eagernefs , till at laft 'tis 
again enlightned by it. Let a Prince hold his Scepter 
fixt and fteady , having always a regard to Virtue , as 
well in Profperity as Adverfity : For the fame Divine 
Sun , which either for Puniihment or Exerciíé »of his 
Virtues , permitted his decreafe, as a recompence of his 
Conftancy will again promote and encreafe his great- 

(10} Rom. 13. 1. ("n) Principes quidem inflar deorum ejje. Tac. ^ 
Ann. (12J And hi had in hs nghc hand fcvcn Scars, Revei. 
1. 16. 



To\. Í. his Rule and Scepter from God. í ¿9 

eís. Thus 'twas with the Emperor , Ferdinand the II. 1 
rtio was often reduced to that extremity of Fortune* 
íat his Empire and Life too íéem'd delperate. Yet he 
ras refolved never wholly to deipair , nor to turn his 
tyes from that Eternal Sun , the Maker and Governor 
f all things, whofe Divine Providence freed him from 
11 Perils, and advanced him far above all his Enemies. 
i/o/m's Rod, which was the Emblem of a Scepter, did 
bonders whilft he held it] in his Hand upright t'wards 
leaven j but as ibon as hecaft it upon the Ground, 'twas 
irn'd into a venomous Serpent, dreadful even to Mofes 
imfelf ( 1 ; ). Whilft the Scepter, like Jacob's Ladder, 
ouches Heaven , God hirrifelf fupports it , and Angels 
eicend to its ailiftance (14). This the Egyptians knew, 
/ho on the top of- their Scepters were ufed to engrave 
ie Head of a Stork, a Religious Bird, and Pious t'wards 
:s Parents ,• but on the bottom, the Foot of a Sea- 
lorfe, an impious and ungrateful Animal, which Plots 
> kill his Father , that he may the more freely enjoy 
lis Mother. By which Hieroglyphick they meant no- 
hing, but that Princes ought always to prefer Piety to- 
mpiety. Macbiawl would have his Prince to learn 
tiis Hieroglyphick , but in quite another Sence, for he: 
Irould have Piety and Impiety placed at each end, that 
|e might turn it as he pleafed , and hold that upwards 
rtiich tended moft to his Preiervation and Advantage, 
for which reafon , he thinks 'tis not neceflary for a 
frince to be Virtuous , 'tis enough if he pretends to be 
b ; for to be really fo , and to acl- according 
the Didates of Virtue, would, he lays, be perni- 
ious j but that 'tis moft advantageous to be thought 
p; for by this means he will be fo difpofed^ as to 
uoow how to fhift. upon occafion, and io to a¿l in all 
kings as advantage or opportunity íhall require : And 

(if) And he caft it on the ground, and it became a Serpen^ 
nd Mifes fled from before k, Exod. ^ 3. (14) And he dreamed, 
nd behold, a Ladder fee «pon the Earth, and the top of it reached 
a Heaven •, and behold, the Angels oí God afcending and dcicend- 
Qg on it. Got, 18. f J, 

i^o Let a Prime always acknowledge Vol!' 

this, he fays, is principally neceflary for Princes new!) 
come to the Crown, who ought to be quick and read) 
to Ipread their Sails to every breath of Fortune, ant 
as neceííity requires. Impious and foolifh Counfel 
that would infinuate that Virtues need not be real ark 
genuine, but only counterfeit and imaginary, for ho* 
can the Shadow be as effective as the Subftance ? What! 
Art or Pains can bring Chryftal to that perfection, at. 
it ihall equal the Diamond in luftre and brightneis:; 
Won't any one at firft fight difcover and laugh at ttx 
Cheat. A true Glory takes root and flouriíhes , thai; 
which is not , fails like Bloflbms ; nor can any thinf 
be lafting that is counterfeit ( 17 )• There's no Art 01 
Cunning fo great, as to make a vicious Inclinatior 
appear truly good and virtuous. For if we ib eafilj, 
fail in real Virtues fo agreeable to our Nature and In 
clmadon, what ihall we do in falfe and imaginar) 
ones ? Flow will the Subjects , when they difcover tri. 
Cheat , be able to endure the Stench of this Sepulchi*, 
of abominable Vices, without any ornament of Good-, 
nefs ? How can they turn their Eyes from that in wan 
Wound , when the Patch under which it lurk'd beinj 
drawn off, 'tis openly expofed to the fight of all (i6)i 
Whence a Prince will be contemptible and ridiculoui, 
to his own People a* home, and fuipeded by Foreigner, 
abroad. He will be furely odious to- both, for neither 
can live fecurely under him. Nothing renders Tyran- 
ny more grievous than when the Prince dilTemblei 
Virtue. For from thence oft-times greater Vices fpring 
for this Reaibn many were afraid of Otho, when he 
fiood Candidate for the Empire (17)- When a Prince 
5s known to bs wicked and vicious, 'tis eafy to bewart 

C 1 5) Vera gloria radices agh , atque etiam prapagatur ; fi3a omnh 
cel:rtter ranquam floftuli decidmt , ñeque fimulatum qwdquam potejl t$ 
fimnrnum. Cic. lib. 2. deOff. cap. 31. (16) And ail our righccouf 
ncíícs are as ftlthy rags, Ifaiab 64. 6. (17) Otbo interim, contra fpet\ 
cmnr»m, nm delicik , ñeque dtftdia torpefcere, dilata volnptates> dijjim* 
lata ixxitria, & cunfta ad decorem imperii compojita, eoque plus furmifc 
m fifferebantur falfrvirtutes, <& vitia rtdittrra, Tac, 1. Hift, 


$7)1.1. his Rute an J Scepter from God. s i$I 

bf him , but not ib when he difTembles. Open Vice 
nay be imputed to frailty of Nature ; but pretended 
Virtue is only Cheat and Defign,* not accidental, 
put premeditated Injuftice ; ib that 'tis more pernicious 
ban open Vice. As Tacit m remarks in Sejanus (i 8), 
jjhere is no greater Villainy, than under pretence of Vir- 
tue to exerciíé Vice.( 19 ). 'Tis a certain weaknels to 
be openly wicked, but to counterfeit Virtue is true Vil- 
giny. Men more eafily difpence with other Vices, but 
jl loath Hypocrify ; for by them we only deceive our 
(elves, but by this, others too. Nay, good Actions are 
defpifed if artificial , and not the Product of Virtue. 
Yitettius did many things to curry favour with the Peo- 
ple, but thole things which would have been really 
acceptable , had they proceeded from a Principle of 
l/irtue, were (by the memory of his former Courfe of 
Life, and becaule every one íaw that they were feigned 
tad forced ) look'd upon as baíé and vile (20). And, 
bray, who would diflemble Virtue , if it coft the fame 
Jains to do ib , as to be really virtuous ? If Virtues 7 
hemfelves, by reafon of the wickednefs of Manners^ 
kave fcarce ftrength and power to fubiift, how then 
(hould the falfe and counterfeit? Who e'er puts ; more/ 
Confidence in thele Tricks than in Divine Providence .,' 
Jenies that he receives his Crown and Prefer vation from 
God , and that he is the Difpofer of Rewards and Pu= 
tiiihments. If a Prince's Vices proceed from Weaknels, 
acrid not from Affection, 'tis beft to conceal them, that 
they may not give ill Examples • for to conceal them 
on that account, ought not to be accounted Hypocrify, 
ir a defign to Cheat others , but rather Prudence, and 
ah Efteem and Refpect due to Virtue. There's no 
curb or reftraint to that Power which does not veil its 
Tyrannies with fome pretence or other. The Senators 

. (r8) Hand minus noxi<c\ quoties, parando regno finguntttr. Tac. 4. AKn* 
£19) Extrema ejt pirverjitas, cum prorfus )n}titia vaces, ¿d id'niti, ut 
w> bonus effe videarif. Plat. (20) QitA grata fane & popularía , ft <J 
virtutibus proficifcerentur j memwia viu '■' prior is , indewa, <& vilia acci* 
piebantw. Tac. 2. Hift, 

K 2. • útités 

i 3 1 Let a Trince always acknowledge Volt 

never feared Tiberius , more than when they faw hilt 
without Diffimulation (21). Yet Tacitus writes of Tift 
that he was cried up by thQ People for Virtues, oi 
ibmething refembling them (22). I don't mean b} 
this , that Virtues are the fame in a Prince , whethei 
feigned or real ; but that the People are fometimes de 
ceived, and take Hypocrify for Virtue. Therefore how 
much more firm and lafting would Pi/o's Fame hav< 
been ; had it been fupported by real and folid Virtues 
The fame inconveniences arife if a Prince is poíTeft oí 
real Virtues , but fuch as he will eafily change for hí 
conveniency ; for that cannot be Virtue, which is not 
firm and conftant habit of the Mind, nor will it inhat 
fiich a Breaft with fears, not upon any profpeét of ac 
vantage to turn it into Vice, and joyn with Villain] 
And how' can this ever be convenient for a Prince ? 

And what Cafe or Circumftance can require it, efpe- 
cialiy in thefe our times , when Rule and Empire aitj 
eiiabliihed upon fure Laws ¿ not depending as in the 
Romans time, upon the Election and Infolence of the] 
Soldiers. Ño danger can be fo great, that a Prince by 
prudent Virtue may not avoid without having recourie, 
to Vice. If at any time a Prince renown'd for Vir«.j 
tues be vanquilhed , 'tis not becaufe he was good , but 
becaufe he knew not' enough how to be good. A Jufl, 
Prince is not obliged haftily and raihly to confront anci 
oppofe Vice, where there is no profpect of Advantage, 
but certain' and manifeft Danger from this over-dili- 
gence ¿ nay, 'tis a piece of great prudence to permit¡ 
and fuffer that quietly , which by Oppofition can't b€i 
prevented (25). Let him duTemble the knowledge ol 
their Vices , till he finds a convenient time to remedy 

(%i) Penerrabat Pavor, fy (tdmirath, callidum olimjfy tegendis fcele.- 
ribus objeurum , hue confidemia venijfe , ut tanquam dimotit parietibus 
ofiendertt Nepotem fub verbere Centunonis, inter fervorum iftus, extrema 
vita alimenta frujfra orantem. Tac. 6. Ann. (*2z) Clara apud vulgm 
rumore erat per rirtHtem, aut ¡pedes virtutibus fimíles. Tac 1 5. Anni 
P2F3) Pemittimw, quod nolentes indulgemus, quia pravam botrtiwtm volurt 
mem adplexum cohitere non pojfamw. S. Chryfolh 

them '; 

Vol Í. his Rule and Scepter from God. 13} 

them ,• and in the mean time reward the Good , and 
punifli the Bad, and ufe fuch other means as prudence 
íhall fuggeft ; but if thefe are not fufficient , let him 
leave it to his SucceiTor, as Tiberius did ^ when he faw 
he could not reform the Manners of his time ( 24 ). 
For if through fear, a Prince ihould by doing ill con- 
form himfelf to the Life and Manners of ill Men, he 
would not only not bring them into the way of Virtue, 
but would at the fame time miflead the Good , fo that 
both would grow worfe,* Virtue in a Prince is never 
dangerous, but rafli Zeal and Severity often is. Vil- 
lains don't bate a Prince for being good, but, becauie, 
for his too Arid Severity they can't be wicked and 
lewd. There's no body but delires a Juft Prince ; the 
worft have need of fuch a one,that Juftice may flourifli, 
by which they may live not only fecure from others,but 
from one another too. This Seneca meant, when, that 
he might perfwade Nero from inceftuous Convention 
with his Mother , he threatned him that the inceit was 
divulg'd by his Mother, who gloried in>, and the Sol- 
diers would not endure fo vicious a Prince (29). Nay, 
fo neceiTary are Virtues to a Prince, that without fome 
Vices themfelves can't fubfift. Nor did Sejanus endear 
himfelf to Tiberius by other means, than by mingling 
Virtues with Vices (26). Such a mixture of yirtues 
find. Vices one might fee in Lucinius'i in Pe- 
fpajtan alfo , there were many notable Vices as well 
as Virtues (27). This is certain, Séjattús% favour with 
Tiberius had been much more fecure ¿ and Vtfpafian 
and Mucian, had been much more accompliihed Princes, 
if fubitra&ing their Vices , their Virtues only had re- 

(24) Non id tempus cenfurx , nee ft quid in moribus laboret defnturum 
corrigendi author em. Tac. 2. Ann. (z$) Pervulgatum ejje incejiuw, 
gloriante matfe , nee toleramos milites profani Prinápü Imperium, Tac. 
14. Ann.' (26) Corpus illi laborum toleratis, animus audax, fui obre- 
gens, in alios criminator, jujla adulatio, & Jupei bia , pal am compsfitus 
pudor , intus fumma adipifcendt libido, ejuiqm caufa , mod) lar gup % <& 
iuxus, fápius inditjhia , oy vigilmia. Tac. 4. Ann. (27 ) Ambigua df 
Vefpafiam fama. Tac. 1. Hift, ' 

K % aiained 



134 Zff a Vrtnce always acknowledge Vol 

mained (2 8). If it be convenient for a Prince to bj 
Vicious, that he may diítinguiíh the good from the ba 
'twill be fufficient only to know how to be lb , with- 
out being pra&ically Co. Let him therefore be virtu 
bus, but let him be fo circumfpe& and prudent , that 
ho Cheat or Knavery may fcape him , no Villany but 
which he may fee through ,• fo by throughly obferving 
each Man's Manners , and way of Life , he may Go- 
vern them the better. And in this Senfe may thtii 
Opinions be taken, who think that Princes are fo much 
the more íecure , by how much they are more wicked 
than their Subje<Js (29). This fort of Vice relating to the 
Knowledge of wickedness very expedient to know how 
to chaftife,and alio to bear with humane Frailties : With- 
out that knowledge, fevere Virtue is too rigid and dan- 
gerous for Government. Whence 'tis, that in a Prince 
manly Virtues are moft requifite, fuch as are appropri- 
ated to Empire, not thofe monaftick Melancholy ones, 
which make him timorous, flow, and unfteady in his 
Refolutions, averfe to Humane Converfation , and 
more intent upon his own private Perfections than the 
Government of the Publick. The greateft Perfe&ion 
in a Prince, is to anfwer the Obligations laid upon him 
by God Almighty. 

Machiavel would not have a Prince counterfeit Vir- 
tues at certain times only , but he endeavours alfo to 
eftabliih a fort of Policy upon Vice , by ihewing how 
by help of this, the other may be advanced to the 
higheft pitch ; and by aiTerting that Men are ruined j 
bee :a ufe they know not how to be wicked ; as if there 
might be a certain Science to be formed of it. This 
Dc&rine has made many Princes Tyrants, and ruined 
them. Men are not ruin'd, becaufe they know not 
how to be wicked, but becaufe wickednefs it felf can't 
long defend its felf; for there is no Villainy fo cunning 

("aS) Egregium Principatui temper amentum, fi demptis virtutibus utri- 
ufquevitiis foUvinittes mifcerentur. Tac. i. Hjft. (19) Eo JMmññorei 
Reges cenfentur, quo 7¿fo , quibus imperitant, tiequjorej, Saluil. 


Vol. Í. his Bule and Scepter from God. \%$ 

and cautious , as to prevent its felf from being caught 
at laft in its own Snares. What skill can inírruá: a 
Man to keep a found Judgment in his Vices , whole 
Sins trouble his Confcience , which though 'tis in 
us , yet by a certain Divine Impulfe operates without 
us, being both Judge and Executioner of our Anions: 
whole Tyranny Nero felt after he had commanded his 
Mother to be íüll'd, fearing that the Light which gave 
Life to others, brought his Death (3 o). The moft re- 
folv'd Spirit fbmetimes hefitates , and is confounded at 
the light of Villainy : So it happened to Sejanus, when 
he plotted to extinguifh the Family of Tiberius • he was 
confounded by the greatnels of the Crime(; i).Godtaket& 
the -wife in their own craftinefs (32). Vice is ignorance, 
oppofed to Prudence ,• 'tis a Violence that toils to its 
own Ruin ,• 'tis a dangerous Building which fails upon 
his Head who built it. No Judgment is fo great as to 
corred lefler Tyrannies by greater 1 and to what a 
vaft Bulk might Men raile it ? That very Example of 
John Vagóla of Peru , which Macbiavel makes ufe of to 
confirm his Alfertion, makes it evident enough how 
dangerous 'tis to walk upon thofe Precipices , when 
though he had procured the Death of Pope Julius the 
Second, he could by no means accompli íh his Villainy. 
The fame alfo befel D. Valentine , whom he propofes 
as an Idea as 'twere to Princes j for he, that he might 
upon the Death of Pope Alexander the Sixth, fecure his 
own Affairs , drank to fome of the Cardinals of the 
contrary Fadion in a Bowl of Poilbn, but the Cups 
being by miftake changed, he and Alexander drank the 
Poifon , upon which the Pope died fuddenly, and Va- 
lentine was fo ill upon't, that he could not be prefent at 
the Conclave, (which rrsifchance all his cunning could 
not forcfee and prevent) whence it happen'd too, that 

C 30) Sed á Cafare profeílo demum fieleris magnitudo ¡ntellefta e}}\ 
reliquo noítis, modo pcrfupius pavore exurgens, & mentis imps vpeñebatur, 
tanquíim exit'mm aüaturam. Tac. 14. Ann. (31) Sed magnitudt foci- 
noris metum, , diverfa iaterdum confilia adferebat. Tac 4. Ann. 
.(ii) Job 5, 13. 

K 4 whom 

i j¿ if/ ¿ Pr/V* always acknowledge, &c. Vol. I. 
whom he defired was not ele&ed , and he himfelf loft 
all that he unjuftly poflefled in Romania. Divine Pro* 
vidence does not permit Tyrants to thrive in their De^ 
iigns ( ? 2 ) : Tis Virtue only that has the Power to 
make God propitious to us , not wickednefs. If any 
Tyrant lias long enjoy'd his unjuft Ufurpations, 'tis the 
effed of fome eminent Virtue or Natural Endowment^ 
which hides his Vices^and makes him obey 'd by the Peo- 
ple. But Malice afcribes this to tyrannical Artifices, and 
from Examples of that Nature , picks out fome impious 
2nd erroneous Maxims of State 3 to the ruin both of 
Princes and Empires. Befides, all don't Reign , who 
have the Scepter in their Hands , or the Crown upon 
their Heads j for Divine Juftice, though it leaves them 
the Kingdom,takes away the Command, by permitting 
them to be Slaves to their Paflions, and their Minifters, 
and to be oppreffed by Misfortunes and Seditions. Sal 
was Samuel's Predi&ion to Saul fulfilled , that as a PuJ 
niihment for having difobeyed God, he ihould be no 
more King (54) *• For though he lived and died King, 
yet was his Reign but perfect Slavery. 

m ' ' " 

(33) He difappointeth the devices of the crafty , fo that their 
hands cannot perform' their enttrprife, Job $, 12. (34) Becaufe 
thou hail rejefted the Lord , he has alio rcjefted thee from beio; 
££ing, 1 Sam. 1 5. 13. 





T N the Games of. Vulcan and Vrometheus , feveral Per- 
•* ions being placed in a Row impioyed themfelves 
thus : The firft came out with a lighted Torch in his 
Hand 3 which he gave to the fecond, and he to the 
third , and fo from one to t'other ; whence came the 
Proverb , Curfu lampada trado ; apply'd to thofe things 
which paft as 'twere by Succemon from one to another. 
Jn which Senfe Lucretius, 

Et quafí curferes vital Lampada trado. 

\yhich he feems to have borrowed from Tlato , when 
perfwading Men to Propagation, he fays 'tis neceffary, 
that Life which Men received from their Predeceifors , 
they ihould like a flaming Torch deliver down to Po- 


i } 8 A Prince ¡hould rememler that he rntft Vol. Í. 

fterity (i). What elfe is a Scepter, but fuch a Torch i 
as this , which paifes by Succeflion from one to ano4i 
ther? What is it therefore that Majefty aiTumes tofli 
its íélf in this fo íhort and tranfitory Greatnefs ? Many 
things are common to a Prince with other Men, therell 
but one thing , and that accidental too , which makes 
the difference. All thofe don t humble his Mind , yet 
does this (ingle accident puff him up above others. Let 
him think that he is a Man, and that he governs Men 1 
let him conilder well that he comes upon this great 
Theatre of the World to a¿l the part of a Prince ; ana 
that he having his diicharge , another ihall fucceed ten 
thofe Robes which he ihall leave ,• and that of both oil 
them only this will remain, that they once were. Laftly| 
Let him know that chefé Robes wherewith he is cloatí 
ed , are not his own , but the States , which that onl] 
lends him, that he may be a while its Head , and ma] 
confult for the Preíérvation , Increaíé , and Profperit] 
thereof, as we have faid before. 

When therefore a Prince has once begun to run the 
Race of this Life, furniihed with the lighted Torch of 
his State,* let it not be his only bufinefs to prolong his 
Race , for the Goal is already fixt beyond which hi 
can't go ; and who knows but that he may~be no\ 
very near it, the Flame being expofed to every blait o 
Wind. One iingle Gale wrenched it from the Hands o 
King Henry the Firft, er'e he was fourteen Years old. 
Alio a fall from a Horie prevented Prince John, Soi 
of their moft Catholick Majefties from taking hol< 

Let a Prince confider alfo the fitnefs of his hand 
the occailon and right , that he mayn't raihly grafp at 
more of thefe Torches, than either Succeflion or law- 
ful Election ihall grant him. Had Frederick , Count 
Talatine , confidered this , he had never loft his Electo- 
ral Dignity , his Places , and Titles fo unfortunately, 

(i) Vt vitam, qitam ipfi a mnjoribm, accepijfent^ vwjfim, qwfi u 
dam ardentem ptfens tradant. Plaio, 


Vol.1. refi$p his Crown to his Succeffor} 139 

for being ambitious of the Kingdom of Bohemia. And 
truly Charles , King of Ñafies , had ended his Race 
more fuccefsfully , had he been contented with the 
Torch of his own Kingdom , and not attempted to 
grafp at that of Hungary, where he was therefore poi- 

Let not a Prince too readily trufr his Torch to ano- 
ther, nor fuffer any one to touch it with fo great 
Authority. For Empire admits of no Companion. The 
Infant Sancho attempted to fnatch this Torch from his 
Father, King Alphonfo the Wife, by the fame Power 
and Authority which he receiv d from him. Nor were 
jthere wanting Pretences for the infant of Portugal, to 
attempt the fame again ft his Father, Dionyfius. 

Thefe Torches of Kingdoms lighted by ill Methods, 
are commonly ibon extingtiiih'd , for no Power acqui- 
red by wickednefs is lafting. King Garcías fore d his 
Father, Alphonfo, to quit his Kingdom, but could not 
enjoy the Crown ib gotten above three Years. Fruela 
the Third, pofTefs'd but fourteen Months the Kingdom 
Which he had attain'd rather by Force than Eledion. 
Violent Counfels h'an't always their deíired Succeis. 
Ramon hop'd certainly to inherit the Throne of Na- 
varre, if he could make away with his Brother Sancho ; 
tut the People abhorr'd him who had conceiv'd fuch a 
liorrid Villainy, and fo ofFer'd it to Sancho, King of 
Arragon, his Uncle. 

Let not a Prince unadvifedly trait his Torch out of 
his own Hands in his Life-time , leaft, if he ihould af- 
terwards repent , it ihould befal him , as it did King 
Alphonfo the Fourth , who having once refign'd his 
Kingdom to his Brother Ramiro, could never afterwards 
retrieve it, though he deiir'd it. Ambition while in 
Poífeííion regards not Juflice, having always Argu- 
ments and Pretences at hand to defend -it feif. And 
who will not be mov'd by the difference between com- 
manding and obeying. 

Though thefe T01 ches do pafs from Father to Son , 
yet let Kings remember that they receive them from 


140 A Prince fhould rememler that he tnufi Vol. T 

God , and that when he pleafes they are to Surrender 
them to him , that they may know to whofe Gift they 
ought to aicribe them, and how ftrift an Account they 
are to give of them. This King Ferdinand the Great 
did, who with his laft Breath pronounc'd thefe Words, 
Thine , O Lord, is Power, Empire is thine ; Thou art Su- 
pream King of Kings ; all things are under thy Providence. 
The Kingdom "which from thy Hand I rece'wd , unto thee I 
refign. The fame Words did King Ferdinand the Holy, 
ufe at the point of Death. 

J Tis a glorious, though laborious Race which Heaven 
has defign d for your Royal Highnefs, which mult be 
run not with one, but with feveral Torches of Ihining 
Diadems, .which like the Sun, but without ever leaving'! 
us in the dark, will diffufe their extended Light frorm 1 
Eaft to Wejt. Furious Winds rifing from each part of! 
the Horizon, will perhaps threaten them; but fince 
God has lighted them to preceed the Standard of the! 
Crois, and to give light upon the Holy Altars of the 
Church, it may well be hop'd that thefe may ihine 
like that ( 2 ) ¿ efpecially if your Highnefs's Faith and 
Holy Zeal , would by holding them upright , make 
their Flame burn more clear and bright, its natural ten- 
dency being towards Heaven ; and he who holds them 
obliquely, will make the Flame its felf feed upon and 
waft them, but he who turns 'em dire&ly downwards, 
oppofite to Heaven, will immediately extinguifli them ; 
for the Matter which would elfe nouriih them , will 
then extinguifli them. Let your Highnefs therefore 
take care with thefe Lights to finiih your Courfe with 
Glory, and Surrender them bright and flaming to your 
Succeííbr , not meerly fuch as you receiv'd them , but 
illuftrated and augmented with new Rays : For God 
weighs both Kingdoms arid Kings when they begin to 
Reign , that he may afterwards require a juft Account 

(l)l will alio give thee for a light to the Gqpiles , that thoc 
tnaili be my Salvation to the cod oí the Earth, Ifaiah 4?. 6. 


refign his Crown to his Succeffo?. 141 

from them,- thus he did with King Balthazar (3). And 
if Otho thoguht himfelf oblig'd to deliver up the Empire 
to Pofterity, iiich as he had receiv'd it from his Ance- 
ftors (4) ,• your Highnefs muft acknowledge no leis an 
Obligation deriv'd to you from your glorious Prede- 
ceflbrs. So the Emperor, Charles the Fifth, refign'd his 
while he was yet living, to his Son Fhilip the Second.- 
And though the wickedneü of fome can't attend the 
tnd of their Career , for fear of adverfe Winds already 
rais'd , as was the Cafe of Mpbonfo, King of Naples, 
who feeing he could not refift Charles the Eighth of 
France , furrendred the Crown to his Son Ferdinand , 
Duke of Calabria ; yet certain 'tis, that his defign was 
to make a timely Reftitution of his Crown to God, and 
prepare himfelf for another, not Temporal but Eternal 
one, which once obtain'd may be fecurely enjoy 'd with- 
out fear of ever being loft. 

(3) Thou art weigh'd in the balance, and found wanting, Dan. 5.77. 
{4) Vrbi noftrdi infiitutum t & a Regibus ufqite ad Principes continuum, 
& immortalem , ficut a Major ibm accepimus , fie pofteris tr adamas. 
I Tac. 1. Hift. 







M O Ñ G the Ceremonies of the Athenians at their 
Marriages, a certain little Boy, with a Basket o 
Bread in his Hand , and a Crown of Thorns upon hi 
Head, went before the Bridegroom * by which , I be 
lieve, they intimated that Matrimony was not inftitu-' 
ted for Pleafure only , but alfo for Cares and Labours. 
By the fame (if Emblems will admit Human Figures) 
might alio be meant a Prince. For what thorny Cares 
does not he feel, who endeavours to maintain his State 
in Juftice, Peace, and Plenty. What Difficulties does' 
he experience ? What Dangers is he liable to , who' 
commands others (i) ? His Fatigues mould be the Peo- 

(-1) Qa¡tm at 'imm , quant fubjeftum fir tutu regendi cuntfa ormsí 
Tac. i. Ann. 


VolT. Crowns have their Cares, &c. ' 14$ 

pies Reft, his Dangers their Security, his Vigilance their 
Sleep. But we have here reprefented the fame thing 
by a Crown, fine, indeed, and charming to fight, but 
within full of Thorns and Briars ,• wkh this Motto of 
Seneca the Tragedian. 

Falfe good J What Cares doft hide, 
Under tfje appearance of a gay out fide ? 

Who viewing thoie Pearls and Diamonds , and thoíé 
Flowers which adorn a Crown , would not fancy that 
the infide was much more fair and beautiful ,• yet is 
there nothing but iharp Thorns , which continually 
prick and fcratch the Head and Brea ft ? There is not a 
Pearl in a Crown,but which is Sweat ; nor a Ruby,but 
which is Blood,- nor a Diamond, without fomeaiperity 
or roughnefs ; 'tis a Circumference without a Center of 
reft, a perpetual Motion of Cares * ; for this reafon. 
Kings anciently wore a Crown made like a Ship, to re- 
prefent its Jnconftancy, Trouble, and Dangers f. This 
he well knew, who, when a Crown was offered him, 
laid it down , with theie Words , Let him take thee up, 
toho does not know thee. Inftead of Crowns they at firft 
us'd Fillets, not as a Badge of Majefty, but only to bind 
and preferve the Head (2). So heavy are the Cares 
of a Crownd Head, that it had need to be fore-arm'd ; 
for to Reign is nothing but three continual Sighs and 
Toils, in preferving, acquiring, and lofing. There- 
fore did the Emperor, Mark Anthony, fay, That Empire 
•was the great eft of Troubles. Princes are born to labours, 
let them therefore inure themfelves thereto. The Kings 
of Verfia had a Chamberlain, who wak'd them betimes 
in the Morning with thefe Words, Arife , O King, to 
look after the Affairs of your Kingdom. Some Princes 
now-a-days would not endure fuch difturbance, for 
they perfwade themfelves that Eafe , Voluptuoufnefs , 

* Strabo. + Valer. Max. ( 2 ) Let ihcm fee a fair Micre upon 
ktis Head) Zach. %, 5, 


"*44 Crowns have their Cares Vol. I; 

and Vices, are the Rewards of Princes , but that the 
Shame and Diigrace thereof belong to others. Wheres 
fome Princes ihamefully negled their Duty , it is be 
cauie ( as we fiiall mention elfewhere ) they take th< 
Kingdom for their Inheritance and Propriety, whicr. 
they may ufe as they pleafe , and think that their Au- 
thority and Sovereign Power is fubjecT: to no Laws, bud 
altogether free to ad as it lift ¿ in which Flattéfy en-jj 
courages them , infinuating that without that freedom]! 
and liberty of living, a Kingdom would be the worft 
of Slavery , more intolerable than the meaneft Condi- 
tion of Subjefts. Whence refigning themfelves torj' 
Luxury and Pleafure , their Strength and Spirits flag , ' 
and themfelves become wholly unfit for Government, 
Hence, I believe, it is,that among fo many Princes,ther« 
are fo very few good Governors, not that they want 
Natural Parts , for in thofe they ufually exceed others* 
as being born of better Blood; but becaufe that through 
Eafe and Luxury they don't make ufe of them ; nor 
do their Courtiers fuifer it , for they make their For* 
tunes with more eafe under a negligent than careful 
Prince. The Remedy againft thefe Inconveniencies 
confifts chiefly in two Things ,• The firft is, That a 
Prince , ihould from his Youth , as foon as he has the 
ufe of Reafon , be accuftomed to the Management of 
Affairs, even before the Death of his PredeceiTor ; thus 
God did with Jojhua. And if in Matters of Concern and 
Truft, it be not convenient, for Reafons which I fliall 
ihew in the iaft Emblem but one ,• yet in other things 
it is, that his Mind may be diverted from Debauchery. 
This made the Roman Senate introduce their Youth to 
their Confultations. By the benefit of this many Popes 
Nephews, though they have been admitted very youn^ 
to the Adminiitration of Affairs , have in a few year 
made experience Statefmen. The other is, That thofe 
that are near the Prince , ihould dexterouGy endeavou 
to root out of his Mind certain vain Opinions of hi 
Greatnefs , and let him know that 'tis the common 
Confent of all that gives Power and Authority to the 


Vol. Í. as well as Pléafurei. „ 145* 

Scepter, for Nature made no Kings. That his Purple 
is an Emblem of Blood, which he ihould be ready up- 
on occafion to ihed for the People (t); that it was not 
given to breed and nóurííh the Mo.h; of Vices : That 
lie is born a Prince by chance,* that Virtue only is the 
proper good of Man ; that his Dominion is Govern- 
ment, not abiblute Power, and that his Vaifals are Sub- 
jects not Slaves. This Document the Emperor Claudius 
gave to Mekrdatus , King of Verfia (5-). Let them ad- 
rvife the Prince fo to do by thole whom he Governs , 
as he would be done to were he a Subject,* fo Galbo. 
ipftruóted Pifo when he adopted him his Son (6). -No! 
Prince was ever elected only to befo, but .that being 
fb he fnight be fervíceab^e to" the reft. - King Antigonus 
confidering this' , advi^'d his Son not to abafe his 
Power, not to be proud or ufe his Subjeds ill, Knuwefi 
thou not, my Son, iaid he , that our Kingdom is but a noble 
Slavery (~). Upon this the Woman grounded her An- 
fwer to the Emperor Rodolpbus, who telling her he was 
not at leafure to hear her: Then, fays ihe, you are no. 
more Emperor. Subje&s are not born for, the, King, but,' 
the King for the Subje&s. 'Twould be too hard a. 
Bargain for them to fell all their Liberty to the King, 
if in return they could not prorriife themfelves Juitice 
ana Protection from' him, to which end they volunta- 
rily fibmitted themfelves to his Command. The Ro- 
wans in their Triumphs were crown'd with their own 
Shields (8), made into the circular Form of a Crown, 
whence were introdue'd the Diadems of the Saints,who 
were Victorious againft the Common Entmy.' A 
Prince deferves not a Crown, unlefs a!fo he ufe it as a 
Shield to ward the Stroaks of adveife Fortune from his 

(4J Confulares fafces, p>£t?xtum, curulemque fellam', nihil aliud, quatn 
pompom funeris putenfy dark infignibus velut injulk ye latos ud moi t m 
dejiúnaii. l\v. %. f-Uft (5) Vt non domi nation? rn, (fj fervos, Jed reilo~ 
rem far cives cogitaret. Tac. 1 2. Ano. (6) Cogitare quid ant nolne>if 
fub alio. Frmcipe , aut voLetis. Tac. 1. Hi¡». (j ) An lg»oras , jilt v// , 
noftrum Rgnüm ejfi nobtlem jhviiutem i (?,) With faVüur wjlc ihcu 
compjfs luía as vúch a Shield, Pfulm 5. u. 

L Subjects. 


146 Crowns have their Cares Vol.!. 

Subjects. To Reign is rather an Office than a Dignity- 
an Authority of a Father over his Children (9) ; and 
if the Subjects find not that Fatherly Care and Affeétí 
on in the Prince , they owe him no Refpeét or filia 
Obedience. King Ferdinand the Holy, look'd upon hii 
Government as an Office , which confifted in protect- 
ing his Subjects, in adminiftring Juítice, in chaftifing 
Vice, and procuring the Enlargement of his Territo- 
ries ; not fparing any pains for its Advantage, and ac- 
cording to this he always a&ed. Princes are (as we 
fhall obferve elfewhere ) like Mountains , as well be- 
caufe they are nearer the Favours of Heaven ; as be- 
caufe they fliould receive all Injuries of the Weather 
upon themfelves, being Depofitaries of Ice and Snow, 
which melting, fliould flow thence , and water and re- 
freíh the droughty Fields and Valleys beneath , and by 
the Shade of their Bodies defend them from the fcorch- 
ing Heat of the Sun (io).For this reafon,the Scriptures 
call Princes Giants (n), for they that are born to fu- 
ftain the weight of Government , had need be of ú 
inore than ordinary Stature : They are Giants which*' 
muft undergo Fatigues and Groans (as Job fays) under ! 
the Waters (12) , by which are meant People and Na- 
tions (1;). They are the Corners which fuftain the" 
whole FabricR of the State (14). A Prince , who be- 
lieves he is not born to do this for his Subjects, and does 
riot prepare himfelf to ihelter them from the Injuries of 
the Weather , dwindles from a Mountain to a Valley ¿ 
nay , 'tis unlawful for him whom Heaven has defign'd 
to Govern others, to* regard his own eafe and quiet. 

( 9 ) Vt enim gubernatio patrisfamiliai eft Regia quídam poteflat 
domi \ it a Regia poteftar , eft chitatti & gentit uñitu aut plurium q*afi 
dnmejliéa qusdarri ¿ubernatio. Arift. Polic. 3. cap. II. (ro) For thou* 
haft been a ¡ircngth to the poor, a iirength to the needy in his di- 
iirefs ; a refuge from the Storm, a fhadow from the heat, IJa. 25. 4. 
(1 1) There were Giants in the Earth in thofe days j the fame be- 
came mighty Men, Gen. 6. 4. (n) Vid. Job 26. 5. (13) And the 
Waters which thou fawcft, where the Whore fittcth, are Peoples," 
and Multitudes, and Nations, and Tongue», Revel. 17.15. (14J Vid* 
1 Sam, 14. 3$. 


Vol.í. as xoell as Tleafurei. I47 

Wantba being elected iKing of the Goths, and refuting 
the Grown , a certain Captain with his drawn Sword 
threatned to ftab him unleis he accepted it ; Shall you 
alone j fays he to him , oppofe the TVitt of the whole Nation, 
and prefer your own Private Eafe to the Publick Good? For 
this reaibn , the States of Guadalajara would not fuifer 
King John to refign his Kingdom to his Son Henry , he 
being too young, ¿nd himfelfhaving a Coriititution fit 
for Government. Hence tis evident, That Princes are 
a part of the Commonmwealth , and that they are in 
feme meafure fubject to it, as Inftrumertts of its Prelér- 
▼ation, ib that their fucceis or misfortunes reiped it ¿ 
as Tibmtti told his Sons (15). Thofe who defired Da- 
vid for their King, told hifh, We are thy Bone and thy 
Plefi (16) * intimating to him that he muft with his 
own Itrength. fupport them , and take upon himfelf all 
their Toils and Grievances. 

j A Prince ought álfo to be taught while he is young,, 
tjo tame and govern the skittiih Horie of Government; 
for ifrould he let him have his Head, he would fall 
fieadlong with. hím: He íhould ufe therefore the Bridle 
^f Reafon, the Reigns of Policy, the Whip of Juftice 3 
and the Spurs of .Valour^ keeping always fair in the 
Stirrups of Prudence. He mull: not. execute every thing 
that comes into his Mind, but only what is honourable 
and juft, leaft he ihodld tranfgrefs Piety, Reputation, 
Modefty, or good Manners (1?). Let not a Prince 
imagine that his Power is wholly abfolute, but fubjed 
by the publick Good and Intereir of his State. Not im- 
menfe, but limitted , and cxpos'd to many Citfualries ; 
qne blaftof Wind diilipated all Philip the Secord "s Naval 
Preparations again it England. 

j Let the Prince alio know ,.. that his Authority is not 
ío Sovereign, but that part of it remains in theSubjed, 

(15) Ita rati eflif ut bona m.*>4e wftra ai Remp. pcrtineant.Tar.^. 
Ann (16} aSam.^.i. £17) í'.itía qu¿ Uctunt pietatem, exijiimat'ton'm^ 
vcreciindtam noftram, fo ut ¿eneralirtr dixe'i/n, contra bonos mores fi-ni 
net faceré eo¡ credendum :j\. L. 1 5. b\ de Condi;, inftie, 

L 2 wnicfi 

140 Crowns have their Cares, <xc. Vol. I. 

which they either referv'd to themfelves from the be- 
ginning, or which Common Sence has fince granted 
them for tneir defence againft any Prince notorioufly 
unjuft and tyrannical. Good Princes are pleas'd at the 
Liberty of their Subjefts ,• Tyrants only would be abfo- 
luté (18). The Safety and Prefervation of the King- 
dom , depends upon the well-temper'd freedom of the 
People. 'Tis not that Prince who is moft powerful, 
that is moft fecure , but he who is fo with reaibn ,• nor 
is he leis Sovereign who defends the juft Rights and 
Privileges of his Subjects. 'Tis rather prudence to let 
them enjoy 'em freely , for they never derogate from 
the Authority of. the Prince, but when he thinks his 
Honour affronted, and endeavours wholly to take 'em 
away. Let him be content to maintain his Crown by 
the fame means his Anceftors did. It feems to be this 
which úod would admoniih Princes of, ( though in a- 
nother Sence) by Ezekiel the Prophet ( 1 9) , when he 
faid, bind the tire of thine Head to thee ,• if any on© 
ihall wear it toó lóofe, 'twill be very apt to fall off. 
- ^ 

f (18) Ghcmodo peflimú Imperatoribus fine fine dominationem, it a quam- t 
lit egreg'w hbenatis modum placeré. Tac. 4. Ann. (19J Bind the 
tirfc of thine Head upon thee. E^eJ». 24. 17, 

£ Af- 



b m'b l e ¿rxxr. 

JUftice is the Center from which the Circumference 
of a Crown is drawn. If we could live without 
one, there would be no need of t'other. 

In former times all Princes Judges were, 
And to fee Jttfiice done, was all their Care. 

In the firft Age there was no need of Puniihment, for 
there were no Crimes ; nor of Rewards, for Virtue and 
Glory were belov'd for their own fakes. But as the 
World grew older, Wickedneft encreafed with it , and 
made Virtue more referv'd, which before liv'd freely 
and careleisly in the Fields. When Equality was laid 
afide , and Ambition and Force fuppli'd the place of 
Modefty and Shame, then Government was alfo intro- 

L } duotá. 

1 50 A Prince ought to Rule hy Law. Vol. I. 

duc'd. For Prudence urg'd by neceflity, and Common 
Prudence oblig'd Men to Civil Society , that they 
might exercife Virtues , which Reafon prompted them 
to, and make ufe of Speech which Nature gave them, 
that by revealing to one another the Senle of their 
Minds , they might inform , affift , and defend each 
other ( 1 ). Society being thus by common Confent 
eftablifh'd , there arofe at. the fame time a certain Su* 
pream Power necefTary to tjie Preíérvation of its Parts, 
which by puniihing Vice, arid rewarding Virtue, might 
defend them in Peace and Juftice. And becaufe this 
Authority could not be diffufed through the whole Bo¿ 
dy, by reafon of the Confufion which would arife in 
the Execution thereof ; *and becaufe 'twas alfo neceflfa- 
ry that fome ihould Command , and the reft Obey, 
they quitted their Pretenfions to it, conferring it either 
upon one, few, or many, which are the three forts of 
Government • Monarchy, Ariftocracy, and Democra- 
cy. The firft of which was Monachy ¿ for originally 
Men were govern d by one in each Family,* after- 
wards they chofe from among the People , one , who 
excell'd others in Goodnefs and Virtue, whofe Hand , 
as his Authority encreas'd, they honoui'd vwith a Scep- 
ter, and his Head with a Diadem, as a Badge of the 
Power and Sovereignty which they had conferr'd upon 
him, which mould principally confift in Juftice, by 
which he mould prefer ve and defend his Subjects in 
Peace ; fo that without that there is no Order of Go- 
vernment (2), and all Kingly Authority ceafes, as it 
happened! in Cafiik, which was reduc d to the Govern- 
ment of -Judges , the Kings being excluded for the In- 
¡uftice of Ordonno and Fruela. 

This Juftice could not be well adminifter'd by the 
mere Law of Nature, without imminent Danger to the 
Commonwealth; for iincc 'tis defin'd to be a conftant and 

*-■ ■-■ — 1 11 - . . 

(i) Sermí vero datm eft bomini, ad stile <fy inutile, etc proinde jnflum 
éc in)u(1um dtcUrandttm. Arifl. Po!. I. cap. 1. (2) Nam Re/pub. nulls 
e/?, ubi leges nsr, tcnent Impemm. Arift. Fol. 4, cap. 4, 


Vol. I. A Prince ought to Bule ly Law, 151 

perpetual defire of giving to every one their own (;), 
it would be very dangerous if it ihould depend upon 
the Opinion and Judgment of the Prince, and not be 
written,' nor can mere natural Reafon, though free 
from Affections and Paffions , give true Judgment in 
fuch variety of Cafes as happen continually. So that 
'twas neceffary for States to arm themielves with Laws, 
¿leduc'd from long ufe and experience, as well Penal 
as Diftributive ; thefe to puniih faults , and thofe to 
give every one his own. Penal. Laws are reprefented 
by a Sword, the Emblem of Juftice, as Trajan intima- 
ted, reaching a Sword to the Captain of his Guards , 
with thefe Words, Take this., and if I govern well, ufe It 
for me, if not, agatnft me. Equally iharp on both fides, 
as well for the Rich as the Poor ; not with one Edge 
blunt j and t'other iharp j to fpare one, and hurt ano- 
ther. Diftributive Laws are repreíénced by a Rule or 
Square , which meafures indifferently the Anions and 
Rights of all (4). By this Rule of Juftice things ought 
^0 he meaíúred. not this Rule by things, as the Lesbian 
Rule was, which being made of Lead., eafily adapted it 
felf to all ihapes of the Stone.The Prince ought to give 
Life and Vigour to both. King Alphonfo the Wife laid, 
That a King was the Heart and Soul of the State. And 
in another place he fays, That Rex a King is the fame 
with Regula a Rule. Rex a King, and Lex a Law, 
differ but in one Letter ,• and what elfe is a King but 
the Speaking- law , and the Law but a dumb King; 
fo much King that could it exert it felf it ihould govern 
alone. Prudence has as it were divided the Power of 
Princes, and yet in their Perfons it remains whole, 
yet it has fubtilly transferr'd part thereof to Paper , fo 
that it has left Majefty written and expos'd to the view 
of all, for the exercife of Juftice, fo that Juftice and 
Chaftiíément, by means of the Law , anticipating 
Crimes, the Sentence might not be afcrib'd to the Will, 

(i) For Juftice is immorral, Wifd, 1 . 1 5. (4) Legem fctmus /«- 
fit injujlique regnlam ejj'e, Sc nee?, 

L 4 Paffion 

I §i A Prhce ought to Rule hy Law] Vbl.1 

Faflion, or Intereft of the Prince, and that he rnigl 
avoid the Odium of his Subje&s. The Law is an ej 
cufe for Rigour , a difcountenancer of Favour , an iij- 
vifible Arm of the Prince, with which he holds the 
Reigns of the Government. There is no better wáyi 
to make Authority refpefted and obeyedjfor which rear 
ion the Law mould be punctually obférv'd, nor iliould 
force be us'd in any thing which may be decided by 
Law ( 5 ). When once a Prince proceeds that way, 
the Laws will foon lofe their force and efficacy (6): I 
Crimes will be reckdn'd Innocence, and Juftice Ty- 
ranny (7) : Nor is the Power of the Prince a little di- 
niiniih'd, for that is ever more efFe&ual with the Law 
than without it. 'Tis the Law that crowns , defends, 
and confirms a Prince (8), without it there would be 
no difference between Subjection and Command. True 
Policy is founded upon the Law, not upon Arbitrary 
Sway. They are the true Rule of Government , the 
Roads of Policy, by them as by certain Lines the Ship 
of the State fails fecurely ,• they are the Walls of Civil 
Power, the Eyes and Scul of the State, the Fetters of 
the Mob, and the Bridle (the prefent Emblem) which 
Guides and Curbs it (9). Even Tyranny it felf can t 
fubíiír without them. 

The Determination of Juftice could not be íáfely 
committed to the inconftancy of the Will, which is 
iubject to fo many Affections and Paffions, and of it 
felt perfectly blind ¿ J3ut it was neceflary that it mould 
be reftrain'd by certain fix'd Decrees and Statutes , 
founded upon Reafon and Prudence, which mould 
without diftinction be Obligatory to all. Such are the 

(5) Kec utendum imperio, ubi legibus agi pofjit. Tac. 3. Ano. (6) Mi- 
pui jura quotíes g(tfcat potrftas. Tac. 3. Ann. (j) The work of righ- 
teoufnefs fhali be p ace and the effect of rightecufnefs, quietnefs 
and affurance for ever, Jfaiah 32. 17. (8) Inauditi atque defenft tan- 
qu am innocentes peiiíart. Tac 1. Hift. Q9) Faifa funt autem leges, ut 
enrum metu humana eserceatw audacia, tutiique fit inter improbos innoesn- 
tia, ¿r in iffisiirpyobü rejoimidato fupplicio refrsnetur audacia Q¿r necendi 
facultas. Ifid. lib. 2. EryrnoJ. L. legibus, t. de leg. 


Vol. I. A Trmce ought to Rule hy Law. i^ 

Laws which experience of paft Accidents has provided 
foil future ones; and fince they can't explain themfelves, 
but are mere Jtodies which receive $oul , and under- 
Jranding from the Judges, with whofe Tongues they 
fpeak , and by whofe Pens they are explahVd, and ap- 
py'd to particular Cafes , it being impoffible to com- 
prehend all ,• let a Prince be very careful to whom. 
ne commits themj for in them he entrufts his very 
Being, and the chief In ftruments of Government,* but 
trie choice being once rightly made, let him not hinder 
the free exercifé and ordinary coúríé thereof, but leave 
it wholly to the Magiftrate ,• but if Princes will through 
Clemency or Arbitrary Power, intermeddle with the 
Expofition of the Laws ,• all this Politick Structure wil) 
fail, and thofe Laws which íhould prop and fupport it, 
father caufe its ruin. Tyranny is nothing elfé but an 
(ignorance and contempt of the Laws, afiuming to ic 
felf their Power and Authority. This Rome of old 
jbewail'd as the chief caufe of its Slavery, Jugufius ar- 
rogating to himfelf the chiefeft Offices in the Law, 
that he might the better play the Tyrant (ro). 

When Caefar to hlmfdf affumd the Laivs 9 
Toor Rome grew foon degenerate and bafe, 
Forgot her War y andjlept in fervile Veace. Claud. 

A Prince in obftru&ing the Laws encourages Vice, as 
tfhapp'ned in the time of the Emperor Claudius (i i). 
Multiplicity of Laws are very dangerous to a State, 
for they deftroy one another ; being too numerous 
they create Confufion and Oblivion , or when they 
can't be obferv d are defpis'd. A fure fign of a diiib- 
lute and corrupt State ^ one contradi&s another, and 
makes room for íiniíter interpretations , and different 
Opinions, whence arife Difputes and Contentions 

(10) Infurgere paulatim , mun'a jenatus , Mag&ratmm , legumin fe 
tr ¡there. Tac. I. Ann. (il) N,vn cuníin legum. <¿? Mag'flratwm mn- 
nia in fe trahens Princeps, mater iam pradandi pat-fát. Tac. it. Ana. 


If 4 A Prince ought to Rule fy Law. VoV 

The greateft part of the People are taken up in Law! 
there want ,'Men to manure the Ground ; for Office: 
and War. A few good fupport many bad, and man' 
bad lord if over the few good. The Courts of Judi! 
cature are Harbours for Pirates , and Receptacles foi 
^Thieves. Thofe very Men who mould be the AfTer 
tors of the Peoples Liberty , are the heaviefi: Fetters ci 
their Slavery (12). Too many Laws are not lefs pen 
hicious to a State than Vices (1;). He who make 
many Laws, fets many Traps, in which all muíl b 
caught. ,So Caligula, when he had a defign upon tbi 
Innocent, eftabliined many Laws , written in fo fmali 
ii Character, t^.at they could be hardly read. Ami 
Claudius publifhed Twenty in one day , which ib puz 
zTed the People, that 'twas more difficult to know thai 
to obferve them. Therefore Arijiotk faid , That few 
Laws were fufhqerit for the weighteft Cafés, and th» 
the reft ought to be left to natural Reafon. Nothing 
is fo prejudicial to State as multiplicity of Laws: Henai 
God threatened Ifrael , as a Puniihment for their Sins' 
that he would multiply their Laws (14). To whas 
purpofe is it to make an Addition of new Laws upori 
every flight occafion,when there is no. cafe which has not 
happ'ned before, nor any inconveniency which has no; 
been already confider'd of,and by Obfervation and Ex- 
perience provided for? Thoie which are now introduc c 
into Cajtile, as new, may be all found in the Ancient 
Records. The Obfervation of thefe would be mud- 
more agreeable to the People , and would create lefi 
Odium to the Prince , than the Promulgation of othei 
new ones. In thofe Judgment acquiefces , in thefe 'tt 
dubious and unfteady ; thofe feem to be founded witli 
care, the Authority of thefe is queftionable ; thoft 
may fafely be renew'd, thefe can't be introduce with* 

£il) Deditque jura, quels pace, & Principe uteremur, aemra ex ft 
amula indiñ cuftodes. Tac. 3. Ann. (13) Vtque antehac fligitm in 
nunc legibus laborabatur. Tac. 3. Ann. ("14) Becaufe Epbraim harl 
made many Altars to Sin, Alcars (lull be unto him to Sin. Scriban 
¿i multíplices leges meat, f«ys the Latin Verfion, fíof, 8. il> 12. 


fol. I. A Prince ought to Rule ly Law, 15 f 

ut danger. To make Experiments of new Medicines 
¡ dangerous to Health and Life ,• many Herbs before 
lie way of preparing them were known, were Poifon . 
letter is that State govern'd, whofe Laws, though im- 
erfe£ , are fettled , than that which is continually 
hanging them. The Ancients to intimate that Laws, 
tight to be perpetual , wrote them upon Tables of 
frafs (15), and God engrav'd them with his Eternal 
? inger upon Stone (i5). For this reafon Auguftus ad- 
is'd the Senate , that they fhould preferve their Laws 
irire without altering them ; for that tho' they were ' 
ad , they were more beneficial to the State than new 
»nes (17). There is no Kingdom but is provided with 
jaws fufficient ; but care ought to be taken , leaft the 
«riety of Interpretations ihould render them ambigu- 
ius and obfcure , and occafion Difputes and Contro- 
'criies. This ought to be prevented, which might with 
afe be done in Spam, if fome King, upon this account 
lot left a Reftorer than Pelagius , would abbreviate all 
'rocefles, and leaving the Civil Law, would make uíé 
>nly of tholé of the Kingdom, which are not left pru- 
lent and learned than juft and reaibnable. This King 
Zecejhvind meant, when in one of his Laws he faid, 

Alfo King Alphonfus the Wife., commanded his Judges. 

rhis their Majefties,iW/»W and Jean, afterwards con- 
lrm'd , as did King Alarkk , who laid fevere Penalties 
ipon the Judges for admitting the Pleas of the Roman 
Laws. Nor docs it a little derogate from Supream Ju- 
rifdi&ion to be govern'd by Foreign Laws. To this I 

(r$) Vfus &rU ad perpetuitatem monument or um jampridem tranjlutw 
ifttabuHf areis , in quibus conflitutiones publics, inciduntur. (ié) And 
lie gave unto Mofes, when he had made an end of communing with 
likn upon Mount Sinai, wo Tables of Teftimony , Tables of Stone 
imcten wich the Finger oí God. ("17) Pofuas femel leges conilanter 
fervate , re c uttam earum immuta'e ; nam qu t in fuo \\atu eademque m*~ 
nent, etfi deteriora fmt y tamen utiliza funt Reipublicé, his qua per inm- 
vatimcm, vel me lior a indicant ar. Dion. 1 52. 


x j6 A ?r\nce ought to Rule ly Lavo. Vol) 

Jbrefee two Obje&ions ,• firft, that if thefe Laws wet] 
written in Spanifo , the Latin Tongue would be loflj 
and the Lawyers would apply them fel ves whdU 
to the Study and Explanation of them only ,• befides] 
that without the knowledge of the Civil Law, frot] 
whence they are deriv'd , they could not be well un' 
derftood. The other is , that fince the Civil Law i 
Common to almoft all Europe , according to whid 
caufes ought to be decided , and that the Rights am 
Privileges of Princes are often to be determine ii 
Foreign Parliaments, and Courts of Judicature; it wit 
be very neceffary to have Men well vers'd in the fau' 
Law. Which inconveniences will be eaíily remedia' 
by ere&ing and indowing ibme places for Civil Law.' 
yers in the Univerfities ,• as (though upon different Mo- 
tives) King Ferdinand did. 

But if this can't be effe&ed, the foremention'd inco* 
veniences may be thus remedied ; firft by prohibiting 
fuch a vaft number of Books to be imported, which 
ferve only to clear the Pockets, not the underftanding; 
nor is Printing any thing elfe nOw-a-days , but Mer- 
chandize and Trade. This variety confounds the' 
Senfes, embarraffes and puzzles the Judgment. 'T would! 
be moie advifeab'e, where the written Laws are not 
Full enough for the Deciiion of any Controverfy, to 
be guided by Reafon , that living Law , rather than 
to grope for Juftice in the obfcurity of ílich diverfity 
of Opinions , equally favourable to each fide, and fob* 
jecl to Subornation and Paifion. Next, by Jhortening 
the tedious Methods of the Law, as King Philip the Se¿ 
cond defignd to do at Milan, when he confulted with 
the Senate about that Affair. In which he not only re-. 
fpecled the good of the Subjeft , but alfo that in that 
State , which is the Bullwark of the Kingdom , there 
might be more Men of the Sword than the Gown. 1 
The fame was attempted by the Emperors , Titus and, 
Vefpafian , Charles the Fifth , their Catholick M^jefties , 
Peter, King of Portugal, James the firft of Arragon, and 
Lewis ^ the Eleventh of France ; none of them being 


roll. A rrince ought to time by Lavo. 15- 7 

ble to effect it ¿ nor can any one elfe hope to bring 
about, fince for the reforming the Practice of the 
tench , the Judges themfelves muft be of Coünfel, 
yhofe Intereft it is to prolong Suits, as 'tis that of Sol- 
iers . to continue War. 3 Twas pure necéílity oblig'd 
lemoft Serene Queen Jfahel, of her own accord, to 
nake ufe of this Remedy , when being at Sevil har- 
afs'd with vexatious Appeals, ihe commanded all Suits 
Spending, to be by the afliitance of able and learned 
k/len , decided in her prefence , without the noife of 
he Ear , and that Accumulation of Informations and 
Vocefles, and truly fuccelsoiliy enough as experience 
as ihewn. The Cantons of Switzerland are very pru- 
ently govern'd, becaufe there are no Lawyers among" 
lem ,• the Witneííes are heard , and without writing 
own any thing, except the Judgment, the Caufes '.are' 
tnmediately decided. A quick Condemnation is more 
xpédient «for the. Client, than a favourable Judgment: 
iter a tedious dependance. He who commences a 
^aw-fuit now-a-days, does as it were plant a Palm- 
Tree, which he can't expecl: to live to gather the Fruit 
)f. In a State where Suits are long and tedious, the 
teopife can never live peaceably and amicably (t8)» 
.et there therefore be few Con niel lors, Attornies, and 
ollicitors. How can that Government be quiet, in 
yhich there are fo many who get their living by raifing 
md promoting Feuds and Law-fuits ? What hopes of 
üeítitution to the injur'd , when there are fo many 
eady to fleece and ftrip him. ? Suppofe them tó be Per- 
sons of Worth and Integrity, yet is Juftice ne'er the 
better adminiftred for their number,' no more than a 
Difeafe is better cur'd by many Phyikians. Nor would 
t redound to the Common Good, if with the loft of 
:he Publick Tranquility, and the Eftates of the People, 
here ihould be made too nice a fcrutiny into every 
Mies Right': A moderate and moral Care is fulficient. 

(18.) Nonfuerint concordes unquam, ant inter amantes cives,ttbi mntn£ 
hult¿ lites judiciales funt, fed ubi e<z breviflima. ¿7 p¿Hciffim£, I'iato. 


15° A Prince bugbt to Rule by Law. Vol.: 

Nor does leís damage arrive from an abundance c 
Penal Laws to prohibit Luxury in Cloaths , and fupei 
fluous Expences,» for fuch Edicts are generally flighted 
and not obferved ,• the fame Month in which they ar 
eftablifli'd , they are aboliíhd. They are like the Re 
fponfes of the Sibyls, written upon Leaves, and icatterV 
by the Wind. And if once this diibbedience takes place 
it makes Luxury moré infolent and fecure (19). Tf* ; 
Prince's Reputation differs, when the Remedies whid 
he prefcribes are inefíe&ual, or not obferved. The Edict 
of Margaret of Auflria, Dutcheis of Parma, not beinj 
executed, derogated much from her Authority in Flan 
ders. Therefore 'tis a queftion, whether moderate Lux» 
ry be not a more tolerable Inconveniency^ than 
Prohibition when not obey'd (20) ? Or whether it H 
not better to wink at old and fettled Vices, than ■ 
feeble Laws to ibew that they are ftroneer than tri 
Prince ? If Laws are once broken, unpuñilhed, there ¡! 
no reftraint or ihame beyond. If a Prince would ex 
prels thefe Laws and Edi&s about Reformation of Man- 
ners in himfelf, perhaps Flattery, or the natural Propen-' 
fity in Inferiors to imitate their Superiors, or the Subject 
their Prince , would be more effectual than the figoui 
of the Law, and that without danger to Sovereign Au- 
thority. Frugality, which the Sumptuary Laws could 
not introduce, the Emperor Vefpajian did, only by his 
Example (21). The Imitation of the Prince, is a Sla- 
very lweetned by Flattery. 'Tis eafier for Nature to 
err in her own Works , faid Tbeodorick , King of the 1 
Goths, than for the Subjects not to obferve the Manners 
of their Prince. In him, as in a Glals, the People ad- 
juft their Anions : 

(19) Tot a majoribw reperu, tot quas divut Auguftus tulitjlU oblivi- 
one, b¿ (quod fi-igitiq/im eji") contempt h abolit& y fecurtorem luxum fecere* 
Tac. 3. Ann. (10) Hum coerció plus damni in Remp. ferret; quam 
indecorum attreftate, quod non obtineretur , vel retentum tgnominiam iff 
infnmiam virorum itlufirium pofceret. Tac. 3. Ann. (21) Sed prscipuus 
adfiriíH morií autor Vefpafianus fuit , antiquo ipfe cultu, vifluque objequi- 
wm inde in Principem, & amnlandi amor wlidior, quam pxn/t ex legtbn*, 
& metus. Tac. 3. Ann, 

—— Tbi 

oí. I. A rrime ought tó Hule by Law. 1 79 

■ ■ The Nation follows ft ill t 

The Fafoions of the Court, and *t always proves, 
Example more than Law the People moves. Claud. 

toftoms are Laws, not written upon Paper, but in the 
iind and Memory, of all, and are more grateful when 
ot forc'd , but a free choice and ibrt of liberty ,• and 
le fame common Content , which firft introducd 
lem , (till obferves them íb ftriftly, that it won't per- 
lit them to be altered though they are bad , for com- 
lon Opinion , by which , after they have been recei- 
sd by their Anceitors, the People are fully perfwaded 
ley are juft and reaibnable , does prevail more in this 
latter than the ftrongeft Arguments ; nay, than the 
iconveniences jthemfelves which are found in them. 
Hs therefore more prudent to bear with them, than 
rholly to remove them. A prudent Prince governs 
is State without altering its Cuftoms (2 2). But if they 
re oppofite tó Virtue or Religion , they ought to be 
exteroufly corre&ed , and the People by degrees pre- 
ared to know the reaibn. King Froila incurr'd the odi- 
m of many by difannulling the Cuftom of the Cler- 
y's marrying , Which had been before introduce by 
?itiz,a 9 and conflrm'd by the Example of the Greeks. 

If the State be not well conftituted, and the Peoples 
linds dócil and corrigible, Laws will be of fmall 
lb (2;). Which I believe Solon meant , when being 
sk d what Laws were beft ,• he anfwered, thofe which 
le People obferve. Medicines are of no ufe where the 
)iíeaíé is incurable. Laftly, Laws will be infignificant, 
nleis the Prince by his Life and Example confirm and 
lengthen them (24). That Law feems pleafant and 
afy to the People, which the Legiflator himfelf ob- 
;rves : 

(22) Nhs hoMnum twiflime agere> qui prsjentibus mor ¡but, legib*ps*c 
ñam fi deteriores fint, minimum vaiiantts Rempub. adminifirant. ThuCid. 
23) Quid leges fine moribus vanx froficiunt * S. Aug. (24) üigna 
ox eft Majeftate regrtmtis , iegibus dltigatum fe tnfoeri. L. 4. C de 

l6o A Prince ought to Rule hy Law. Vol.f 

If you command, and hope to be obeyd, 

Obferve your felf thofe Laws your felffirft made. 

The People then will due Obedience jliew, 

To you who make Laws, and observe them too. Claud. 

The Laws made by Servius Tuliius, were not only foi 
the People, but alfo for the Prince (25-). By them 
Óontroverfies between the Prince and People ought to 
be determined : As Tacitus relates of Tiberius (26). Tho 
(faid the Emperors , Severus and Antoninus) we are fret 
from the Laws , yet we live by them. A Prince is not 
oblig'd by the ftrift Letter of the Law , but by the 
Reafon on which 'tis grounded, for that is natural and 
common to all , not peculiar to Subje&s only for their 
good Government ; for in fuch cafe the Obfervation 
of the Law belongs to them alone, tho* 'twill be very 
neceiTary, if the Cafe will allow, for him to conform 
himfelf to them, that fo they may feem the more plea- 
fant to others. This was the meaning of God's Com- 
mand to Ezekiel, that he íhould eat the Roll (27). 
That others feeing that he had firft tailed che Laws, 
and found them fweet as Honey, all might imitate him. 
The Kings of Spain are (o fubjecft to the Laws, that the 
Treafury in cafes of the Royal Patrimony, runs the 
fame fortune with any other Subject, and in a doubtful 
cafe is condemn'd. So it was ena&ed by Philip the Sew 
cond ; and once when his Grandfon, Philip the Fourth,, 
your Highnefs's Father , was prefent in Council, upon. 
á Debate of a Cafe relating to the Exchequer, neither 
the Judges wanted Integrity to give it againft him, nor 
his Majefty Temper to hear it without Refentment.. 
Happy is that State, in which the Prince's Caufe is the' 
worit (28). 
_ . «^ 

(15) tribus ettam Reges obtemperaren. Tac. 3 Ann. (16) Siqnatf 
do cum privatii drfceptarent, forum <fyr jus. Tac. 4. Ann. (17) Eat thil 
Roll, and go ÍVeak uno the Houlc ot Ifmel j fo 1 opened my Mouth, 
and he caus'd me to eat the Roll, Eyel^. 3. 1, and 1. (28) Qus glorié 
tua e\\ precipua, ftpe vincitur Bifcus cujus mala caufa nxnquam eft, nifi 
fub bono principe, fliu. m Pjn. 




k MZ.X ÉM XXIfc 

r Hough the Peoples Conferit confers the Power of 
Juftice upon Princes, they receive it immediately 
:om«God,as being his Vicars in Temporal Affairs. They 
re the Róyál Eagles, the Miniiters of Jove (i), who 
idminifter his Thunder ? and fupply his place in pu- 
iihing Vice, and a'dminiftting Juftice j in which they 
ave need of three Qualities of the Eagle, íhárpnefs of 
ight to infpecY Crimes , fwiftnefs of Wing for Execu- 
on , and ftrength of Talons , that they main't fail 
íerein. The Injury done by a certain Nobleman to 
poor PeáfanÉ, though in the remotell Corner of Ga- 

(0 For he is the Miniftcr of God to thee for good i but if thou 
3 that which is evil, tie afraid j for he beareth not the Sword ia 
litf, Kim. 13Í4. 

M . UtUt 

tSii A Tñnce will heft Ettaltijh himfelf Vol. T. 
licia, could not efcape the quick fight of King Alpbmfo 
the Seventh 3 call'd Emperor, who drfguifing himfelf,! 
went immediately to puniíh him with fuch lpeed, that 
he apprehended him before he knew any thing of nil 
coming. O lively and ardent Soul of the Law ! to be, 
himfelf Judge and Executioner, to fatisfy an Injury j 
done to a poor Peafarit, and to puni/h the unjuft Op. 
preflion of the Gfr/ndee. The fame did King FerdU 
vand the Catholi|k¿ wjio being at Medina 3 went prfc; 
vately to Salamanca , "and feized Roderigo Maltonado^ 
who exercis'd great Oppreffions in the Gaftle of Mom-, 
hon (2). Who would ever tranfgreis the Laws , if hi 
always fear'd fuch a furprife ? One fuch as this would 
frighten and reform a whole Kingdom. But it is not¡ 
always expedient for Majefty it felf tb imitate iuch Ex- 
amples. When I the State of the Kingdom is well 
fettled , when the Courts of Judicature are open , and 
the fear of the Law is freih and lively, 'tis furiiceint foJj 
a Prince to fee Juftice adminifter'd by his MiniftenJ 
But when all is in Confufion, when Obedience nag- 
gers,» when the King's Authority is flighted, as 'twas 
an thoíé times, then fome fuch íiiddain and fevere Pu-j 
nifhment will be feafonable , that the People may I 
Jknow the Power of their Prince, and underftand, that 
as in a Humane Body, fo in a Kingdom , the Soul of 
Majefty is all in all , and all in every part, Yet 'twiH 
be very neceflary to moderate this feverity, when the¡ 
Diftemper is inveterate, and the Kingdom confirm^ 
in Vice ,* for if Virtue ihould be too fevere upon Vicqj^ 
and endeavour to reform all at once , 'twould be 
efteem'd rather Cruelty than Juftice. # Time muft im 
cruit that which time has weakned < to precipitate i 
Cure is dangerous, and may make the Prince experi- 
ence the Rage of the incens d Multitude. Connivance, 
and Dexterity is often more effectual than force. In 
this King Ferdinand the Catholick was excellent,* and 
by this King Peter was deceiv'd, who relying wholly 

(%) Mm. Hiftt'of Spain* 


foJ.T. ly Jufkce and Clemency. 16% 

ippn Severity, got the Name of Cruel. Though Ju- 
tice be one Angle Virtue , yet has it various Effefts , 
cco'rding to the difference of time. Sometimes the 
'eople wholly reject it, and become more Infolent j 
Dmetimes they acknowledge the damage of their ex- 
efe, and co-óperace with the Prince to remedy it, and 
ii'ggeft the moft fevere means againft thiir own Liber- 
ia, by which the Prince acquires the Name of Juft 
without danger. , 

. Let not a Prince remit the Punifhment of ííich Ok 
snces agaiñíV the Government, in which few are con- 
érn'd , but pardon thofe in which many are involv'd. 
Igrippa being put to Death , in the Ifle oí Flanafia, by 
he Order of Tiberius , a certain Slave who was very 
ike him, flealing away his Allies, pretended that hé 
vas Jgrippa • the Rowans believ'd it $ the Report 
pread, and caus'd a Tumult, with evident danger of 
(Civil War. Tiberius caus'd the Slave to be appre- 
ifended, and put to Death privately, and though many. 
Gentlemen and Senators of his own Family, were fak| 
q have affifted him with Money .and Advice (3), yet, 
vould he furter none to ipeak in his behalf. Thus. 
Jrudence triumphed over Cruelty, and by Silence and 
Connivence he appeas'd the Diforder. ¿ ., 

.Let a Prince pardon imall Offences, and puniih 
»reat ones,* fometimes let him .be content with Repenr 
anee, which Tacitus commended in Agrícola (4). He 
£ not the beft Governor who puniihes with molt Seve-, 
ity, but he who pardons with fuch Discretion and 
üJircumfpecYión , as not to give any occafion to the 
delinquents to tranfgrefs a£aln. , No body commends 
i Chhurgeon for cutting off many Legs and A rms > 
10 body hates a Prince for puniihing , provided he 
Joes it with Reludancy and Grief; but him whp de- 

'.(j) E.t qnanquam mulñ ex e)w domo e quite s ac fenatores fujlentajje- 
ipibns , juviffelionfiúuy dJcerentur. Tac. a. Ann. . (4) Parxx peccatj* 
utviam , magim feveritatem cmmendn're ; nee ¡<T,nn fimper , fed fapixs 
tenitentia ctntemm eJTe, Tic. in Vír. Attic, 

M t limits 

i 64 A Prince wit left Eflablifb himfelf Vol. 1 

fights in it, and eagerly carps at all opportunities 
doing it. To puniih for Example , and amendment i 
Mercy ; but to do it through Paflion or Avarice i ; 
Tyranny. Let not a Prince fuffer any one to thin) 
himfelf ib great, and free from the Laws, as to dart 
to oppofe the Minifters of Juftice , and thofe who re 
prefent its Power and Authority , for fo the Pillar o ; 
Juftice can't tfand iecure ($•)> when fuch boldnefs on( 
takes place, contempt will by degrees undermine i 
and bring it to the Ground The chief Foundatio 
of the Sfaniflj Monarchy, and that which has rais'd i 
ib fuch an height, and keeps it fb, is the inviolabh 
Qbíérvátión of Juftice and Rigour, by which its King' 
have always taken care to make it refpe&ed anc : 
efteem'd of all. No Violation of it goes unpuriifh'd 
though great be the Dignitiy and Authority of the D¿' 
linquent. A certain Judge at Cor duba , was by tnji 
Command pf King Ferdinand the Catholick, enquiring 
into ibme Mifdemeanor , whom when the Marquils ' 
Tuego had arrefted, the King ib refented it, that 
the Signal Services of that Family of Corduba , couL 
not hinder him from puniihing him very feverelyj' 
afterwards he put himfelf Wholly into his Majefty's 
Hands, by the Advice of the Great Captain, who fe» 
ing the heinoufnefe of the Crime, which would nor 
admit of Pardon, wrote to him to caft himfelf at the 1 
King's Feet , by which he might perhaps expiaré 
his Crime, but if not he would certainly be ruff 
lied (6). 

Nor ought a Prince only to puniirl Crimes commit- 
ted againft his own Perlón, or during his Reign,* but- 
thofe alfo which were aéted in the Tail, though the* : 
State were then under the Power of an Enemy. Fof ' 
Prefidents of Diibbedience and Contempt of Authority 
being cortrtiv'd at, or rewarded, are dangerous even tó 
bucceíTors; Dignity is ever the fame, being always 

("5) fffac V. C. curam fuftiriet Princeps, hie omijja fnncHtus Rt» 
Srahet. Tac. 3. Ario, £6) Mar, Hill of Spun. 



Vol. f. ly Juftke and Clemency. 165 

sfpoufed to him who pofíefíes her. Wherefore he de- 
Fends his own Caufe, who takes care of his Predece£ 
!br's Honour , though 'twas not wounded jn his time. 
K Prince ought not to leave behind him the Memory 
)f one, who has been ib impudent as to affront Au r 
hority unpuni/h'd ,• for if once Subjects are perfwadecjl 
hat they may raife their Fortunes , or fatisfy their 
?aifions, by the Death or Abufe of the Prince, none 
vill be able to live fecure. The Puniihment of Impu- 
lence to the PredecefTor, is the íécurity of the Succef- 
c>r, and a warning to all from daring to attempt the 
ike. For which realbn Vitellius put ali thoíé to Death, 
imo petition'd him for Rewards for the Murther of 
ralba (7). Every one is treated as he treats others,. 
falius Cafar commanding the Statues of Fompey to bé 
re&ed, confirm' d his own. If Princes fliould not unite 
gainft Contempt and Treafon, Authority and Loyalty 
7ould be in ¿anger. 

ín- Cafes where the fame circumftances concur, a 
rince ought not to connive at fome and puñiíh others, 
)r nothing renders them more odious than partiali- 
1 (8). Whence the Egyptians iignified the Equality 
'hich ihould be obferv'd in Juftice, by the Feathers of 
tj Oftrich, which are equal on both fides. 

'Tis great Prudence in a Prince to find fuch forts 
F Punilhments , as will .expiate the Offence , with ' 
le leaft damage to the Delinquent. Certain Noble- 
ten fomented Difturbances in Galicia j and though 
tey deíérv'd Death , King Ferdinand the Fourth call d 
tern lo him, and gave them employs in the Army, 
here fome of them were puniih'd by the Enemy, 
hers by the Hardlhips and Toils of War, and 
1 that Province was reduc'd to its former Tranqui- 
:y. •< * _■»• ' 

C7) Non honor e Galba , fed tradito princ:pi!>ti4 more, mmimentum ad 
tfent , in pflerum ultionem. Tac. Hift. lib. 1. (8) Cavendiim eji 
UfJem de caujjis alii pleBantur , alii m appellants qmdem,. Cíe. 

M} . As 

l66 A Tr'tnce will hefl Eflallijh himfelf VoL| 

As in time of Peace , Juftice and Mercy are verj 
advantageous , fo in War are Rewards and Punifh. 
ments ; becaufe there the Danger^ are fo great , a 
would not be attempted without great hopes, and n? 
thing but fear* could reírrain the LicentiouGiefs of tl¿ 
Soldiers. In fo much as without thtfe two things, fay¡ 
King Alpbonfo , The Faults which are committed in Wm 
are much more dangerous • for if Men have fo much <j 
do to defend themfelves from the Mifcfauf of their Enemies 
how much wore have they from that which accrues from theq 
cwn Faults ? For which reafon the Romans iaflifted di- 
vers forts of Infamy and Puniihment upon the Soldier! 
who fail'd in their Duty,, or in any dangerous Attempi 
or Military Affair ¿ whence they were left afraid of tnj 
Enemy than the Puniihment , and chofe rather to di$ 
bravely in A&ion , than to lofe their Honour or Live 
afterwards with perpetual Ignominy and Difgrace 
In thole times none durft Defert , becaufe he coutjij 
not ihelter himfelf in any part of the Empire. Nowa- 
days Deferters are not only not puniihed when they re- 
turn to their own Country ,• but fculking from Battel 
they March from Milan to Naples, where as if they hac 
ferv'd under ibme other Prince , they are again liftec 
into his Majefty's Service, to the great detriment there- 
of. In which the Vice-Roys Ihouid follow the Exam- 
• pie of the Roman Senate, who after the Battel of Cann* 
though they were in extream want of Soldiers, couU 
not be indue d to redeem fix thoufand Prifoners whicfc 
llannihal offered them , thinking them not wortfc 
Redemption, who fuffer'd themfelves ignominioufly tc 
be taken Prifoners, when they might have died glori- 

The Errors of Generals committed through igno- 
tance, ought rather to be* conniv'd at than punilh'd, 
lean the fear of being puniihed or reprimanded fliould 
make them too timorous. Beiides the greateft Prudence 
¿nay be confounded in Accidents of War, whence they 
deferve Companion rather than Puniihment. Vam 
left the Battel of Cann<e > and at his return the whole 


Vol.í, ly Juftice and Clemency. 16 j 

Senate went out to receive him, thanking him for that 
m fuch a total Defeat he had not wholly defpair'd of 

When connivence is «ot convenient , but the Exe- 
cution of Juftice is required, let it be done with rea- 
dinefs and refolution. He who does it privately and 
by Health, is more like an AiTafline than a Prince. He 
who checks the Authority which the Crown ^Ves 
him, either doubts his Power or Meric; from the 
Prince's diftruft of himfelf proceeds the Peoples difre- 
|pe&. Whofe Opinion of him is anfwerable to what 
he has of himfelf. King Alphonfo the Wife loft the 
efteera of his People , by doing Juftice in private. 
This can be convenient only in troubleibme times, 
when greater Dangers may be fear'd, if the People 
don't fee the Authors of Seditions punhVd e'er 
they know they are taken,. Thus Tiberius a&ed for 
fear of this Inconveniency (9), In other Cafes let 
a Prince execute that Office boldly and vigoroufly, 
which he .hold* in the Name of God and the People : 
for 'twas Juftice that at firft gave him his Scepter , ana 
'tis that which muft preíérve it. 'Tis the Will of God, 
the Harmony of Government , and the Protection of 
Majefty. if the Laws be once fuffer'd to be broken 
unpunifli'd, there will be neither Fear nor Modefty, 
and without them no Peace nor Quiet (10), Yet let 
Princes confider that they are like Mafters of Fami- 
lies ; nay, that they really are fuch in reípeél to their 
§ubje#s, and therefore let them temper Juftice with 
Clemency .They ought to drink the Sins of the People, 
as God intimated to St. Peter, by that VeiTel of unclean 
Animals, out of which he commanded him to eat (11). 
A Prince ihould have the Stomach of an Oftrich, fo 

9) Nee Tiberius pcenam ejm palam aufus t in fecrete palatii pane iñtcrfci 
)*flít t corpufque clam aiiferri. Tac.2 Ann. ( fo) Si probibtta impxnk tranf- 
eenderitjieqne metus u'trH ñeque pudor eft. Tac. 3. Ann, (1 1} Wherein 
were all manner of four footed Beafls of the Earth, and wild Bcaftf, 
and creeping Things, and Fowls of the Air ; and there came a Yoke 
unto him, Rife, Few, kill'and ear, Aífrio* 12, rj. 

Mj bo* 



16*8 r A Trtncc will left Bftaflifl hmfelf Vol. 

hot with Mercy as to digeft Iron, and ihould be alfo 
an Eagle with the Thunder of Juftice, which by ftri» 
fang one terrifies all. For if all were to be puniih'4 
who tranfgreis'd , there would be none left for the 
Prince to Command , for there is fcarce any Man fo 
juít , as not to have one time or other deferved 
Death (12). The Rigour of Juftice is not lefs dangerous ; 
to ttoe Crown, ,Life, and- Empires, than Jnjuftice. Of 
this King John the Second is an Example, who for his 
great Severity became odious to his People : Am 
King Teter the Cruel, loft thereby his Kingdom an( 
Life too. Let Juftice and Mercy walk hand in hand 
ib link'd together, as if they were Parts of the fam< 
Body, yet fo that one may be us'd without Offenc 
to the other. For this reafon God gave not the fla- 
ming Sword, which guarded Paradife . to a Seraphim 
which is all Love and Mercy ; but to a Cherubim , a 
Spirit of Knowledge, who knew better how to tempef. 
Juftice with Clemency (13). Nothing is more perni- 
cious than a Prince over- merciful. In the times of 
pferva. they us'd to lay, That 'twas more difficult to 
live under a Prince who Lore with all, than one who 
bore with nothing. For he is not lels Cruel who par- 
dons all , than he who forgives none , nor is exceffive 
Mercy lefs prejudicial to the People than Cruelty (14)$ 
3nd ibmetimes Indulgence and Forbearance does 
more miichief than the Crime it ielf. For wickednels 
grows bolder, when it can promiie it ielf pardon. 
,'Twas the Clemency, or rather Negligence of King 
Henry the Fourth,that made his jleign as ¿loody as that 
of lung Peter was by his Cruelty. Clemency and Se« 
verity, the one profufe, and the other moderate, make 
$he Prince beloved (1 j). He who can neatly and pru- 

(il) V'tx enm quifjuam ade'o matt expert, ut non aliquant mortem me- 
reatur. Tac, 2. Ann. (13} And he placM at the eaft end of the 
Garden of Eden Cherubims , and a flaming Sword , Gen. 3. 14. 
(14) Fdliciores funt tmprobi, fopplicia /uentes , quam ft eos nu3a juftitj* 
poena coerceat. Boet. lib. 4. Phil. (1$) Mr*rnqne amorem ajfecutut 
trat efikft dementia, mni'uw feieriute. fací. Ann. 


roll. lyjuftice and Clemency. 169 

lently temper thefe Virtues , can't chulé but go- 
ern well; nay /his whole Reign will be a] tuneful 
iarmony , like that which proceeds from a Bafe and 
[Yeble (r6). Heaven produces Corn by the mildnels 
fits Dew, and preferves it by the rigour of its Frofts 
nd Snows. If God were not merciful, we fhould fear 
dm, but not adore him ; both thefe Virtues make him 
10th fear'd and lov'd. Therefore Ahhonfm , King of 
irragon , us'd to fay, by Juftice I oblige the good, the 
lad by Clemency. The one compels their Fear, the 
«her engages their Love. Confidence of pardon makes 
lubje&s arrogant, and exceflive Clemency creates Con» 
empt and JDifrelpe¿t a and occafions the Ruin of Go- 

•. ■ - .■ 

(16) I will fog of Mercy and Judgment, unco thee, O Lord, will 


i?o Vol.! 


THERE are no greater Chymiib than Princes. ¿ 
who fet a yalué upon worthlefs Trifles in beftow- 
ing them upon others as a Reward of Virtue (r). Th$ 
komans invented feveral forts of Crowns, as Mural, 
Civick, and- Naval , as glorious Badges of great and 
worthy Exploits ; thefe Nature fuppli'd them with as 
Grafs, Palm, and Bays;* of which without any coffc 
they made thofe Crowns. The Treafury would not 
have been fufficient to have rewarded Services, had; 
not that politick Invention of Crowns been thought 
on ; which being given as publick TefHmonies of Va» 

(i) Imperator aliqttando torquibus y murali, <fy cívica donat; quid ha- \ 
bet per fe pretiefum, quid pratexta^, quid fafces, quid tribunal, quid cur- 
ias? nil kontm honor eft r led honoris infignc, Sen. lib, i. de Ecn. 


Vol.1. Always reward Valour /never flight it. 171 
lour were more valued and efteem'd than Gold or Sil- 
ver. The Soldiers underwent all Fatigues and Dan- 
gers to obtain them. For the fame reafon the Kings 
of Spain founded Military Orders, whofe Badges were 
not only marks of Nobility , but alfo of Valour ; fo 
that all care ought to be taken to keep up their Valué 
and Efteem , by beftpwing them with great attention 
and refpect to Merit ; for they are íb much efleem'd 
as they are tokens of Nobility and Bravery; but if 
without diftinétíon they fliould be promifcuoufly con- 
ferr'd on all ,• they would grow cheap and contempti- 
ble. And Arminius might well jeer his Brother Flavius 
(who follow'd |he Roman Faftion) that when he had 
loft an Eye in Battel , he mould call to mind the Col- 
lar and Crown , the cheap Rewards of Slavery (2). 
The Romans fo well knew of what advantage 'twas to 
preierve the Peoples Efteem for thole Rewards, that Ti- 
berius held a Council about the Qualifications which a 
Soldier ought to be indow'd with , to merit a Crown » 
of Oak. In the Badge of the Order of St. James, (the 
Figure of this preíént Emblem) are exprefe'd the En- 
dowments which ought to be «onfider'd ere it is be- 
ftow'd; for the ground-work is a Scollop- ih ell , the* 
Produce of the Sea ., bred among Waves and Billows , 
and inur'd to Fatigues ; in its fair Bofom ihines the 
Pearl, the Emblem of Nobility and Virtue, as well for 
its PüTÍty, as tha,t it is bred by the Dew of Heaven ; 
when theie are beftow'd upon Children, or fuch who 
have not deferv'd them by any fignal Service, they are 
tokens of Favour, not Rewards. Who will endeavour 
to merit them by Services , if he can obtain them by 
diligence ? They were inftituted for War, not Peace, 
and fo ought to be diftributed among thofe only who 
have fignaiiz'd themfelves therein, orferv d at leaft four 
Years in the Army, and made themfelves fit for Prefer- 
ment (5), which doubtlefs would induce more of the 

(x) hridente Armmio vilia fe^vuti premia. Tac. 2. Ann. (1) Hono- 
ris augmtntHtn non ambitione , fed labore ad unumqkerr.quc convents ¡¿ru- 
nire. L. coacrj publicum C, de re roilic. 


lyi always reward Valour, never flight it. Vol. I. 

Nobility to apply their minds to Arms, and the Art of 
War would flouriih more. 

This, becaufe the Athenians neglected , they became 
a Prey to the Macedonians ( :). Alexander Scverus con- 
iidering the importance of gratifying the Soldiery, as. 
being the Foundation and Security of the Empire, di- 
vided the Contributions among them; efteéming it a 
great Crime to fquander it away in Luxury, or upon 
his Courtiers (5). 

Let other" Rewards be common to all, who iignalizq 
themfelves either in War or Peace; to 'this end the 
Scepter was endow'd with Riches, Honours, and Offi- 
ces'; .as alfo with the Power and Authority of Juftice, 
that with thefe it might puniih Offences; with thofé. 
reward Virtue and Valour 

Without Rewards and Puniihments , Governments 
would be in COnfution , for they are the Spirit that 
maintains and preferves them ; without them they 
• can't fubfift, for the hopes of Reward engage Reipe#, 
and the fear of Buniihment, Obedience, even agáiníí 
the natural defire of Liberty. Hence the Ancients re- 
prefentéd Empire by a Whip , as may be feen in fome 
Confular Coins ; and 'twas a Prognoftick of the Gran- 
deur of Auguftm , who dreaming that Jupiter offer'd 
" him a Whip ; he interpreted it to be the Rowan Em- 
pire , which had been erected and maintained by , 
Rewards and Puniihments. Who would refrain Trom 
Vice if there were no Punirtiraents ? Who would ex- 
pofe themfelves to Dangers , were there no Rewards ? 
Detnocritus confidering that the World could not be go- 
vern'd without them, call'd them Two Gods of the World. 
They are the Poles of the Orb of Civil Authority, the 
two Lights of a State, without which it would be over- 

% (4) Tunc ve&igal publicum , quo,antea milites t& remiges alebantur , 
cum urbano populo dividí cceptum , quibus rebus effctlum eft , ut inter otia 
gracorum, fordidnm <fy obfeurum antea Macedomm nomen emergeret. Trog. 
!• £• C$) Aurum ¿r argent urn raro cutquam nifi militi divifit , nefat I 
effe dicensy ut difpsnfator publicus in deleífationes fuat fy fitorum conver* 
teret t id quad provmcitles dedijjent. Lamp, in Vis. Alex. 


Vol. I. Always reward Valour, never flight it. 173 

whelm'd in foggy darknefs: They are the Rrops of 
Princes Thrones (6). For this reaibn Ezekiel com- 
manded King Zedekiab to lay down his Crown and 
other Regalia, as being unworthy of them , in that he 
could not diftribute Rewards with Juftice (7). The 
Prince in acknowledging Merits , acknowledges a Re- 
ward due, for they are Relatives ,• and if he gives not 
$iat, he is unjuft. The importance of Rewards and 
Punimments was not .well confiderd by the Legiilators 
and Lawyers, who have been altogether upon Penal- 
ties and Puniihments , without ever mentioning Re- 
wards. That wife Legiflator of the Partidas confider'd 
better of this ¿^ for' that he might join one with the 
other, he intituled it particularly of Rewards. . 

i Since therefore Rewards and Puniihments are fb ne- 
ceflaryfor a* Prince, that without this Balance he can'e 
walk fteadily upon the Rope of Government,; he oughc 
well to confider the right ufe of them. For this rea- 
fon the Lidors Rods were bound up; but the Crowns 
being made of Leaves, which ibon fade, were wroughc 
after the Vi&oryj that while thofe were loos'd , and 

: ¿hefe were fimih'd, fome time might interfere between 
the Fault and the Punilhment, between the Defert and 
the Reward, and that the Merit and Demerit might be 

; duly confider'd. Rewards inconfiderately given, fcarce 
merit thanks. He ibon repents, who beftows them rafh- 
ly ; nor is Virtue fafe from him , who puniihes with- 
out Diícrctión. If the Puniíhment be extravagant, the 
People excufe the Fault , and blame the Severity. If 
Virtue and Vice be equally rewarded, the one is dif- 
gufted, the other becomes infolent. If in equality of 
Merit, one isr rewarded above the other, it creates En- 
vy and Ingratitude ; for Envy and Gratitude for the 

! lame thing , can never go together ; alio the method 
of difpenling Rewards and Puniihments ought to be 
confider'd ; for .Rewards ought not to be deferr'd till 

(6~) For che Throne is éflablifh'd by righteoufnefs, Prm. 16. ii, 
£7 ) Remove die Diadem, and tike off che Crowa,£r<: t ¿yfe **- lá¡ » 


174 Alvbays'revDttYd Valour, never üifht it. Vol.t 

they grQw deípicabté , as being defpair'd of j nor 
niihmerits till they feem not due , as being aton'd fi 
by length of time , or as not being now exemplary « 
others , for as much as the Caufe is wholly worn ou 
of Memory. King Al-phonfo the Wife , pne of your 
Highnefs's Progenitors, very judicioufly admonifh'd his 
Pofterity, how they ought to behave themíél ves in 
Rewards and Puniíhments , faying , That we ought té i 
hebave oitr /elves with Moderation;, ás well in the Good we 
do, as in the III we punijh $ for thai in both the one and the 
other we mufi have regard to the Ckcumft antes of the Perfon, 
Time and Place, and that the World property /peaking is fup~ 
ported bat by the Obfervation ofthefe two things , Rewarding 
ihpfe that do well, and Punijhing tbofe that do otberwife. 
Sometimes /twill be convenient to defer the diftributi- 
oñ : of Rewards, that they may not feem due from Ju-i 
ftice, and that thole who expe# them, fluih'd with 
thofc hopes, may more vigorouíly perform their Duty;! 
nor is there any Merchandiíé cheaper, than that which > 
is bought with the hopes of Reward. 'Tis certain Men 
do more out of hopes than for Rewards already re- 
ceiv'd.s Whence it appears how prejudicial is Succefl?* 1 
on in Publick Offices and Rewards, which Tiberius con- 1 
íidér'd when he pppos'd the Propofal of Gallus , that I 
the Candidates íhoüld be nam'd every five Years, whov 
flioulcl fucceed in the Lieutenancies of Legions, ancf" 
the Prsetórfliip ,• for that others , for want of hopes . ; 
would flag in their Duty and Service (8). In which 
Tiberius did not only- refpecl: the publick Detriment ^ 
but alfo that he íhoüld hereby lófe the Prerogative of di- 
itributing Rewards, in which he conceiv'd the ftrength 
of his Government confifted (9). And fo by a plauii; 
ble Oration he retain *d his Authority (10). Court fa- 
vourites, uncertain of the continuance of their Power, 

(8) Subvertí leges , qua fua Jpatia exercetnU CandMatorwn indi* 
ftrix , qn<erendifque baud posmdh hworibus Jiatuerint, Tac. «. Ann. 
(9) Haud dubium erat , earn fententiam alt'ms penetrare y <fyr arcana i*p 
pan tentari. Tac. 2. Ann. ( 10) At que ita favorabili 19 fpeciem w+ 
f»nf, xm imperii retmm. ibid. 


V"oI- 1. Atoays' remrd Valour, never flight it. 17 j 
rarely remedy this inconvenience of future Succeffion, 
thereby to adjuit their own Adions, to weaken the 
Prince's Power, and free themfelves from the importu- 
nity of Petitioners. T <■ , 

JV Prince being as it were the Heart of his State., as 
King Alfhonfofudy The vital Spirits of Riches and Rewards, 
fhouU hy it be imparted to the other Members, even thi ge- 
mote ft farts , though they cannot in joy his Trefence , Jhould 
neverthelefs fatticifate of his Favours. Princes are leldoni 
movM by this confideration . They ufually Reward 
{hole only who are about them, being overcome either 
by the importunity of Petitions , or by the flattery of 
C|ieir Courtiers, or through want of Reiblution to re* 
fufe them; And iaas Rivers only refrefli the Ground^ 
ibcough which they run; ib they gratify and reward 
thofe only who are near them, unmindful of the Pains 
and Perils their Foreign Minifiers undergo to preferye 
l&eif Authority, and- to do that which they themieives 
faannot. All Favours are ihared among Courtiers and 
Paraiitesj thofe Services are moft valued , which írneli 
6f Civet and- Pnlville , not thofe which 'are fmear'd 
With Blood and Dull j thofe which are feen, not thofe 
which are heard of at a diftancej. as well becaufe flat- 
tery fooner iirikes the Eyes than Ears, as becaufe the 
Mind is tickled with the vain Glory 1 oí preíent Submiífi- 
¿Sfris;and Acknowledgements. For thefeReafons Court» 
Services are fooner rewarded; than Deiert, Ambition- be» 
fore Zeal¿ and Complaifance before Fatigue and ToiL 
A Splendor which pays it felf. 

; He, who does Abfent Services may perhaps be com- 
mended , not rewarded. He will be for a while fed 
with vain- Hopes and Promifes , but will at laft die 
ftarv'd with Defpair. The Remedy is coming fome- 
limes to Court, for no Lexers or Memorials are fo pcr- 
fcraiive as Prefence. The Buckets of Pretention are not 
lo be fill'd, unlefs thev are dipp'd into the Court- waters. 
The Prefence of Princes is as fertile as that of the Sun- 
All things flouriih when that íhinés , but fade and wi- 
ther in its abíefíce. To him who (lands under the Tree, 


*y6 Always reward Valour] never flight it'. Vol 
the Fruit drops into his hand. Whence all covet to li 
at Court, and decline Foreign Employments, in whk 
the Prince has moft need of Minifters. This would be 
remedied , if the Bait of Rewards was thrown farthel 
off, if they were beftow'd where deferv'á , not where 
they are begg'd ,♦ without need of Petitions or Impor- 
tunities. King Tbeodorick comforted the abfent, faying 
That from his Court he obferv'd their Actions , ano 1 
difcern'd their Merits (11). Pliny faid of Trajan, that 
it was eafier for his Eyes to forget the Perfons of the 
abfent, than for his Mind not to remember his Love 
towards them (12). Yet this advice for abfent Mini- 
fters to repair íbmetimes to Court, ought not to be efc 
fe&ed, by defiring to be difmifi from their Offices, but 
ftill retaining them, by giving feveral Reaíbñs to ge 
leave of the Prince to be íbmetimes with him ,• for ' 
they may obtain what they defire, ftill retaining th 
which if they mould quit, might be confer'd upon an< 
¿her. Many either diffatisfied with their prefent Sti 
tion, or Ambitious oí" greater, refign it, and afterwarc 
repent, finding their Hopes and Expeétatións fruftrate^ 
for the Prince looks upon it as a Slighting and Conn 
tempt of his Favour. Let no man prefumefo much 
upon his own Perfon and Parts, as to think the Prince!! 
can't Live without him. For Princes never want Mi-, 
ñifters, and being once Slighted, they often forget their 
Chiefeft. This I fpeak to thofe who canvafs for pub- 
lick Employs, not thofe who knowing the Vanity of 
them, chooíéto live Solitarily and Retir'd. Only let 
them cohfider, that great Souls form'd for Bufinefi, 
don't always find in retirement that Faíé and Tranque 
lity of Mind , which they própofé, and being once in-¿ 
gagd therein, without being able to change their Re* ¡ 
iblutions, they live and die miíéráble. 

. £ r O Abunde cognojeetur qiiifquk fama tefte Uudatur \ quaproptet 
longtflime confiitHtum mentk nolbdi ocului ferenus infpexit iy vidit meri» 
turn. Cafljd. lib. 9. cap. 22. (12} Facilks qXippe eft , ut ócnlk eji' 
%'ultKf a&fentk, qttam animo cbaritas excidat. PI111. in Paneg. 


Vol. £ Always reward fatour] never fi*$t If. i ? jr 
Modefty in receiving Rewards and Gratuities, is of 
*reat ufe , together with fuch á prudent Carriage, as 
may make them appear Obligations to farther Services, 
not to drain the Prince's Liberality, for this obliges him 
pet more : As God , when Solomon ask'd for nothing 
3Ut an underftanding Heart, not only gave him that, 
)ut alfo Riches and Glory ( 1 3). They ought not to be 
3emanded as a Debt, for Virtue is to it felf,a fair, and 
arge Reward ; and though fbme acknowledgement be 
¡hie , yet does it depend upon the Prince's Favour. 
&nd all had rather it fhould be receiv'd as their 
Bounty, not a juft Debt to defert. Whence Princes are 
more inClin'd to Reward liberally fmall Services , but 
great ones more iparingly, for they think they (hall re- 
vive more acknowledgments from the one , than 
ihe other. Whence he who has receiv'd many favours, 
nay exped to receive more, for Bounty once beitow'd 
aufes farther Benefits* For a Prince had rather ano- 
ther ihould acknowledge himfelf his Debtor ¿ than he 
iris , the firft being the more honourable. Lewk the 
Eleventh, King of France, ufed to fay, That he had 
ítore regard for one , who for fmall Services had been well 
rewarded, than for others who for great Services had receiv'd 
\ut fmall Reward. The Emperor Theodorick owning 
tfiis failure, cohfefs'd, That 'twas from Ambition that Re- 
wards yp routed out, without the leafi care of him who planted 
fbem, and that it provoked hi?» to give more to thofe whom 
fa had once bagan to favour (14). This is vifible in Fa- 
vourites, towards whom Princes Favour and Liberality 
eem a kind of Obftinacy. 
— 1 - 1 • ■ - i , 1 ■ - ■ • ■ • ■ • -1 ' ,. mi 1 • 1 

(13) And I have alfo given thee that which thou hart not ask'd, 
»th Riches and Honour j fo thác there (hall not be any among the 
lings like unto theé, in thy days, 1 Kings 3. II. (14) Amamos 
W^rvi beneficia germinare J[nec ferfiel pr&fiat iargitulis collate ftjlidii4m,ma- 
yfipte nos provocant ad frequens pramium, qui initio, noftne gratis fafcipere 
Htrnerimt; novis enim judicium imfenditur , favor autem ¡tmel pUtim 
ithibetur. Caf. lib. 1. Epiit. 2. 






tough (as We have faid before) JufHee arm'd wit" 
'-* the Laws, and Rewards, and Punilhments , ai 
¿he Pillars which fupport the Structure of the State, 3*1 
will thefe Pillars be in the Air, unlefs founded upej 
the Ban's of Religion, which is the Bond of the Laws! 
for the Jurifdiclion of Juftice comprehends only exto 
nal Ads , legitimately approv'd of; but don't extenj 
to private and internal ones. It has Authority onl 1 
over the Body , not the Mind ,• fo that Wickednd 
would little heed Puniihment, when it could private! 
commit Injuries, Adulteries, and Rapine;- nay, he woul 
xfoake a jeft of the Laws, were there not another mvi 
libie one , menacing within. So neceilary is this fes 
in 2? Government, that fome Atheiftical Perlbns efteer 
Religion but a meer Politick Invention ; who withoi 

tot T. Let a Prince in all his Vñdertakfagsj&c. 179 

would be content with his Poverty and prefent Con- 
ation ? What Truft in Bonds and Covenants ? What 
integrity in the Adminiftration of Goods ? What Fide- 
ity in Offices and Employments ? What Security of 
"Jfe ? Few would be enticd by Rewards, if they could 
>btain the fame thing by private Injufticej few would 
té charm'd with the Beauty of Virtue , if through 
ippes of a more lafting Garland than one of Palm , 
hey did not confine themfelves to the ftri¿t Rules of 
Üontinency. Vices would foon confound the Order of 
jóvernment, without the principal end of Happineis, 
vhich confiiis in Virtue , and in this Foundation and 
bulwark of Religion , which fuftains and defends the 
¡¿fail Power, if the People did not think that there was 
[¿other Supream Tribunal to Judge the Thoughts *and« 
¿aginations , whofe Rewards and Puniíhménts will 
3 Eternal. The hope and fear of this being borñ in 
He moil barbarous and impious Sinners ', do regulate 
nd compofe their A&ions. Caligula fcoff'd at , and 
idiculed the Gods; yet, When it Thundered he was 
órc'd to own a Supream Hand, which had Power to 
fcnifli him. This Hand all acknowledge, for there is 
X6 Heart which is not touch'd with that Divine Mag- 
jet. And as the Mariners Needle from a certain na- 
Eral Sympathy, is in perpetual Motion , till it flops at 
he Light of that nYd North Star , about which all the 
pcdeftial Orbs are turned, fo we can't live quietly till 
VQ acknowledge and adore that increated North , in 
irhich is true reft, and from whence proceeds the Mo- 
lón of all things. Who ought to- obferve this more 
¿San a Prince, who is the Pilot of the State, upon whofe 
ate it depends to bring the Ship fafe into Port ? Nor 
^¿t enough for him to feem to look at that, while he 
fceps his Eyes upon other dark and obfcuré ones , for 
b he would lofe his Courfe, and run the Vefiel upon 
Élds and Rocks, and fo make a Wreck. The People 
fifi be divided in Opinions, and thence into Factions, 
rom whence arife Plots and Seditions > and from then* 

N 2 changes-' 

l8b . Let a Prince in all his Vndertúinp Vol 

changes in States and Empires *. More Princes ai 
ruined by Diflfention in Religion than by Arms. F< 
which reafon the Sixth Council of Toldo prudently ei 
a&ed f, That no Prince ihould come to the Crow 
before he had firft taken an Oath not to tolerate an 
one in his Realm who was not a Chriftian. Spain cou 
never be at quiet till it reje&ed the Errors of Ann 
and wholly embrac'd the Catholick Religion , fin 
which the People have liv'd fo happily, that when Kir 
Weterkk afterwards endeavour'd to introduce that Se< 
he was kill d in his very Palace; but notwithftandit 
many like Example* , there are fome who dare imj; 
oufly teach Princes to diflemble and counterfeit Reli§ 
on. He who diflembles it , does not believe it. Ar, 
if this Di Simulation be a politick Artifice to unite Pe 
pies Minds, and to maintain the State, true Religic 
. would better do it than falfe, for this is fading , th 
Eternal. Many Empires founded upon falfe Religior 
proceeding from Ignorance , God has preferv'd a lor 
time , rewarding by that means their Morality , at 
blind Worfhip , and barbarous Sacrifices , with whi< 
they fought him,* not that they were acceptable 
him , but for the religious Simplicity wherewith the 
were fometimes offer'd. But has never preíerved tho 
Empires, which counterfeited Religion more thro 
Malice and Artifice than Ignorance. St. lfidort , at 
Death, foretold the Spaniards, that if they ftray'd fi 
die True Religion they ihould be fubdu'd by t 
Enemies ¿ but if they perfifted in it , their Grand* 
fiiould be rais'd above all Nations. Which was verifk 
by the Yoak of the Africans , which began from tt 
time that Witiza deny'd Obedience to the Pope , aft» 
which liberty of Worfhip , and licencioufnefs of Vk 
difturbed the Publick Peace , and ruined Military Ei 
cipline, which brought heavy Misfortunes upon Ú 
King himfelf, ahd his Sons, as well as upon the Kinj 
dom ; till being fubdu'd and chafiis'd , Spain ackno* 

* Mar, Hift. of Sfain* f Concil, Tolct, cap. 3, __ 


o/. T. have an Eye to Religión, i8í 

ledg'd its Errors, and again found Heaven propitious 
in that little handful of Chriftians, with which Pelagius . 
retir d into a Cave in the Mountain Aufena, calfd Ca- 
v*longa y where the Arrows and Stones of the Moors 
were miraculoufly retorted upon themfelves |. From 
íiát the Monarchy began to reyive, and rofe (though 
liter a long time) to that greatnefs, which it at prefent 
snjoys, as a Reward of its conftancy in the Cathojick 

Since then, Religion h the Soul of Governments, a 
Mnce ought to ufe all poflible care to preferveit^ The 
Jrft Spirit which Romulus, Numa, L,$curgu,s, Sofon, PlatOg 
pid other Founders , infus'd i.n,tq them , was Religi- 
on (O,for that unites Mens minds rnpre than neceflity, 
The Emperors , Tiberius and Adrian prohibited all Fo- 
reign Religion,and were, wholly intent upon the Prefer-» 
ration of their own ,- As ajfo TheoJoftus and Qonfiantine, 
who eftabliftied ^aws and Puniihments againft thofc 
vho revolted from trie'Catholick Faith: Their Maje- 
Hes , Ferdinand and IfabeUa , never tolerated the Exer- 
áfe of any other Religion. In which commendable 
was the Cqnftáncy of King Vhilif the Sepond, and his 
|ucceflTprs, who could never be induc'd to compofe thQ 
Seditions of the Netherlands by Toleration of Liberty 
t>f Conference, though they might thereby have re- 
tain d th'ofe Provinces, and lav'd thofe Immenfe Trea? 
¡ires which were expended in the War. They prch 
ferrd the Honour ana Glory of God to their own 
| lafe and Tranquility ,• imitating Pfcpw* Jovianus , 
¿vho being proclaim^ Emperor by the Army, excus'd 
jbirnfelf, iayhig, that" be ivas a , Ghrijlian, and that'twss 
not fie be fltoulcl Command them who were not Co, ani 
would not Consent till all the Soldiers had promts' 4 to Utrtt 
Cbrijlians^ Though he might inherit this pious ¿on-' 
ftancy from his Anceftors, fince the Eighth Council of 

i 4 a M ar « hiit. of Spain, (ij Omnium primam rem ad multititáineui 
¡mferitam ejjicaciffimm Dcorum metum injiciendum ratas, Uv. 

N $ % Toledo. 

i8x Let a Prince in all his VnJer takings Vol I 
Toledo mentions the fame thing of King Recefuinthus (2) 
Of which Piety your Royal Highnels s Father , Tb'tlq 
the Fourth of glorious Memory , is a fignal Exampkl 
to your Royal Highneis. In the beginning of whofil 
Reign it being argu'd in Council , whether the Trual 
ihould be continued with the Dutch ; and fome of nil 
Counfellors urging that it was not Policy to begin War! 
or any change of Affairs, in the beginning of a Reign I 
he oppos'd them , faying , That he -would not have hi\ 
Ttfame branded with the Infamy of having maintain d on ] 
hours Peace with the Enemies of God and his Crown ¿ anc 
lb immediately broke the Truce. For this ardent Zea 
and Cpnftancy in the Catholick Religion , King Rec* 
redus merited the Name of Catholick , (as long before 
the Kings of France that of moft Chriftian ). In tru 
Third Council of Toledo, and in that of Barcelona, whicf 
Title the Kings Sifebutus and Ervigius kept, which theii 
SucceiTprs afterwards loft , till re-aflum'd by King Al 
thonfo the Firft , to diftinguifh him from Hereticks anc 

Though 'tis a King's Duty to maintain Religion ic 
his Realms, and to promote the Worfhip of God, as hi 
Vica r s in Temporal Affairs , that they may Govern tc 
bis Glory, and their Subjects Safety ,• yet they oughi 
to know that 'tis not in them to decide Controverfiej 
in Religion and Divine Worihip , for the care of thi 
belongs dire&ly to the Spiritual Head of the Church 
to whom alone Chriit has given this Authority , th< 
Execution , Prefervation , and Defence thereof only i 
committed to Kings , as that Head ihall order and di 
reel The Priefts íharply check'd King Uzziah, and Go< 
feverely puniih'd him becaufe he offer 'd Incenfe (3) 
,'Tis neceffary for the Prefervation of the Purity 

(z) Ob hoc fui Regni apicem a Deo folidari prtoptaretji Catholic* fidi 
ftr eunt'um turnas acquvtret, indignum rtputans Catholics fidei Irintipn 
facrilegis imperare. Concii. Tol. 8. ap. u. (3^ And they withfiow 
V^ié die Kitfg, and faid unto him, it appertained not unto ihe« 
IJigiah, to bum Iacenfc unto che Lord, but to the Fricfts, i Chm 

0.6, 18. 


kfol.1 have an Eye to Religion) j8f 

Religion ] that it be the fame in all the Parts of the 
Chriftian World. True Worihip would foon be loft , 
if each Prince might accommodate it to his own Ends 
md Defigns. In thofe Provinces and Kingdoms where 
his has been attempted, there fcarce remain any Trails 
¡hereof, fo that the poor diffracted People are wholly 
ignorant of the True Religion. The Spiritualty and 
Temporalty are two diftincl: JurifdicÜons ; this is 
adorn'd by the Authority of the other , and that is 
maintain'd by the others Power. *Tis an Heroick Obe- 
dience which fubmits to the Vicar of him who difpofes 
af Crowns and Scepters. As arbitrary and free from 
the Laws as Princes pretend to be , they muft ftill pay 
Obedience to the Apoftolick Decrees , and are oblig'd 
to give force to them, and iee them ftrictly obíérv'd in 
their Dominions ,• elpecially when 'tis not only expe- 
dient for the Spiritual , but alio the Temporal Good ^ 
Chat thofe Holy Decrees be put in Execution , nor 
íhould they fiifler any one to violate them, to the dam- 
mage and prejudice of their Subjects, and their Reli- 

Nj EMr 



THE Stork builds its Neft upon the Church Stee- 
ple, and by the Sanctity of the Place makes its?' 
Succeflion fecure. The Prince who founds his King- 
dom upon the Triangular fione of the Church, ren- 
ders it nrong and lafting. The Athenians once confut- 
ing the Oracle of Delphi, how they might defend them- 
felves againft Xerxes, who with a vaft Fleet of twelve 
Hundred Sail, was coming to fall on them, were an- 
fwer'd, That if they could fence their City with a 
wooden Wall they ihould get the better ; Themiftocks 
interpreted Jfoh's meaning to be, that all the Citizens 
ihould go on Ship-board ,• which done they obtain'd a 
Victory over that prodigious Fleet. The fame Succeft 
will attend a Prince , who ihall embark his Grandeur 
in the Ship of the Church ¿ for if this by the Tefiimony 


¡Vol.!. The Stability of Empire depends upon jkc. \%$ 
of another Oracle not fabulous and uncertain , but in- 
fallible and divine , cannot be funk, neither can that 
which is embarked in it. For this reafon your High- 
nefs s glorious Anceftors , were us'd to confecrate part 
of the Spoils they took in War from their Enemies, 
to God, as the Lord of Victories Who fought for them, 
offering for his Worihip very confiderable Revenues 
and PoíTeíIíohs, whence innumerable Foundations and 
Endowments of Churches, Cathedrals, and Convents, 
took their riíé ,• having built in Spain above Seventy 
^houfend Churches. Of which Samy, the firft King of 
jirragón, alone, built a Thoufand, coniecrated to the 
Blefled Virgin , which his Munificence was amply re- 
warded by the many Conquefts he made , and Vi&o- 
tfies he won, having fought Thirty three Battels, in all 
which he came off vi&orious. Thefe pious Works 
¡jwere like Religious Colonies , render 'd by their Spiri- 
tual Arms riot lels powerful than Military ones ; for 
Artillery make not io great Breaches as Prayer. The 
Prayers of the Ifraelites for feven Days beat down the 
fWalls of Jericho (i). Riches are therefore better re- 
ipofited in Temples than Treafuries ,• not only againfl 
extreám neceflity,but that as by them Religion flouriihes, 
Hie State may with it. The Athenians kept theirs in 
that of Delphi, as did many other Nations. What bet- 
ter Guardian than the Sovereign Arbitrator of King- 
doms ? Our Hearts at leaft will be in the Churches, if 
our Treafures are there (2). Wherefore their Council 
is no lefs impious than imprudent , who under the 
flighteft pretence of publick Neceffity are for pillaging 
them. He is not worthy the Proté&ion of Divine Pro- 
vidence, who diffident of God's Power, upon every 
accident has his Eye upon the Furniture of his Houfe. 
When King Ferdinand the Holy , wanted Money to 
carry on the Siege of Sevil , and fome advis'd him to 

• i ' " ' — ■ 

I (0 And $he People fhouced with a great ihout , that the Will 
fell down |lar, (o that the People went up into the City, every. Man 
ftrait before him , and they took the City , Jof. 6. io. (*) For 
Svhere yowr Treafure ii, there will your Heart be alio, Mat. 6 21.* 


1 86 the Stáhility of Empire depends upon VoL ?♦ 

ihpply the Deficiency of his Exchequer out of thtf 
Church-Treafures. He made anfwer, I promife my 
felf more from the Prayers and Sacrifices of the Priefts, 
than from their Riches ,• which Piety and Confidence* 
God abundantly recompenc'd the very next day by 
the Surrender of the City. Thofe Kings, who have 
done otherwife , have left íévere Examples of their Sa-» 
qrilegious Prefumption. Gunderick , King of the Van* 
jais, going to Plunder St. Vment's, fell down dead as 
he was entring it. The great Misfortunes of Alpbonfo, 
King of Arragon, were thought to be Gods Judgments 
upon him, for having robb'd his Sacred Houies. Queen 
Uraca died at the very Door of St. IJidore's at Leon, 
the Treafures of which ihe had embeziled. Sancha, 
King of Arragon , was ihot through the Arm with an 
Arrow, for that he had defii'd his Hands with the 
Plunder of Churches. And though , in St. Victories at 
Rota } he publickly confefs'd his Crime, and with Tears 
3nd all imaginable Signs of Contrition , offering Re-> I 
ltitution and Amendment , yet it pleas'd God to pub-i 
liih his Offence in his Puniihment, as a warning to 
others. King John the Firft , was routed and kill'd at 
the Battel of Aliubanota , for having made ufe of the* 
TTreaíüres of the Church of Guadakupa. Upon the Sun 
render of Cajeta to Frederick, King of Naples, the French 
loaded two Ships with the Plunder of the Churches,both 
wnich were loft. 

But in all thefe Cafes , extream neceffity had not 
place j for then right Reaibn allows Princes for their 
Pr< fervation , to make ufe of fuch Riches', as out of a 
pious Liberality themíélves have laid up in theie Holy 
Places, provided it be with a Refolution to reitore them 
when the Profperity of their Affairs ihall put them in 
a Capacity. As their Catholick Majefties, Ferdinand 
and Ifabeüa did, having obtain d a Grant from the Par-» 
liament of Medina del Campo , or the Church-Plate to 
defray Expences of War. And the Sacred Canons ancj 
Councils have preicrib'd certain Cafes and Circums- 
tances of Neceffity or Danger, wherein Ecclefiafticks 


Vol. |. the due Exercife of Religion, 187 

are bound to aífíft the Publick with their Contribute 
pns ; and certainly 'twould be inexcufable Avarice in 
them not to regard Common Neceflities. They are 
the mod noble and principal Part of a State ,* and if 
for them, or for Religion , others are oblig'd to expofe 
fheir Lives , why not they their Riches ? If the State 
maintains and keeps them , it may very juftly expecT: a 
reciprocal Relief from them for its Conlervation and 
Pefence. The People would be difcourag'd from pay- 
ing Tyths , and other Church Duties , if in Common 
Calamities there were none to eafe them of extraordi- 
nary Burthens ; they will blame their own Piety, and 
¡their Zeal and Devotion , for any new Offerings, Do- 
natives, and Legacies to the Church will ílacken. a Ti$ 
therefore highly reafonable that the Clergy in Cafes of 
this Nature, aid the Publick with their Revenues , not 
only for that the danger or benefit equally refpeéts all ; 
l>ut withal, leaft the Goods and Eftates of the Laity 
be fo opprefs'd, that Tillage, and with it Tythes, and 
pther pious Works muft fail. In fuch cafes, Church- 
Plate mews better in Bars in the Mint, than in Chalices 
and Cups in the Veftry. 

This Obligation upon the State Ecclefiaftical , is 
more ftri¿t in the more urgent neceflities of the Spamfii 
Kings ,* for almoft all the Foundations and Endowments 
pf Churches being the Effects of their pious Liberal ity, 
they are in Juftice bound mutually to relieve their Pa- 
trons in neceility, and oblige them to continue their 
Munificence in better times. Thefe, and many other 
Reafons, have prevail'd with the Apoftolick See, to be 
fo liberal to the Kings of Spain , in granting them the 
ufe of the Church goods, to maintain their Wars againft 
.the Infidels. Gregory the Seventh granted Sancho Rami- 
rez, King of Arragon, the Tythes and Revenues of all 
the Churches, either newly built or gain'd from the 
Moors, to difpoie of as he pleasd. The fame Grant aU 
fo Pope Urban made to Peter the Firft, King of Arragon y 
his Succeffors and Grandees of his Kingdom, excepting 
the Churches of Refidence. Innocent the Third granted 


^88 The Stahility of Empire depends upon&z. Vol. I, 

the Bull of the Croifade for the War of Spain , which 
was call'd the Holy War; which favour, Pope Calixtas] 
afterwards in Henry the Fourth's time extended both to 
che living and the dead. Gregory the Tenth, gave King I 
Alfhonfus the Wife, the third Part of the Tythes which I 
were defign ? d for Building : This began afterwards to I 
be perpetuated in John the Second's Reign ,• and Alex- 1 
under the Sixth extended it alfo to the Kingdom of I 
Granada. John the Twenty Second, granted the Tythes | 
of the Church Revenues, and the Croifade to King AU 
fhonfus the Eleventh. Urban the Fifth , a third £art of 
the Benefices of Cafiile to Peter the Cruel. Sixtus the» 
Fourth , confented to have the Clergy contribute at 
one time an hundred thoufand l)ucates for the War of 
Granada ; which favour feveral other Popes continn-1 
ed» Julius the Second, granted Emanuel, King of PorÁ 
tugal, the third Part of the Revenue which belong'd to] 
the Church-Building , and the Tythes of all other EcJ 
clefiaftical Incomes. Thefe Subildies ought not to bed 
ipent but in Neceffities, and for the Pubiick Ufes, toJ 
which they were defign d This Queen Jfabella fo reli- 
gioufly obferv'd, That feeing Ninety Millions rais'd byj 
the Croifade, jhe immediately commanded they ihouldl 
be employ'd to the very Ufes prefcribed by the ApoJ 
ftolick Bulls. Thofe Favours Will ihine more, and pro- 
duce better Frujt, when fo expended. But Neceffitiesj 
and Danger ufually confound all thjngs , and eafily j 
Syreft the Popes meaning to what was not intended. 





j T was an impious Opinion, that of thofe who impa-- 
,■*■ dently afferted the Heathens to have had more Cou- 
rage than the Chriftians ; upon this ground , that their 
.Superfiition ftrcngthned their Minds,and render'd them 
more fierce and manly by the difmal fight of fo many 
bloody Vi&ims, as they offer'd to the Gods in their Sa- 
crifices ; and held them only to be Men of Courage 
and Magnanimity, who got the better of other Nations 
rather by force than reafon : Accufing on the contrary 
the Inftitution of our Religion for recommending Hu- 
mility and Meeknels ¡ Virtue is good for nothing but 
to make Men mean fpirited. What an impious and 
unreaibnable Opinion this ! The fpilling of Blood may 
indeed make the Mind more barbarous and cruel, more 
valiant it never can* Fortitude and Magnanimity enter 


I9Ó The Hope ofViftory comes from Vol.1 

not at the Eyes , but are born within the Breaft ,• nor 
aie thoíé che moft generous, who are moft pleas'd 
with the Blood and Slaughter of Beans, or who live 
on Man's Fleih. Our Religion does not contemn 
Magnanimity , but rather promotes it , not by propo- 
iing to us temporary and corruptible Rewards, as the 
Tagan Superftition does, but eternal ones never to have 
an end. And if a fimple Crown of Lawrel, which be- 
gins to fade as ibon as gathered, inipired fo much Cou- 
rage then , what won t now that everlafting one of 
Stars (i) • Is it that the Heathens have expoied them- 
íélves to greater Dangers than the Chriftians ? No, for 
if at any time they affauked a City, or forc'd a Camp, 
it was under Shields and Targets. Whereas now Chri- 
ftians muft make their way through thick Showers of 
Bullets, and the Thunder and Lightning of Gun- 
powder. } Tis a miftake to imagine Humility and Va- 
lour incompatible ,• they are rather ib clofely connect- 
ed, that without the former this is impracticable ; nor 
can true Valour be where there is not Humility, Pa-i 
tience, and in general all other Virtues. For he only 
is really Valiant that can fubdue his Pailions, and is free- 
from all Perturbation of Mind ; a Study the Stokks have 
bsftow'd much labour on, and after them the Chriftians! 
with greater fuccefs. He makes but a very fmall pro- 
grefs in it, who fuffers. himfelf to be transported with 
Anger and Piide. This is truly Heroical to conquer 
ones Lufts and Appetites. The Mind where thefe 1 
ConfMs are, is none of the eafieft Fields of Battel j- 
he who has learnt thus much Submiflion, to bend the' 
Knee to another a will upon occafion ealily defpife 
Danger , and with undaunted Refolution fubmit his 
Neck to the Ax. The Heathen Religion, 'tis true/i 
has produced many great Commanders , fuch as were 
the Cafarsy Scipios, and abundance of others, but cer- 
tainly the Chriftian has furniiht us with no left con-j 

(i) Now they do ic to obtain a corruptible Crown, but wc an in4 
«oirnptiblcj i Cer. 9. 25, 


•Vol.1. GoJ, and a Zeal for Religion. 191 

fiderable ones in the Perfons of the Alphonfo\ and Ferdi- 
nands of Caflik, as well as other Kings of Arragon, Na- 
varre, and Portugal. What Valour could poffibly equal 
that of the Emperor Charles the Fifth ? What great 
Generals has Antiquity ever celebrated , which have 
not been equall'd , if not been furpafs'd by Gonzalez, 
Ferdinand of Cordova 3 Fernán Cortex. , Antony de Lievc , 
'Ferdinand d'Avalos , Marquifs of Pefcara; Alpbonfo d' 
Avalos, Marquifs of Guafl ; Alexander Farnefe, Duke of 
"Parma ; Andrew d'Oria , Alpbonfo d'Alb'ouejuercfue , Ferdt- 
'nand Alvarez, of Toledo. Duke of Alba $ the Marquiifes 
of Santta Cruz, * the Earl of Fuentes., Marquifs Spinola, 
X-ewis Fatcardo , and almoft infinite others ¡ as well 
■Spainards as others, never fufficiently to be commended 
by Fame. To whom may defervedly be applied what 
'St. Paul faid of thofe Great Captains, Gideon , Barak., 
Sampjon, Jephtha, David , and Samuel , that by Faith 
!they Fubdued Kingdoms; waxed valiant in Fight, 
.turn'd to Flight the Armies of the Aliens (2.) If we 
( will compare the Victories of the Heathens to thofe 
of the Chriftians, we lhall find the latter to have been 
much the greater. In the Battel of Navas- were kili'd 
Two hundred thoufand Moors., with the lois only of 
r twenty five on our fide,* finding the Camp fo cover- 
¡ed with Spears and Darts, chat; though the Vi&ors 
íátaid there two Days, ufing no other Fewel but the 
Wood of them ,• they could not confume them, even, 
though they endeavour'd it. There fell more in the 
Battel of Salado, with the lofs but of Twenty Chrifti- 
; ans. And in that Naval Victory, which Don John of 
Auftria obtain'd over the Turks at Lepanto, there were 
1 no lefs than an Hundred and eighty Gallies funk and 
I taken : Which Victories Chriftians attribute not to their 
1 Own Valour, but to the True God whom they adore. 
An Heart confiding in God , as effectually itays an 
Enemy, a* a Hand arm'd with a Sword, as Judas Ma- 
■■ i.. 1 1 ... 1 .i 1 ' '• 

(2) Htb; M,*3,JV 


lío 1 i The Hope of Viño'ry come from 

thabaui found (;). 'Tis God who governs the Hearts, 
'tis he that imparts Courage and Strength, that grants 
or denies Viftories (4). He would be an Impoftor, 
and could not be clear'd from the Imputation of Fraud, 
were he rather ¿(lifting to thoíé who adore falfe Gods, 
whofe Idolatrous Sacrifices all tend to procure their 
favour. But if he forrietimes alio permit them to be 
Victorious, 'tis not to be aicrib'd to their Devotion, 
tut to other fecret Cauíés of Divine Providence. In 
the Thirft which the Roman Army fuffer'd in the 
War againft the Marcomarmi\ God could not be 
appeas'd with the Prayers and Sacrifices of the Hei^ 
then Legions, but when the Tenth compos'd of Chri- 
lHans, at laft implór'd his aid , he fent down plentiful 
Showers to them , but to the Enemy Thunder and 
iLightningj fo that they obtain'd an eaiy Victory, 
whence it was afterwards call'd the Thundring Legion. 
If that Faith were ftill , it would ftill work the lame 
effects } but whether through want of that, or for fome 
other fecret Ends, God does fometimes permit thole to 
be tiiumph'd over , who pay him true Adoration ,♦ bile 
then the Victory is not a Reward to the Conqueror' J 
but a Chaftifement to the Conquered. Let Princes! 
therefore always hold in their Hands the Flag of the> 
Crofs , fignified by that Sword which Jeremiah gave to 
'Judas Macbaíaus tó wound his Adverfaries withal (f),: 
and on their Arms the Buckler of Religion , and con« 
tinually before their Eyes , that eternal Fire which 
went before the Per/tan Monarchs : An Emblem of that 
other incomprehenfible Fire from which the Sun re- 
ceives its Rays. This is the true Religion which the 

(3) So that fighting with their Hands, and praying to God with 
their Hearts, they flew no lefs than Thirty and five thoufand Men, 
2 Mach. 15. 27. (4) Leaft thou fay in thine Heart, my Power, 
and the might ot my Hand hath gotten me this Victory. But thou 
Quit remember the Lord thy God \ for it is he that hath given thee 
power to get wealth, Dent. 8. 17, 18. (5) Take this Holy Sword, a 
Gift from God , with which thou Hule woucd the Ad ver Ui its, 
2 Math. 15, 16. 


r ol.I« God, and a Zeal for Religion. 19 f 

jldiers ador'd , as oft as they proftrated themfelves 
sfore the Emperour Couftantines Banner: for when the 
tape of a Crofs in the Heavens made by the Sun's 
ght, with this Infcriptioo, Thou jhalt Conquer under thie y 
ign *, feem'd to promife him the Victory over Maxen- 
m he commanded a Standard to be made in the fam© 
orm with that of the prefent Emblem , with the Let- 
ts X and P, Cyphers of Chrift's Name over it, and. 
iC Letters Alpha and Omega, the Emblem or God, the 
gginning and End of all things. This Standard tne 
mperors after him made uíé of, till Julian the Apo-^ 
«e's time f ; and Don John of Auftria had on all his 
olours embroider d a Crofs, with this Motto: WliB^ 
efe Arms I have conquer d the Turks , and with the fame 
hope to overcome Heretic ks *: King Alphonfus the Great, 
it the Words of Confiantlnes Crofs on another lb rt of' 
nfign , which he afterwards offer'd in the Church of 
viedo : And of thofe I have thought fit to make ufe 
I, as well as Conftanftines Standard , to form this Em- 
em, and to imprint on Princes Minds, that Faith 
id Aflurance, with which they ought to ere<3 the 
andard of Religion againft their Enemies. At the 
ittel of Navas , a Peribn made way three times 
rough the thickeft of the Enemy with the Crofs of 
iderigo, Archbiihop of Toledo } though all the Darts 
id-Arrows of the Moors were aim'd at it , and many 
jck in the Lance. Angels are the Guards of this 
inner ; two Angels upon white Horfes, were feen to 
ght in the Front of the Battel of Simaneas , when! 
ing Ramiro the Second , vanquilh'd the Moors • and 
that of Clavigio, in time of Ramiro the Firft ; and ai- 
in that of Merida, under King Alphonfus the Ninth, 
ipear'd that Divine Light , the Son of Thunder t 
' J a g° i Patron of Spain, on a White Steed carrying 
olours diftinguifh'd by a Red Croís. No ene {hall be 
;le to ftand before you, ( faid Jojhua upon his Death- 

* In hoc figno vinces. Eufeb. 1. 9. Hift. St. Ambr. Ep. 29. f Ge- 
br. U 4. Cliron. Auno 1 572. * Mar, HiA of Spain, 

O Bed) 

194 The Hofc °f VMory comes from, &c. Vol.1 
Bed ) if you put your Hope and Confidence u 
God (6) : Your Sword ihall Conquer thoufands , fo 
he will fight for you (7). The Holy Scriptures are ful 
oF Inftances of this Divine Aílíftance. God put th 
very Stars in array againft the Canaanites (8). Agaifll 
the Amerites he arm'd the Elements, and rain'd grei 
Stones from Heaven (9). Nor did the faithful nee 
any affiftance againft the Madianites > for the Lord 
every Man's Swórd againft his Fellow (10). Thus 
whoever is God's Enemy , brings Vengeance upon h 
own head. 

(6) Jofli. J3. 10. (7) Ibid. (Í) They fought from Heaven 
the Srars in their conrfes fought againft Sifera. £9) The Lord ca 
down great Stones from Heaven upon them to A^e\ab t and thi 
died, Jtflt, lo. iu (10} Judg. 7. 22. 

A i 




ItfHÁT, neither Forcé, nor si clofe Siege of many 
Years could do againft Troy, Fraud at length ef- 
fected under pretence of Religion , the Grecians con- 
veying their Arms into the City within the Body of 
ft Wooden Horfe, under pretext of a Vow to Minerva. 
Neither the clattering noife of the Weapons , nor the 
Advertency of the moft prudent Citizens, nor the 
Confederation that it could not be brought into the 
City but by a Breach, nor that of its being to continué 
¡within the Walls a confiderable time , were fufficienc 
to open the Peoples Eyes, and to difcover the Trea- 
chery : Of fuch Influence is Religion. This Scipio 
Afrkanm , SyUa, Sertorius 4 Minos y Vififiratus , Lycurgus, 
and many others , have ádvantageoufly made ufe of to 
authorize their Laws, and impoíé upon the People* 

O z Th« 

I $6 Falfe Hopes dangerous. Volt 

The Thcenicians coming into Spain, built, where Medina 
Sidonia now ñands , á Temple" in the Form of a For- 
freft dedicated to Hercules , laying, That they were ib 
commanded in a Dream. The Spaniards believ'd that 
to be Devotion which was Stratagem, that to be Piety 
which was a Trick, whereby religioufly to enflave and 
plunder the People. By means of another Temple on 
the promontory Dianea, (now Denia) the Inhabitants o\ 
the Ifle cÁZante conceal d theDefign they had of bringing 
Spain under their Subje&ion. King SifenanH having de- 
pos'd Swinthila^ to iecure to himfeif the Crown, call'd 
a Provincial Synod of about Seventy Biihops , undei 
Colour of making new Laws for regulating Ecclefiafti- 
cal Difcipline which time had corrupted ; whereas his 
chief and real Deiign was to get Swmhila depos'd • 
and himfeif inttíron'd by a Decree of theie Fathers 
the better to facisfy the People. Which very Artifice 
Ervigius made ufe of to confirm his Election , and the 
Abdication of King Wamba. Malice well knows whai 
effecT: Religion has on Mens minds , and therefor* 
makes that the principal Inflrument to execute ks De- 
figns, which eaiily impofe upon the fimple Vulgar,who. 
poor Souls, not being able Co penetrate all their ends, 
believe their only tendency is to render God propiti- 
©us, to make him proiper their Temporal Affairs here, 
and reward them Eternally hereafter. What naufeoOí 
Deluíions have Nations fwallow'd when gilt with 
Religion, miferably abandoning themfelves to.Superfti- 
tion ? What fervi-e and barbarous Cuftom has not that 
introducM, to the prejudice of Liberty, Life, and For- 
tune? Let Princes therefore be iipon their Guard , in 
theie times particularly, when Policy puts on the Masfc 
of Piety, and not eaiily admit thole Stalking-horfes oi 
Religion, which have 1 uined not only Cities, but whole 
Countries and Kingdoms. For, if under that Title ¡ 
Ambition and Avarice creep in, and the People be op-f 
preis'd , they will renounce God s eafy Yoak, and wifll 
look upon this Natural and Divine Law of Religion! 
to be nothing but a piece of State Policy ¿ and that 


Vo!. r. Falfe Hopes dangerous. 197 

Princes under that Veil conceal their Methods % to keep 
Subje^s in Allegiance, and ftrip them of their Fortunes. 
Let Princes therefore throughly examine , whether the 
Novelty introdue'd be really upon the account of Reli- 
gion, or meerly a fpecious pretence to the prejudice of 
their Power and Authority , to the detriment of their 
Subjeds , or the Publick Peace,* which they may find 
out by the ends it propofes, by obferving to what fuch 
Innovations tend , whether to Intereft or Ambition , 
whether thev conduce to the Spiritual Good or not; 
or if this can't be procur'd by other means leis prejudi- 
cial. In fuch cafes an Evil is with leis danger prevent- 
ed than after wads remedied* and the only means to 
prevent ic „ is not to give place to thefe Pretexts and 
Abufes • however, if they be already introdue'd, they 
ought to be corre&ed with all the mildnefs imaginable, 
not raihly , nor with Violence or extream Rigour ; 
-efpecially, if the Cafe fall not under the Prince's Jurifc 
diclion, • but with extraordinary addrefs , having due 
refpect to the Perfons , under whofe Cognizance it 
falls (r), laying before them the truth of the thing, and 
the ill Confequ enees and Inconveniences of it. For if 
the Secular Prince attempt to do it by force, and thoic 
Abufes íhouid be eitabliuYd into a CuProm among the 
People , they will interpret this Violence to be Im- 
piety in the Prince , and rather obey the Priefts than 
him : On the other fide , if they fee the Ecclefiafiical 
and Civil Power difagree , they will throw off all 
Obedience, and emboldened by the declared Will of 
the Prince, they will make an Infurre&ion againft Re- 
ligion it felf, and be infenfibly indue d to believe, the 
Inconveniencies of theie Contentions extend even to 
the Subftance of Religion, which wiii eafily bring theai 
to change their Opinions , and that too. And by this 
means, the Prince being engag'd in Civil Broils and. 
DiiTentions with the Clergy , and the People in mw 

(1) For the Prieft's Lips fliould keep knowledge au4 thqy iiiovild 
fctk che Law at his Mouth, MnUch. 2, 7. 

O 1 Opinion^ 

Í98 Falfe Hopes dangerous. Vol.f. 

Opinions, all reípe& for things Sacred will céafe , and 
Errors ariíé upon the Eclipfe of that Divine Luminary 
which before enlighten'd and united their Minds ; 
which is the fcource of the Ruin of many Princes, and 
of the Revolutions of States (2). Great prudence is re- 
quifite to govern the People in fuch matters , for 'tis 
equally obvious for them to defpiíé them , which is 
impious ; and to be over credulous in them , which is 
Superftition ; this laft moft frequently happens, in that 
their Ignorance is prefently taken with appearances of 
Devotion, and new Opinions, before Reafon has had 
time to examine them ,♦ wherefore 'tis very neceiTary 
gradually to remove from them all occafions of Ruin, 
thofe particularly which ufually ariíé from frivolous 
Deputations about too fubtle Points, fuch as very little, 
if at all promote Religion, not fuffering them to be 
defended or printed ,• otherwiíe they will fc>e divided 
into Factions, and every one's maintaining his own Opi- 
nions with as much Heat and Obftinacy, as if they 
were Matter of Faith , may occafion no left Diftur- 
bances, than even a difference of Religions, or a To- 
leration of them. It was an Apprehéníion of this made 
Tiberius forbid the Books of the Sibyls to be feen, whoíé 
Prophecies might cauie Seditions ( % ). In the Acls of 
the Apoftles we read , that the Books which contain '(J 
idle Curiofities were burnt (4). 

An appearance often miferably deludes the Com- 
mon People, who blindly follow any Superfluous De- 
votions with a Submiflion wholly effeminate, which 
renders them Melancholy, Cowardly, and very Slaves 
to their own Imaginations ; which débale their Spirits, 
and prompt them to idle away their time in Convents 
and Pilgrimages, where oft-times many Abufes and 
¡Vices are committed. This is an Infirmity of the Vul- 

(z) KhUa res multmdinem efficac'tut regit, quam fuperflitio. Curtius. 
(3; Cenfuit Afinius Galhs y ut Ubri S'tbyllini aairentnr , remit Ttberiwl 
perinic divina humanaque obtegens. Tac. i. Ann. (4) Many of them 
¡alio which us'd curious Arcs , brought their Books together , anda 
feurnc them before all Meo, ASs if. 19, 

g ai V 

Vol. I. Falfe Hopes dangerous] 199 

ear, and not a little prejudicial to the Truth of Reli- 
gion, and the Publick Safety ; and unleis nipp'd in the 
Bud, creates great Incotiveniencies and Dangers, be- 
ing a kind of folly that under the appearance of Good 
¿es every thing hand over head , following new 
Notions of Religion , and deviliih Inventions. Some 
Submiilion is requifite , but that without bale and fla- 
villi Bigottry $ fuch I mean as has Virtue in efteem , 
abhors Vice , and holds Labour and Obedience to be 
more agreeable to God and the Prince, than Convents 
and Pilgrimages, this Devotion being ufually celebra- 
ted with Banquees, Balls , and Plays ; like that of the 
People of Ifrael at the Confecration of the Molten 

Calf (5). 

But if the People 'once begin to be too opinionative 
in Matters of Religion , and to introduce any Innova- 
tions in it, immediate Remedy muft be apply'd , and 
the ill Seed be routed out before it take Root and 
fpread farther , fo as to grow into a Body too power- 
ful for the Prince, againft whom they may afterwards, 
if he refufe to conform to their Opinion, contrive fome 
pernicious Innovation in the Government (6). And 
though the Underftanding be free , and without de- 
stroying its liberty can't be conftrain'd to believe, and 
fo it may feem to belong peculiarly to God Almighty 
to puniíh thoíé who have unworthy Sentiments &Í 
him (7) ; yet , would it be of very ill confequence to 
commit the Decifion of the fublimeft Mylleries of 
Faith to the blind and ignorant Mob: 'Tis therefor; 

(_$) And they arofe up carlv on the morrow , and cikred bums 
offerings, and burnc peace-offerings \ and the People fat down to 
eat, and to drink, and rofe up to play, Exod. $i. 6. (6) Eos vert 
qui in divinii aliquid innavant , odio babe , ¿<r coerce, non Deorutn fokin 
causa Cq*os tamen qui contemnit, nee aliud fane magni feceritj fed q-<-.: 
nova qu&datn mmina hi tales introducentes , mutt os impellunt ad mutatia- 
nem rerum , unde Conjurations i, Seditiones, C onciliabula exiftunt, res pro- 
feSo minime conducibiks Prinápatui. Dion, (j) Deotmn injurias Oía 
cm. Tac. i. Ann. 

Q 4 infinitely 

aoo Tal fe Hopes dangerous. Vol. I. 

infinitely requifite to oblige Subjects to think , as the 
Ancient Germans did , that there is more San&ity and 
Reverence in believing than knowing things Di- 
vine (8). What monftrous Errors were a Kingdom 
obnoxious to., if each man were allow'd to be a Judge 
in Matters of Religion ? Hence the Romans were ft> 
careful in Prohibiting the Exerciíé of any new Religi- 
on (9), and Claudius thought the Foreign Superftitions 
a fufficient Subject for complai t to the Senate (10). 
But if Malice nave already got footing, and Punifli- 
tnent be too weak to refift the Multitude, 'tis neceiTary 
that pifcretion perform the part qt Fire and Sword : 
For obftinacy in Faults fometimes increafes by an un- 
timely Application of Remedies too violent ; nor 
does Reafon always furrender to Force. King Rica- 
redus by dexteroufly adapting himfelf to the times , 
now diifembling , now flattering , brought his Subjects 
to renounce Áriam[?n 3 ano 1 to return to the Catholick 

Great Men have anciently made ufe of Superfíiúon 
(as we have before intimated) to authorize their Laws, 
animate their People, and keep them in Subjedion ana 
Obedience ¿ to this end they feigned Dreams and Di- 
vine Revelations, and pretended to have private Confe- 
rence with the Gods ; but although theie Artifices ex J 
treamly influence the fimple People, whole Supeririti-l 
ous Humour is eafily afíeáed with things that have a J 
appearance Supernatural: 'Tis not however allowable! 
for Princes to delude them with counterfeit Miracles J 
and a falfe ihew of Religion. Of what ufe is the Sha- 
dow , where one may enjoy the Light it felf? To 
what purpofe thofe Divine imaginary Prodigies of 
Heaven, finceit gives, as we fee, fa many real ones! 

* : ■ -1 

(8) S*nfltus, ac reverentiw v'fum , de ailit Deorum credere , quarto 
¡are. Tac. de Mor. Germ. (9) Neque mfi Romani Dei , nee qun A lit£ 
more, quam parvo colerentur, T. Liv. (io) ¿¡ña externa fuperjivione^ 
ytlefcanr. Tac. 11. Ann. 


Vol.!. Falfe Hopes dangerous. 2.01 

to thóíé who with a firm Faith and AíTurance expeéí: 
them from Divine Providence ? How can an infinitely 
Juft God give fucceis to thefe Arts which ieem to call 
in queftion his Care and Concern for things here be- 
low, that counterfeit his Omnipotence , and afcribe to 
Jiim what he is not the Author of? What certainty 
in Religion can the People promiie themfelves, if they 
fee it wrefted to ferve the particular Ends of Princes , 
and that 'tis nothing but a Veil with which they cover 
their Defigns, and give Truth the lye? That Policy is 
jpertainly very uníate , that is cloak'd with Fraud , very 
Weak and tottering , that is fupported by contri- 


%o% Ve 


PRudence is the Rule and Meafure of Virtues, with 
out that theíé degenerate into Vices. Wherefor 
as other Virtues have theirs in the Appetite, this has it 
r efidence in the Intellect , from thence prefiding ove 
them all. Agatbo calls it a great Goddeis. This it 
which conftitutes the three Forms of Government 
Monarchy, Ariftocracy, and Democracy, and affig! 
each of them their Parts conformed to the Subjeéts Ni 
ture, having its Eyes always intent upon their Preía 
vation as the principal end of Politicks. Prudenc 
is the State's Anchor , the Prince's Compafs. Wher 
this Virtue fails, the very Soul of Government is warn 
ing. '7ar this y (fays King Alphonfus ) which makes I 
fee things as thy are, and judge what thsy may be, tnakm 
m aft {herein decently , without Tumult and Trecipitatm 

\ío\. I. A Prince fbould have refpeft to, &c." iaj 

TU the peculiar Virtue of Princes (i), and that which 
ibove all others renders a Man compleat , which 
nakes Nature fo Iparing in her Difpenfations of it; 
laving given many great Wit and Capacity, very few 
;reat Prudence ; for defeót of which , the more emi- 
nent Men are in Dignity, the more dangerous is their 
Sovernment*, for as much as they eafily tranfgreis the 
imits of Reafon, and are ruined ,• befides, that one of 
Command requires a clear Judgment to diicern all 
:h|ngs as they are in themfelves , to weigh and give 
¡ach thing its juft value. This nice Examination is of 
rery great confequence in Princes, and as nature con- 
tributes much to it , fo does Obfervation and Experi- 
ence more. 

The Virtue of Prudence confifts of íéveral Parts re- 
Jucible to thefe three Heads ,• the Memory of paft, the? 
¡knowledge of preíént, and the Prolped of future times. 
ÍUI thefe differences of time are reprefented in this 
Emblem, by a Serpent, the Emblem of Prudence, up- 
on an Hour-Glaís,which repreíénts Time prefent,wirjd- 
ing it felf about a Scepter,and viewing it felf in the two 
Glafles of paft and future; with this Verfe of Virgil, 
tranflated from Homer, including all three, for the 
Motto : 

What are, what were, and what (haÜ come to pafs. 

which Prudence looking into regulates, and compofes all 
its A&ions. 

Thefe three Times are the Mirror of Government, 
in which by obferving the paft as well as preíént 
Errors and Miicarriages, it dreiTes and beautifies it felf 
by private and acquired Experience : Of the former I 
treat in another place. The acquir'd is either attain'd 
by Converfation or Hiftory. Converfation is very be- 
fteficial, though ibmething more limitted, being appre- 

(i) NamreZfe d'fponere, refaqne } t qui pteft, U eft Princept 
& imperator. Menaod. 


X04 A Prince fhould have refpecl to Vot 

hended with lefs difficulty, abundantly more farisfc 
¿jtory of all Doubts and Queftions , and confequentl 
more improving. Hiftory is a general Reprefentarioi 
of all the Ages of the World , and by the benefit c 
that the Memory recals the Time of our Anceftor 
The faults of tbofe who were , inftruft them that not 
are. Wherefore 'tis neceffary that the Prince fearc 
for true Friends , fuch as will relate with fincerit 
things both pair, and prefent: And fince they are . 
Mpbonfus , King of Naples and Arragon , us'd to fay' 
Like Hiftories that neither flatter , nor conceal, or 
femble the Truth ; let him admit them particularly ii 
to his Council, carefully obíérving the negle&s and fall 
ings of his PredeceiTors ; by what Tricks they ha? 
been put upon ; the Court Artifices,* the intefrine ant 
foreign Ills of Kingdoms j and examine whether 
not in danger of the fame. Time is the beft Mai 
of Princes Pair. Ages are a kind of Hofpitals , wh< 
Policy Anatomizes the CarcaiTes of Monarchies at 
Commonwealths which once flourilhed, thereby th^ 
better to cure the Ails of the preíént. They are t<H 
Sea-Charts, wherein by the Wrecks, or proiperous Na 
vigations of others, Shores are difcover'd. Seas founded 
Sands and Rocks found , and all the Lines of Govern 
ment marked out ? * yet, are not all Books good Counj 
(ellorsj for &me advance Knavery and Deceit, whict 
becaufe more pra&ifed than truth , many have recourf 
ico (2). The moit fecure are thofe dictated by Divirit 
Wifdom.Here a Prince hath for all manner of Accidents 
a compleat Syftem of Politicks , and fafe Precepts tc 
govern himfelf and others by (?). For this reafon, th(j 
Kings of Ifrad were commanded to have always b) 
them 3 the Book of Deuteronomy , and to read fome pan] 

(l) Who feek Wifdom upon Earth, the Merchants of Menhan 
Jheman, the Authors of Fables , and Searchers out of Undcrita 
ing ; none of thefc have known the way of Wifdom, or rememfc 
htr Paths , Barucb 3.1/. 2$. (3) All Scripture is given by Infpl 
tion of God , and is profitable for Doftrine , for Reproof, for " 
rcCboa, for ioilruftion in Righceoufoefi, z Tim. 3. 16, 

fol.T. Times paft % present ¿áná to come. To$ 

If k every day (4). s Tis God we hear, him we learn 
»f as often as we turn over thofe Divine Oracles. The 
emperor Alexander Severus , had always near him Per- 
pns well vers'd in Hiftory , to tell him what other 
emperors had done in dubious Matters (5"). 

With this Study of Hiftory , your Royal Highnefs 
nay fecurely enter the dangerous Sea of Government , 
laving the experience of things paft for a Pilot ta 
iteer you in the Conduce of thofe prefent, both which 
/our Highnefs ought to manage , fo as to keep your 
j5yes fixe on Futurity, ftill looking forwards to prevent 
gangers, at leaft to render them lefs injurious (6). Ac- 
cording to thefe Afpeóts of Times , your Highneis's. 
Prudence ought to judge of things to Gome , not by 
ihpfe of the Planets, which being few in number, and 
having their Motions ftated and regular , cannot poffi- 
t>ly (though there were ibme Virtue in them) foretel 
(ben variety of Events, as fortune produces , or free- 
will prepares. Nor are Speculation and Experience fuf- 
ffcient , whereupon to ground any certain knowledge 
of Caufes fo remote. Let your Highnefs therefore be 
pieas'd to caft your Eyes on the times paft, from Ferdi- 
nand the Catholick , to Philip the Second , and compa- 
ring them with thofe that have paisd from thence till 
now J confider whether Spain be now as well-peopled, 
as rich and plentiful as then ; whether Arts and Arms 
flourííh as much ; whether Trade and Husbandry fuc- 
oeed as well ; and if your Highnefs find it to have 
Faild in any of thefe particulars , dilTeót the whole 
8ody, fearch into its Arteries and Parts, the found and 
entire as well as the di (temper 'd ,* as alio into the 
taufes of thofe Infirmities : Confider with your felf , 
whether they do not proceed from fome of thofe ib ordi- 
nary ones,* from planting Colonies,want of Propagation, 

(4) And he (hall read therein all the days of his Life, Dear. 17. 19. 
(f J PrAjiciebat rebus literatos, & max'tné qui bilioriam norant^ requirans 
quni in talibus caufis, quales in dijetptatione verfabantur, veteres imptra- 
tores feciffent. Lamp. (6) She knoweth things of old , and conje- 
fturech aright what is to come, Wifd, 8, 8. 


ío6 A Prtnce fboulá have refpett to Votfl 

multiplicity of Religious Orders , too many Feftivals, 
Univerfities, and Studies, the Difcovery of the Indw¡ 
Peace ill manag'd , War (lightly undertaken , or neglk 
gently carried on, from the Caihiering of Officers, the 
Rarity of Recompences, the Oppreflion of Ufury, the 
Tranfportation of Money , the Difproportion of the 
Coin, or whatever Cauies of the like Nature. If your 
Highnefs íhall diícover the Fountain from whence the 
Evil proceeds, it will be no difficult matter to provide a 
ftemedy againft it; and from a competent knowledge 
of the páít and prefent Times, yonr Highnefs will be 
enabled to make an eftimate of that tocóme, for there 
is no new thing under the Sun ,• tne thing that hath 
been, it is that v/hfeh ihall be ; and that which is done, 
is that which fháll be done (7). The Perfons are 
xhang'd not the Scenes , Manners and Cuftoms are al- 
ways the fame. 

After the Converfation of Books, it will be ver^ 
much for a Princes Improvement to have that of 
learned Men , who are daily converfant with them , 
and will entertain his Ear with well digefted Difcourfe 
and Reafbnings, the refult of long Premeditation, 
This gave occafion to that ufual faying of John the Se^ 
cond, King of Portugal , That a Kingdom either found 
a Prince prudent, or made him ib. That is, the great 
School of Government , wherein Minifters ot the 
greateft Learning and moft eminent Experience, whe*l 
ther Domeftick or Foreign , converfe with the Prince 
about Affairs. Here one is in conitant Exercife , and 
has a particular knowledge almoft of whatever is tranfc 
aéted in the World. This School being,more efpecially, 
neceifary for a Prince, teaches him, if not out of 
Duty, at leaft for Learning's fake to apply himfelf to; 
Affairs , and ftudy fully to underftand , and go to 
the bottom of them, and not leave them to the Deci- 
fion of his Councilors. For by an entire negleft and 
difufe of Bufmefs, the Mind becomes Savage, and 

(7) Ecclcf. 1,9, 


IfoU. Time paft, prefent, anJ to cojnel ibj- 
Conceives an Averfion for it, as an intolerable weight, 
and fb chufes to leave all to the Care and Induftry of 
Dthers. And if their Opinion upon any Subjed be af- 
terwards told him, he is in the dark, not being able to 
tíilcern whether they have determined well or ill ; in 
which 'Confufion he muft ncceilarily be alhamed of 
himfelf, feeing how like a dumb Idol he is, to whom 
Adoration is paid, while another renders the Oracles. 
For this reafon , the Prophet Zacbary calls that Prince 
fan Idol, who like a Shepherd that leaveth his Flock, 
forgets his Duty (8). He is a Statue which reprefents, 
but does not exert Majefty. He has a Mouth and 
fpeaks not $ Eyes and Ears , but neither fees nor 
hears (9). And being generally look cl upon to be an 
Idol of Adoration only, not Miracles, is univerfally de- 
Ipis'd as an unprofitable Burthen to the Earth (10). Nor 
will it be eafy for him to retrieve his Credit ,• for Af- 
fairs out of which he might draw fome Experience, will 
glide away like Waters that never returnjand not know- 
ing where the Web of Affairs begins , 'tis impoffible he 
ihould finifh it with fucceis. 

To avoid thefe and the like Inconveniences, it is ab- 
Iblutely requifite for the Prince at the beginning of his 
Reign to apply himfelf to the Adminiftration of Pub- 
lick Affairs , that by ufe he may gradually learn the 
Art of Government. For though they at firft feem 
terrible and difficult , Ambition and the Glory which 
may be expe&ed thence , will afterwards make them 
plealant and delightful. Let not fear of doing amifs 
be any obftacle to him , for there's no Prudence fo in- 
fallible but it may fometimes err. From Errors pro- 
ceeds Experience , and from thence the beft Maxims of 
Government. And if at any time he happens to be in 
one, let this thought comfort him , that 'tis fometimes 

(8) Wo to the idle Shepherd that leaveth hit Flock, Zacb. 1 1. 17, 
(j) They have Mouths, bat «hey fpeak not ; E)ts have they, buc 
they fee not ; Ears have they, but they hear not j Noies have they, 
but they fmell not, Pfalm 1 i<» §. (¡.c) We know chat an Idol is 
nothing is the World, 1 Cor, 8, 4, 


%oi r A Trmce ¡hould have refp'eft to] &c. Vol.1 

lefs dangerous to mifcarry himfelf , than fucceed by 
another ; for this the People carp and cavil at, the for* 
mer they eafily bear with. A Prince's Obligation con- 
iifts only in being defirous , and ufing his utmoft en- 
deavours to fucceed , admitting Inftru¿Hon and Coun*, 
fel without Pride and Preemption , that Mother of 
Error and Ignorance. Power is born with Princes , 
Wifdom not : If they will but hear , they will know 
how to Govern. Solomon owning what a Child he was, 
to judge God's People, prayed too a docile and under- 
ftanding Heart (n), thinking that fufficient to make 
him capable of fuccefsfully difeharging his Duty. A 
zealous and well-meaning Prince , God leads as 'twere, 
by the Hand , lead he ihould at any time make a falle 
Step in the Government of his States. 

(u) Gire therefore thy Servant an underftanding heart to judgi 
thy People, that I maydifcern between good and bad, i Km^M 

V. ¿ri? 1 

olí. ¿09 


'OME Fiihermen, once in the Iííand Chios, cafting 
w their Nets into the Sea for Fifh, drew oat a Tripos, 
hich was a kind of Veflel made for the Service of the 
Itar, or (as others will have it) a round three legg d 
fable, an admirable Work, and of an iríeftimable Va- 
fe, not fo much for the matter, though it was of Gold, 

becauie of the Ártiít Vulcan. This kindled Avarice 
i them, and all the btbér Fiftiers of that Ifland, who 
i^vain often threw theirs with the fame hopes. How 
Jen have the happy Succeifes of one Prince deceiv'd 
mfelf and others, while they all endeavour to attain 
¡e fame Fortune by the fame Mean»? 'tis not fo eafy 
^follow another's Steps, or to go ones own over a- 
tán, lb as to tread always exactly in the fame Tracks. 

fmall (pace of time joyn'd with fo great a Variety 

P of 

aro 7*he fame Means do not always Vol! 

of Accidents effaces the firft, and whatsoever imprefi 
fions are made afreih, are quice different, and conic- 
o;uenrly lead not to the fame end. Alexander the Grea 
has 1 ad many Followers and Imitators , who although 
nothing inferior to him in all Accompliihments , bod 
of Body and Mind , yet could never arrive to fo higl 
a pitch of Glory and Succefs , at leaft have not me 
with that Applaule. To be good is in our Power 
but to appear fo to others is not. Fortune (ports witl 
us even in Matters of Fame, nor does the fame SucceJ: 
always correfpond to the fame Aétíon. What befe 
Ss-guntum, did alfo happen to Efiepa, yet of this ther: 
fcarce remains any Memory. This little City, fot 
footh, deférv*d not fo much Glory j for what isfcarci 
taken notice of in fmall , in great ones is often high!; 
¿xtoll'd. The fame thing is ufual in Virtues ; the fam 
ihali create one Prince a good , another an ill Chart 
¿ter¿ this is the Times and Subjects. If the Nobilit 
be unruly, the Commonalty dilfolute and licentious 
the Prince that tries to reduce them to Reafon, will nc 
efcape the name of bad. Every Kingdom would han 
a Prince of its own Stamp. Whence 'tis, that thougJ 
a Prince govern by the fame good Methods, as have i i 
anothers Government been applauded, yet fiiall he nc 
be fo well received, nor equally commended , excej 
the Subjects of both be alik# good. 

Hence 'tis not without danger , for a Prince to t 
wholly guided by Examples, it being very difficult 
not abfolutely impofiibie, that in any one Cafe tfa 
ihou'd be an equal Concurrence of all thofé very C 
cumftajices which are in another. Thefe Second Caj 
of th© Co^eiirai Orbs turn round continually, an 
form eaehT..jQay new Aipe&s of Conftellations , b 
which they produce their EtfecV,» and the Changes i 
Things ; And as the Stars once appearing never retín 
exadiiy in the fame manner again, fo neiiher have the 
the like Operations upon things i eie below, and | 
die Variation o* iome Accidents , the Succefles toofi 
Varied, ia vviüch Chance has fometimes moie Erficac 


^oLL proJ*ei the fame ÉffeRi. Íx% 

rhan Prudente. Others Examples in my Opinion de- 
ceive Princes no lefi than to follow none at all. 
Wherefore what has happened to others deferyes Con* 
lideration, to eftablifh a prudent. Policy $ not that all its 
Maxims ihould be Squared by their Rule , and that ex* 
BJpféd to the Hazard and Uncettainty of Cafualties. 
thhers Events are to be an Inft rumión not a Law (i)„ 
rhofe Examples alone can be imitated with any Aflfu- 
rance , that refult from Cauíés and Reafons eflentially 
spod, and common to the Law ot Nature, and that of 
Nations, for they are at ail times the fame. As alio 
ihofe of fuch Princes as have prefcrved themíelves in 
Credit and Honour by Religion, Juih'ce, and Cie- 
inency, and other Virtues and Moral Actions. Yet in 
thefe Cafes too careful Attention is required, for Man- 
ners, and the Reputation of Virtues often change , nor 
is it new or unulual for a Prince to be ruined by the, 
tame, that at another timé made him fiourim. Ail there 
things therefore Prudence ought to confider, and not 
put toó much Confidence in its féif , but Confult the 
rarious Accidents that evei y day happen , nor looking 
upon things to come as Certain, however difaeet Judg- 
ment and Diligence feem to have fearcht and provided 
againit them. For Events are not always correfpon- 
£nt to their means, nor do they at ail times depend 
Upon the ordinary Connexion of Caufes , where Hut 
mane Counfe's ufually take Efied, but on that fupe- 
rlor Caufé which dire&s all other. This malíes our 
Thoughts and Suppositions fo uncertain , and the hopes 
founded thereon io fubjed to Diiappointment. No one 
was in all Mens Ojpinion farther from the Empire, than 
Claudius 9 yet Heaven had then dengn him tor libmusi 
Succefior (2). 

This is more common in thé Éle&ion of Popes, 
wherein humane Induftry is very often barrkd. Di- 

-fl') Flnret aliornm tvenrir doceitur. Tap. 4 Ann. (? ) Q&t&J&\ 
mm, fpe, veneratiwe fottus onn . (tefttnabantur Imperio, ^nem f<tK* 
turn rrtwtipm [mm* jn kwIiq tenej^t. ¿*u }'. niin, 

2 1 i The fame Meant Jo not always Vol X. 

vine Providence does nor always ufe natural Means, at 
leaft fometimes produces by the fame different Effects , 
drawing ftreight Lines by a crooked Rule , ib what 
ihould have been advantageous , proves frequently pre- 
judicial to the Prince. The fame Pillar of Fire in the 
Wildernefs gave Light to God's People , and filled the 
Enemies Camp with Darkneis. The greateft Humane 
Prudence is oftentimes at a lofs; where a Man expected 
Security, he lometimes finds Ruin , as it happened to 
Vmatus , who was betrayed and killed by thofe very 
Ambaffadors he had fent to the Confuí, Servilius. A 
Misfortune we have once fuftained, we don't eafily be- 
lieve we fhall fuifer again ¡ but on the contrary , pre* 
fently perfuade our felves Profperity will continue, or 
at leaft return. This Confidence has been deftru&ive 
to many in that it difarms Prudence. This World is a 
vaft Sea of Events , totted by various and unknown 
Caufes. Let us not be too much elated, if by chance 
we bring our Nets to Shore full with the Succefi of our 
Wiihes,* nor on the other fide, dejefted if they prove 
empty j we ought always to caft them, and expeét the 
Confequence with the fame equality of Mind. 'Tis 
impoflible for that Man to enjoy any Reft, who* pro* 
railing himielf a profperous IlTue of his Deiign, fees a 
contrary Event, and is deftitute of a Remedy for it* 
Misfortunes cannot furprize one that experts the worft* 
nor will difappointed Hopes expofe him to Ridicule, as 
they did the Perfians in the War againft the Athenians, 
who had a great while before furniihed themfelves with 
Marble from Paros to infcribe the Vidory on , which 
t heir hopes had long ago anticipated ; but being after- 
wards overcome , the Athenians made ule of that very 
Marble to eredl to Revenge a Statue, an everlafting 
Monument of the Perfian Folly. To prefume to know 
things to come, is in a manner a Rebellion againft God, 
and a foolifli Contention with Divine Wifdom , which 
has indeed permitted Human Prudence to gueis at, but 
not foretel things of this Ñature,that in this uncertainty 
of Accidents it may acknowledge ic felf more fubjed 


Vol..!. produce the fame Effefts. n$ 

to, and dependent on its Creator. This makes Policy fo 
cautious and provident in its Relblutions , well know- 
ing how ihort lighted the greateft Humane Wifdom is 
in Futurity, and how uncertain thofe Judgments are, 
which are grounded upon Preemption. If Princes 
could foreíée' future Cóntingences, their Councils would 
not ib often mifcarry. And this I take to be the Rea- 
fon, that as foon as Saul was elected King, God infufed 
into hirn the, Spirit of Prophecy ( 3 ).-. 

From whit hath been laid , may be gathered , that 
although Antiquity be venerable , and there be really 
fomething $oyal in the ways ihe hath opened to Po- 
fterity, for Experience to pais more fecurely,* yet 'tis 
vifible man$ arc ruined by time , ib that they grow 
¿mpaiTable: and confequently the Prince, ought not to 
be fo diffident of himfelf, fo religioufly to tread his 
Anceftors Steps, as not upon oceaiion to venture to go 
another way of his own. .Innovations are not always 
dangerous ; it is fdmetimes convenient to introduce 
them. Were there no Alterations , the World would 
never be perfected , which advances in Wifdom as ic 
does in Age. The moil ancient Cufioms were new. 
And what we now fee without Example, will be here- 
after a Precedent. What we now follow by Experi- 
ence, was begun without it. Our Age alio may leave 
many glorious Inventions for Pofterity to imitate ; nor 
is every thing the Ancients have done die beft , no 
jnore than all the Moderns do now , will be approved 
by After-ages. Many Abufes have defcended to us 
from our Anceftors , and many fevere Savage Cuftoms 
of the Ancients time has mitigated and change^ for the 

(}) 1 San. 10. 6. 



f.14 Volt 


INgenious Reme] that Virtue and Valour might not 
•* want Trophies to Honour and Récompence Con- 
querors , excite Emulation in Pofterity, and give Ex- 
ample to her other Citizens, invented the Column* Ro- 
firata, Pillars whereon were mmg the Heads of fuclj 
Ships , as returned Victorious after long Voyages , thus 
eternizing the Memory of Sea-fights; one of which 
Monuments was railed to the Confuí Duiüiut , for the 
iignal Victory he obtained over the Carthaginians ; as 
álíb to Marcus tsEmilius for another. This Trophy 
gave occafion to the prefent Emblem, wherein the 
firength and firmneís of the Pillar reprefénts Wifdom, 
and the Heads of the Ships that had run through fo 
many Perils upon the Ocean, Experience,the Mother of 
Prudence and Support of that Wifdom. This ha hinfl 

' ' * UIil» 

wól. I. Ore it Again rarely fucceed weB, &c %if 

univerfal ánd perpetual for its Object , that particular 
Anions. The one is acquired bv Speculation and Stu- 
dy ,• the other (which is an Habit of the Mind ) by 
the Knowledge of Good and Evil, and by Ufe and 
Exerciíé ; both jointly make a perfect p rince , one 
done is not fuflicient. Whence it eafily appears how 
dangerous the Government of thofe is, who are addict- 
ed only to the Contemplation of Sciences, and a Soli- 
tary Life » for fuch want generally Ufe and Practice , 
and fo can profit little by their Actions V they being 
¿ther raih , or mean and abjec? ¡ efpecially if they be 
tranfoorted with Exceis of Fear or Zeal. Their Di£ 
com fes, indeed, and Writings (wherein more of ft 
fpeculative than practical Genius reigns ) may be íér- 
viceable to the Prince to awaken his Mind, and furniili 
him with Matter for Converfation , provided they be 
feaibnably ufed , and with Experience. Phyfick pre- 
fcribes Remedies for Difeafes, which however the Phy- 
iician never applies without firft examining the Quali- 
ties of the Diftemper, the Nature and Conftiturion of 
fcis Patient. Had Hannibal by this Confideration mode- 
rated his barbarous Arrogance , he had not took Thar* 
nth for a Fool , for teaching the Art of War , when 
himfelf was no Soldier ; for although Speculation alone 
does by no means acquire Practice, it being excreamly 
difficult for the Hand to Copy accurately all that the 
Mind has drawn , or for whatever the Imagination has 
propofed to be accomplished to the Eyes Satisfaction; 
efpecially when War depends upon fuch a Variety of 
Accidents that Experience her felf knows 
not what is to be done. Yet , for all this , Tbormip 
might have given Hannibal (as great and experienced 
a General as he was ) fuch Precepts as would have 
caught 'him to correct his treacherous and fubtle Na» 
Cure , to leave off his Cruelty to conquered Nations, 
and proud Carriage to fuch as had recourfe to him for 
Protection. He undoubtedly had learnt to make a 
jystter Ufe of the Victory at Cama , to fhun the De r 

P 4 baucherics 



%i6 Great Affairs rarely fuceeeJ weBjhat dre Vol 

baucheries of Capua, and gain the Favour of Antioc* 
King Ferdinand the Catholick, ufed on fome Ooeafioi 
the Miniftery of the Religious ; but Whether to manage 
or only prepare Affairs , I cant fay; or if it was not» 
perhaps to fpare the F.xpence of Amba ífies, or prevent 
the Inconveniences ufually arifing from Difputes be- 
tween the Nobility about Precedency. However Se- 
crets are not fecurely intruded to them , they depend- 
ing more upon the Obedience of their immediate Su- 
periors, than that of Princes ; and if they accidentally 
die , into their Hands will fall all private Letters and 
Papers. Befides , for NeglecT: of Duty they are not 
puniihable , and their Example is a Difturbance to Re- 
ligious Tranquility , and the Practices of Policy infe& 
their Candor and Simplicity. They are better Phyficfc 
ans for Spiritual than Temporal Diftempers. Every 
Sphere has its peculiar Activity. I don't in the mean 
time deny that fometimes there are to be found among 
them , Perfons who have had their Education ift 
Courts , without that Narrownefs of Soul which ufu* 
ally accompanies a monaftick and retired Life, Wits ib 
cultivated by Learning and Obfervation , that Affairs 
even of the gteateft ConfequenCe may be íáfely com- 
mitted to them , efpecially fuch as refpeá the Publick 
Quiet , and the Good of Chriftendom ; for Modefty 
in Converfation , well ordered Virtues , the Gravity 
of, and Deference paid to a Religious Habit , are 
no imall Recommendations in Prince's Courts to 
gain Audience, and prepare Minds to receive Impref- 

Experiences drawn fiom others Misfortunes and 
Dangers , are indeed happy , but not fo effectually 
perfuafyve as our ownj the former we fee or hear 
only ; thefe we fenfibly feel too. They are too deep- 
ly engraved, as I may fay, on our Breafts to be foon 
effaced. Shipwrecks defcried from Shoar, are fbme- 
thing morí affecting than anothers Relation of them ; 
but he who has had the Fortune to efcape them, 


Vol. I. not founded upon the Experience of Many. %iy 

frangs up his Rudder in the Temple of Experience for 
a perpetual Memorial of it. So that though a Prince 
will improve by both, yet his own private ones he 
ought moft to regard, particularly obferving this, 
that if they proceed from any fault , Self-love is too 
apt to excufe them ; and that Truth late or never 
comes to his Ears to undeceive him , being either flop- 
ped in the Palace-Gates by Malice , or concealed by 
Flattery, which makes Virtue not dare to unmask it 
[for fear of bringing it felf into Danger, becaufe it 
belongs not to it , or at leaft it fees all would be to 
no purpofe. And thus Princes ignorant of what neg- 
¡leét they have been guilty, how and where they 
¡have done amifs in their Councils or Actions, cannot 
((Corred their Errors , nor by their Experience prove 
more cautious and prudent for the future. There 
ought to be no Fault committed , no Miicarriage 
happen in the State , whereof there ihould not be pre- 
sent faithful and fincere Information given the Prince. 
There's no Seníátion or Pain in any part of the Body, 
but immediately is carried to the Heart , as the Prince 
of Life, where the Soul has its chief Refidence, and 
as that whofe* principal Intereft it is to preíérve the 
other Members intire. How happy were it, if Kings 
well knew what Evils their Kingdoms laboured un- 
der, we ihould not fee them fo inveterate. Whereas 
the only thing now aimed at in Courts, is to divert 
the Prince's Ears with Muilck, and fuch like Entertain- 
ments, that he may not hear his Subjects Complaints, 
nor fay with Saul, What ailetb the People that they 
weep (i) j? And fo he is ignorant of their Neceílíties 
and Calamities, at leaft knows them too late. Though 
the Adventure of Jonas, whom a great Fifli had vo- 
mited up alive, was very freih,» though his Publick 
Cries made a Noife over the whole City of Niwveh , 

(i) i Sam, ii. 5. 


i 1 8 Great ¿fairs rarely fucceed well, that ¿ire Vol. f 

whole Deftru<5Hon he threatned within forty Days; 
yet was the King the laft rfiat heard of it , everf ¡ 
Citizen, from the greatcft to the leaft , having already 
.mourned, and put on fackcloath (?)• Who is then 
has the Courage to tell a Prince the whole Truth „ 
or difcover the Evils that menace him ? The whote 
Army of Bethulia came to Hohfernus Tent with great 
Cries, becaufe the Sun was already rifen , yet did not 
the Officers of the Bed-Chamber dare to awake him ,: 
nor call him by his Name 0)> but made only a 
Noife with their Feet ; till when the Evidence of the 
Danger obliged them to enter, the Enemy had already 
cut off his Head and hung it upon their Walls ( 4 ). 
Thus it generally happens , the Prince firft diicovers; 
Faults , when there's either no Remedy for them, or 
at leaft it cannot be applied without great Difficulty. 
His Minifters perfwade him all things fucceed well ,, 
which makes him negligently lofe all Experience, 
and the Inftru&ions of Neceflity , the beft MiftreGi 
of Prudence. For although Profperity proceed from 
Prudence , this does not from Profperity. The prin- 
cipal Office pf Prudence in Princes, or others con- 
cerned with them , is to teach them to know experi- 
mentally all Mens Humours, which are diicernible. 
from the Drefs, the Looks, the Motions of the Eyes 
and Actions-, and laitly from the Speech. Marks 
which God Almighty thought lb neceflary to Human 
Commerce, that he has wrote them vifibly upon 
every pne's Forehead (5). Without them neither the 
Prince wpu!c| know how to Govern , nor Men ot 
Affairs obtain their Ends. Mens Minds are as vari- 
ous as their Faces (¿)» and although Reafon be m 
its feif one and the fame, the ways reaibning takes 
in the refearch of it, are widely different ; and the 

Ci) Jon. 3.5. (1) Judith 14.10, U) Ibid. (5) Eccl. io.i$| 
(ojEccI. 10.17. ' 



IToI.I. not feu* Je J } upon the Experience of Many. z%$ 

Delufions of the Imagination ufually are fo great, that 
bme Men appear as irrational as the very Brutes, 
¡therefore all are not to be treated with in the 
'ame Method , but this muft be varied , fuitably tp 
:he Perfoo's Nature , as they change the Bit accord-» 
ing to the Horfe's Mouth. Some Tempers are gene- 
¡rous and exalted, with thefe Reputation and Honour 
ire moft prevailing : Others mean and abject , which 
ire wholly lead by private Intéreft and Advantage. 
Some are bold and enterprizlng , thefe are to be, 
gently turned from the Precipice : Others flothful 
and timorous, which mould be fo lead by Bufinefs, that 
they may lee the Vapity of Danger. Some are natu- 
rally fervile , thefe Threats and Fear of Puniihment 
has more Influence on than Intreáties : Others arre* 
gant , and are tamed by Authority , being by com- 
pliance ruined. One is full of Fire , and to quick at 
Bufinefs , that with the fame Expedition he difpatches 
it, he immediately repents ; this Man 'tis hard giving 
¡Counfel to : Another is flow and irrefolute , whom 
rime muft teach at his own coft. Some are ignorant 
and ftupid , thefe are not to be convinced by fubtle 
and refined Arguments, but palpable Demonftrati- 
jons. Others feeptically dilpute every thing, and are 
guilty of an Excels of Subtilty , thefe muft be aban- 
doned to themfelves, to fly as Hawks till they bé 
tired , then called to the Lure of Reafon, and the Bu- 
iineis in hand. Some refufe all Mens Counfel , are 
wholly guided by their own ¿ to thefe you are not 
to give any, but fo point as it were to them , and 
ove fuch Hints in a large Difcourfe upon the Matter, 
that they may of themfelves light on them, which will 
make them approved as their own OfT-fpring, and ac- 
cordingly executed ,• others know neither how to a¿fc 
nor refolve without Counfel, with fuch as thefe alt the 
Perfuafion in the World is to no purpofe , fo the Bufi- 
nefs which ihouid have paifed through their hands may 
be better tranfa¿ted with their Counsellors, 


ato Great Affairs rarely fmceed toeGjhat are 

The fame Variety which is vifible in Difpofitiof 
is found alfo in Affairs ,• fome are eafy at firft , 
afterwards increafe as Rivers by the Affluence 
Rivulets , as it were of divers Inconveniencies an( 
Difficulties , thefe are overcome by Expedition in no; 
giving time to their Increafe. Others on "the contra 
ry, like the Winds riíé in Storms , but end calmly 
which require Patience and Conftancy. The Enter 
prize of Ibme is full of Uncertainty and Danger , it 
that when one lead thinks the Depth of Difficukie 
appears , here one mud proceed with Caution anc 
Courage , with Care , and a Mind provided to en 
counter any Accident. Some require Secrecy, theü. 
are to be carried on by Mines , that the happy Sue; 
ceis may break out before one can perceive it : Others 
can't be obtained but at certain Times , in thefe you 
ought to have all the Means ready immediately to 
hoift Sail upon the firft favourable Blaft of Wind^ 
Some take Root gradually, and demand Time to come 
to Maturity j here the Seed of Diligence is to be | 
Sowed and the Fruit waited for: Others except they 
fuccecd prefently never do at all , which muft be 
taken by AiTault, by employing all Methods at once., 
Some are fo delicate and brittle , that like GlaiTes 
they are with a Blaft formed and broken , thefe are 
to be tenderly handled : the Difficulty of others is in- 
hanced by being too much defired and purfued, here 
the Arts of Lovers are ufeful , whofe Paflions are in- 
flamed by Slight and Diidain. In a word the Manage- 
ment of a few Affairs demands Precipitation ; in more 
Force prevails • in many Patience , and in almoft all 
Reafon and Intereft. Importunity has fpoild abun- 
dance of Affairs , but it has alfo furthered many, as 
St. Jerome faid of the Woman of Canaan (7). Mea 
are no lefs weary of refufing than granting. Oppor- 
tunity is the thing contributes moft to the good 

*»(?) Qjiid preábiit non potril t<iit impetrmit. D. Hieron. 


Eol. T. not founded upon the Experience of Many, tit 
fanageraent of Affairs ; he who knows how to ufe 
his inall Icarce ever Mifcarry. The Husbandman 
hat is well acquainted with the Nature of his Soil 9 
ind knows the proper Seed-time , may exped a 
>lentiful Harveft. There's a time when all things 
tre granted, another wherein all are denied, according 
is the Mind fhall be difpofed, in which you may 
¡afily fee the Increafe and Decreafé of Bufíneís, 
"or being lopped like Trees in a proper Month , 
hey fprout out the more. Some Addrefs in pro- 
ofing and perfuading by Honefty, Profit , and Eafe ; . 
?rudence in the Choice of Means , and fome other 
íatural Endowments infinitely conduce to the Suc- 
:els of Affairs , provided thofe Gifts of Nature btí 
iceompanied with a difcreet kind of Cornplaiíánce 
md natural Grace that captivates the Mind; for 
bme Mens Looks and Behaviour are fb difagree- 
ible and ungenteel , that they even ihew one how 
jo refufe their Petitions; but although theíé Means 
loyned with good Judgment and Induftry have a 
Itrange Effe& on Bufinefs; yet too much Confidence 
pught not to be put in them, nor yet ihould they 
be defpaired of. Light Affairs fometimes breed great 
Difficulties; and on the other fide, the lighteft 
Gaufes often obftruér. the moft weighty. The greateft 
Prudence is fometimes blind in a Matter as clear as 
the Sun ; Divine Providence that has already long ago 
determined in his eternal Decree , what fhall become 
bf every thing, being thus pleafed to fport with Hu- 
mane Affairs. 

From this Variety of Capacities and Affairs , ap- 
pears of how much Concern it is to the Prince, to 
make Choice of Minifters fit to manage them, each 
Man being no more capable of all manner of Bufi- 
nefs , than every Inftrument ufeful for all Works. 
iPerfons of a violent Temper , the Cowardly and Difc 
Ifident, the Rough and Unpleafant in Converfation , 


iix Great Affairs rarely fuccee i weajhat are Vol! 

who can never férve the times , nor adapt them- 
felves to others Natures and Cufroms, rather fpoil 
Affairs than compofe them ; ate readier at making, 
than reconciling Enemies, fitter to be Informen 
than Mediators. Affairs require Persons of very dif- 
ferent Qualities fó Adminifter them. That Man is 
above all the moil proper , who in his Air and Words 
difcovers a Soul of Candor and Veracity , whofs 
private Perfon procures him Love . and Efteem ; in 
whom Jealoufy and Cunning are from Art not Na- 
ture, who can Reep them in the mioft lecret Place 
of his Brea ft when they require Concealment ; who 
propofes with Swéetneís , hears with Patience , replies 
with Force, duTembles with DHcrerion, urges with 
Attention ; who obliges by Liberality, perfuades by 
Reafon , and convinces by Experience ,• who in a 
word defigns prudently , and executes effectually. It 
was with thefe Minitferá, King Ferdinand the Catho- 
lick was able to fucceed in all his Enterprizes. 
The good Choice of thefe is of no léfs Confequence, 
than the Confervation and Enlargement of any 
State, for as much as all depends upon their Admi- 
niftration ; more Kingdoms having been deftroyed 
by their Ignorance than by that of Princes. Let 
this therefore be your Highnefs's chiefeft Care to 
examine diligently all the Qualities of your Sub- 
jects , and after having given them any Place , loolt 
now and then into their Aclions , and not be pre- 
fently taken with , and deluded by the Draught 
of their Memoirs. There being very few Minifters, 
who in them draw themfelves to the Life ? In Ef- 
fect, who will be fo candid , fb much a Stranger to 
felf-love , as to confefs what good he has neglected 
to do , what Evil to prevent ? It will be much if he 
with Sincerity relate what he has actually done ; fome 
ufing to write to the Prince not what they have 
done or faid , but what they ought to do or fay. 
They have thought of, and dciigned every thing 


fjVol* I. not founded upo* the Experience of Many, itf 

before-hand ; they forefaw , nay , and executed all» 
ilrVíFairs enter their Clofets like miihapen Logs, but 
í immediately come out again > as ficm fome Statuaries 
«Shop, exquifite Figures ; lis there they are varniftied, 
, gilded , and painted , to beaurify them , and enhance 
¡ their Value. There Judgments are form'd, and abun- 
dance of Preventions devis'd ever after the Succefs; 
Ithere they are more powerful than God himíélf ,* make 
Ithe paft Time preíént , and the prefent paft , by 
(changing the Date of their Anions , as they fee con- 
penient. They are Minifters who tranfact Affairs in 
[Imagination only ; Men that court Applaufe , and 
Ifteal Rewards by their fallé Letters : Whence pro- 
Iceed the greateft Inconveniences in the World , in 
I that the Prince's Privy Councilors being directed by 
[thofe Intelligences and Advices , if they are falfe , the 
I Orders and Refolutions founded upon them will ne- 
1 eeflarily be fo too. The Holy Scripture teaches us how 

Minifters , and particularly AmbaiTadors are oblig'd 

punctually to execute their Commiffions ; for we fee 
I in that Hazael had from Benhadad , King of [Syria to 
I confult the Prophet Elijha about his Difeafe, he chang'd 

not one word , nor dared fo much as to fpeak in the 

Third Perfon (8), 

Minifters of extraordinary Experience are (bme- 
times dangerous , either for that the Prince puts too 
much Confidence in them , or becaufe biailed by 
SeHMove, or prefuming upon their own Abilities, they 
feldom think thoroughly of Affairs, and born as 
'twere to overcome the molt violent Tempefts , de- 
fpife the fmall Storms of Inconveniences and Difficul- 
ties, whereby they evidently expofe themfelves to 
Danger. Thofe are in fome Cafes much iafer, who 
as yet Novices in Navigation keep clofe to the Shore. 

1 ■ ' -^— i ; i— mmm— i ' | .m—mmmmmt^mm . ! n . ii i 


¿¿4 Great Affairs rarely fucceéa* well, &ci Vol. f. 

Though both together compoíé the beft Counfels ; in 
that the Experience of thofe is qualified by the Timo* 
roufnefs and Caution of thefe } ih Debates between 
the Flegmatick and Cholerick , the Bold and Circum- 
fpe<5t , the Quick and Slow , there refults a wholfomo 
Compofition of Opinions, as there does in Bodies front 
the contrariety of Humours. 



ITol.1. 215 


Á Pillar fupports it felf , balanced by its own weight. 
¡¡¡£ If it once leans on either fide, it presently falls, 
ind that the fooner the heavier it is. Thus Empires, 
land, and are preíérv d by their own Authority and 
leputej when they begin to lofe that , they begin to 
jail ¿ nor is any Earthly Power fufficient to ftrengthen, 
lind prop them (1). Let no one truft too much to 
i (freight Pillar, when it inclines never fo little, the 
jveakeft Hand promotes its Ruin ¿ that very leaning I 
mow not how inviting to puih it,* but when falling, 
he ftróngéft is unable to uphold it. One fingle A<5fci- 
m foraetimes overthrows the beft eftabiiih'd Reputa- 

(1) Nihil mum men alum tarn inflabile ae jlntm eft , quam fam'i 
tiffiti*, non fita vi nix*. Tac. 13. Ana. 

Q. «ion* 

2i£> Ref pe fling times pafl^prefenty and to come, 
tion which a great many can't ere& again. For fcai 
any Stain can fo thoroughly be waiheaout, but for 
fign of it will remain , nor any Opinion in Mens 
Minds that can be entirely effaced. Drefs the Infamy 
as carefully as poilible , it will ftill leave fome Scars. 
Wherefore , if the Crown ftand not fixed and firm | 
upon this perpendicular Pillar of Reputation, it will 
foon fall to the Ground. Mpbonfojhe Fifth, King of 
Jrragon, by his Credit not only preferved his own 
Kingdom, but conquered that of Naples. At the fame ¡ 
time John the Second , King of Caftile , for his mean; 
Spirit was ib far the Contempt of his Subje&s , that he 
admitted what Laws they thought fit to impofe. The 
Provinces which under Julius Cafar and Jugufiusfinnccs 
of great Efteern , were Firm and Loyal , rebell'd in 
the Reign of Galla , a Man flothful , and univerfally < 
defpifed ( 2 ). rjloyal Blood and Large Dominions ■ 
are infufficient to maintain Reputation , where private 
Virtue and Magnanimity are wanting ,• as it is not 
the Frame of a Glafs , but its Intrinfick Excellency: 
makes it valuable, Regal Majefty has not more Force ¡ 
than Refpect, which ufually arifes from Admiration i 
and Fear, and from thefe Obedience and Subjeétioiij 1 
without which the Prince's Dignity cannot long main- 
tain it felf , being founded upon the Opinion of 
others • and the Royal Purple will be rather a Mark! 
of Derifion , than Eminence and Majefty , as was vifi- 
Ble in Henry the Fourth. It is the Spirits and Native 
Heat that keep the Body upright ¿ the Legs alone 
would not be a fufficient Bafis. And what is Repu- 
tation , but a kind of fine Spirit kindled in all Mens 
Opinions , which raifes and fupports the Scepter. Let 
the Prince therefore take all poilible care that his 
A&ions may be fuch as will nouriih and foment 
rhefe Spirits. The Parthiaris grounded their Petl» 

: ~ ~ — - 

. CO Melius Divo Julio , Dixoque Augúflo notos eorum ánimos Galbam, 
& infrrih tributa, bojliles Sfiritus induijfc. Tac. 4* Hift, 


Vol. I teaches a Prince how to ajfert his Dignity, %%f 

ion upon Reputation , when they asked Tiberius to 
fend as of his own accord , one of Vhraates's Sons to 

This Repute and Authority has yet greater Influ- 
fence in War, where Fear is of more Efficacy than the 
fcword, and Opinion than Strength , whether of Mind 
br Body , and therefore to be taken no leis Notice 
|)f than Force of Arms. This made Suetonius Paulimt, 
|rery prudently advife Otho to endeavour always to 
keep the Roman Senate on his fide, whofe Authority, 
could never be wholly Darkned , though it might be 
Ibmetimes Eclipfed (4). This alfo made many Coun- 
ties" fubmit to it, and feek its Protection ($■), in the 
Differences that were between thofe Great Gene- 
jais , Cafar and Tompey , each his principal Aim was 
■ft Conquer rather the Reputation than Arms of 
his Rival ,• well knowing that Minds and Forces 
ollow more the noife of Fame , than that of the 
Drum. King Philip the Second was eminently skil- 
ml in this Art of preíérving Reputation j ha- 
ting by it from his Cabinet fo managed the Reigns 
)f both Worlds , that he always had them at Com- 
nand. . 

Nay, even when the Ruin of States is apparent, 
tis better to fufler them, than ones Credit to be 
teftroy'd, for without this 'tis imponible to re-efta- 
alifh them. For Which Reafon , though the Repub- 
iick of Venice, law it felf loft in that violent Storm 
}f the League of Cambraj , yet that moft Prudent 
ind Valiant Senate thought it better to ihew their 
Conftancy on that Occafion , than to betray any. 
Cowardice by uíing diíhonou rabié Means. Delire of 
Dominion/ makes Princes mean. For want or' this 

(3) Nomine tantum, (¿r auífore op«i, ut fponte Cáfar'is, ut gems Ar- 
\*cit y ripam ttpud Epphratis cerneretitr. Tac. 6. Ann. (4^ 
IbfcHra naminci , etfl aliquando ohumbrentux. Tac- z. Hjft. (\) Eat 
kratiJe momentum , in nomine Vib's , ^r pr*textn fenatus. T;c, x. 

Q 2 Coniide- 

2i8 Refpefting times paft.prefent, and to come-. Vol 

Confideration , Otbo with ftretch'd out Hands feem'< 
to adore the People , he embraced every one , an< 
ííiewed all the fervilenefs imaginable to gain th« 
to his Party, and fo procur'd the Empire by thol 
means which declared him unworthy of it ('0- Evei 
in Indigence and Neceflity it is not fit to ufe meai 
violent and inglorious , or feek the Afltftance of Fo- 
reigners ,• for bcth are dangerous j and neither feek 
to relieve want ,• nay, Reputation is the better Re- 
medy for it. One Man is as rich in Opinion, as ano- 
ther in the abundance of hid Treafures. The Old 
Romans were undoubtedly perfwaded fo, when in ieve- 
ral occailons of Adverfity, the Provinces offering them 
Money and Corn , they retum'd Thanks , but would 
not accept them. Two Legions having been caft 
away at Sea^, to recruit the Lofs, Gaul, Spain, and Italy,- 
feni Money, Horfes, and Arms,* Germánicas commend- 
ed their Affe&ion , and accepted only of the Horfér 
and Arms , but not the Money (7). In two other ' 
Prefents made the Roman Senate , of Golden Cups of 
great Value, in time of extraordinary Neceffity, th© 
firit time thanks were given the Ambaifadors for their 
Care and Magnificence , and the Cup of leaft value 
accepted (8). The other , Thanks were return'd , but 
the Prefents rejected (9). 

The Authority and Reputation of a Prince pro- 
ceeds from feveral Caufes ,• fome of which reipett 
his Perfon , others his State. The former fort are 
either of Body or Mind : Of the Body , as if it 
be of a fuitable Frame, and a Difpoiition capable of 
maintaining Majeftyj though the natural Defers of 

(6) Nee deer at Otho p'rstendens nanus adorare vulgtitri % jaeere cfcula, 
<£r omnia fcrviluer pi o dominations Tac. i. Hift. (7) Ctterum ai 
fupplendd exercitus damna, certaverc Gallia, Hifpanla , Italia , quod cuh 
que promptum, arma, equos, aurum efferentes, quorum fludto Ge r- 
manicus, armis modo <& equis ad bellum fnmprh> propria pecunia mihtem 
jkvit. Tac. 1. Ann. (i) Legatis gratis, aíf¿ pro magmficentia cwaque, 
Patera qu£ minimi pondera fuit accepta. Uv. i. 32. (9) Gratis ail *, 
awm non acceptum. Liv. 32, 


Vol. L teaches a Prince how to affert his Dignity. 229 

Body are often fupplied by Virtues of Mind. Charles 
Emanuel , Duke of Savoy , had no fmall Imperfe&ions 
of Body ; yet his great and generous Soul , his lively 
Wit , his Complaifance , and other Courtly Accom- 
pliíhments made him admired by all. A grave and 
auflere Carriage make him pafs for a Prince, who 
without that would be but very contemptible ,• yet this 
Air ought to be temper'd with Courcefy and good 
Humour , that Authority may be fupported without 
incurring Hated, or the Chapter of Arrogant; a 
thing Tacitus commends in Gtrmmkus (10). The 
Riches and Splendor oí: Apparet is another thing, p.b- 
cures Admiration and Authority : for the Vulgar are 
taken with thefe Oatfides , and Mankind admits the 
Eyes no lefs than the Uodérftanding into its Couniel. 
Whence Jlphonfo the Wife, very well faid v That Cloaths 
contribute much to make M±n known for either Noble or 
Baje ¿ and the Ancient Sages obligd their Princes to 
Cloths of Gold , and Silk , and befet with Jewels , that 
they might be known at fight without inquiry. When King 
Ahafuerus gave Audience , he wore Royal Apparel , 
and {hone in Gold and precious Stones (n). It was 
on this account God commanded Mofes to make Holy 
Garments for Aaron s his Brother , for Glory and for Beau» 
//(12). And he accordingly made them of Purple, 
embroidered with Gold, and adorned with other things 
of great value (13) , which his Succeffors were after 
him ; and at this day the Popes do, though with grea- 
ter Prudence , and lefs Expence. And indeed , if his 
Holineis be an Arm of God upon the Earth ,• if the 
Voice of his Cenfures be like that of the Almighty's 
Thunder (14), tjs but juft (whatever impiety cavils) 
that as God covers himfelf with Light (if), the Gar- 
ment of Heaven, fo íhe ihould be deck d with Earthly 

(to) Vifuqm ¿r audita juxta venerabilis, cum magnitudinem* <fy gnc 
xi'atem fumm£ fortunx retineret inviditm & ariogunúam efj^gerer. 
Tac. i. Ann. (¡i) Heft. 15. 9. (ti) Exod. 2?. 2, ((3) íbiri, 
(14) Job 40.4. (15) Kalm 105.2. 

Q 3 Pomp, 



%"\o RcfpefthgtifHespaftfrefent, and tocóme, Vol.1. 

Pomp, and carried upon Mens Shoulders (16). The 
fame has place in Princes , who are God's Vicegerent 
in Temporals ( r -»). 

Large and fumptuous Palaces magnificently fur- 
rriíh'd (i*), a Noble and Eminent Family (19), Guards 
of Nations of approved Fidelity (2c), the Splendor and 
Grandeur of a Courts and other Publick Orientations 
do alfo fet out a Prince's Power to the beft advantage, 
and give an additional Majen y . Ill uírrious Titles of 
States (Conquered or Hereditary, which are attribu- 
ted to him , are alio Manifeftations of his Eminency. 
Thus, Jfaiaby by divers Names and Titles declares the 
Majefty of the Supream Creator, and Prince of all 
things (21). By thefe therefore your tíighnefs is to 
ftudy to enhance the Luftre of your Royal Perfon, 
provided however they be not aicrib'd out of Levity 
or Flattery , but from an univerfal Applaufe founded 
upon Virtue and true Valour , fuch as were thoíé of 
your Highneís's Anceftors , Ferdinand the Hory , AU 
fhonfo the Great , Sancho the Brave, James the Warlike, 
Alfhonfo the Noble, and many others. 

The Excellency of Virtues, and in general all natu- 
ral Perfedions requinte in a good Governor, procure 
a Prince Efteem and Authority. One alone that Inall 
íhine in him, whether it refpe& Peace or War ; abun- 
dantly fupplies the defeft of all others , as if he apply 
himfelf to Bufineis , though not with abfolute furnci- 
encyj for to leave all to the Care of Minifters infi- 
nitely diminiihes the Force of Majefty. This was Sa¡~ 
lufis Counfel to Livia (22'). Any one Reiblution the 
Prince fhall have taken very opportunely without 
anothers Advice : One Refentment, and to have once 
ihewn the Extent of his Power , though upon the 
flighteft Occafion , make him fear'd and refpeded ; as 
does Conitancy of Mind in both Fortunes, for the 

(16) Job 40. $. ("17} Pfelm 81. 6. (i9) Eccl. 2. 4 (19) Pror. 
2*. 29. (20) Job 25. 7. (21) Ifaiah 9.6. (21) Neve Tiberius 
vim priticipatHs refolveret t cunlta ad fenatum wcando. Tac. 1. Aon. 


Vol. T. teaches a Trime bow to ajjert his Dignity. % 3 1 

People look upon it as fupernatural , not to be pufPd 
up by Profperity, or by Adverfity dejeéied ; they be- 
lieve there is fomeching more than Humane in fuch a 

• Equality in Anions is another thing that greatly ad- 
vances a Prince's Character, it being a íígn of a ferene 
and prudent Judgment , if he difpence his Favours, or 
revenge Injuries out of Seafon, he will indeed be fear'd, 
but not efteem'd' as Vitellim experience (23). 

Farther to maintain Reputation, Prudence not to at- 
tempt what cannot be obtain d, very much contributes, 
for fo his Power will feem infinite, if the Prirce en- 
gage in no War wherein he cannot Conquer, or de- 
mand nothing of his Subje&s but what is juftandfeaii- 
6!e, not giving the leaft ground for Difobe<nence. To 
cnterprize , and not accompliih , is in a Frince inglori- 
bus ; in Subjects ram. 

Princes are valued at the fame Ra/e they fet upon 
themfeives. For altho' Honour co'ififts in the efteem 
of others ¿ yet this is generally for-n d out of a precon- 
ceiv d Opinion of every one , vhich ( at leaft if pru- 
ident) is greater or left , accord/ng as thejMind gsthers 
ftrength from the Valour it fiids in it fell , or lofes it , 
if without Merit. The gr¿ateft Souls are moil afpl 
ring (24)3* the Cowardly dare attempt nothing, -judg- 
ing themfeives unworthv the leaft Honour. Nor is this 
always a virtuous Humility and Modefty in this fort 
of Men , but a bafenefs of Mind , which renders them 
defervedly contemprible to every one, while they pre- 
tend they aim at nothing higher, becaufe they are ibn- 
iible of their want of Merit. BUfm almoft feem'd 
unworthy the Empire , merely for refuiing the offer of 
it (?f). Unhaopy is that State, whofe Head think* 
irimfelf undeferving the Title of Prince, or who pre- 

(23) ViteUiiim fubitis offenfis, ant interr.pefiivis blatulitiis trnttabilem con- 
temnebant metucbantque. Tac. 2. Hi ft. (24) Optimttt quifqne mortalium 
altijjim.t cuper?. Tac. 4. Ann. (25J) Adto non Principatus eppetens, rat 
far urn effngerst m dignas crcderetur* Tac. 3, Hi ft. 

Q q fames 

fc ; t Kefpecling times pop prefent, and to come, Vol. 1. 

fumes he Merits more ; the firft is meanneG of Spirit j 
(his latter is accounted Tyranny. 

In chefe Endowments of the Mind, Chance alfo has 
place; for a Prince happens often , even with them to 
J>e defpifed, when Prudence is unhappy, or Events an- 
fwer not Defigns. Some Governments, good in them- 
selves, are notwithstanding fo unfortunate, that nothing 
fucceeds under them ; which is not always the Faulc 
of Humane Providence, but the Divine fo ordain» 
when the particular Ends of this Inferior Government, 
agr«e not with thofe that Superior and Univerfal one, 

This I add withal , that all thefe good Qualities of 
Mind ard Body , are not fufficient to maintain thé i 
Prince's Reputation, if his Family be diflblute; it is on 
that depends all his Authority , nor is any thing more 
difficult , than a regular Management of a Family. It 
ufually feems eafier to Govern a whole Country than 
oneHoufe; either becaufe a Prince intent on greater 
things is negligent of this, or Self-love is an Obitacle, 
or for want of Courage , or out of a natural Slothful- 
neís, or at leait, bec^fe his Attendants fo blinc] his 
Eyes, that his Judgment can't apply Remedies. It was 
none of the leait Commendations of Agrícola , that he 
had curb d his own Family, never fuffeiing his Dome- 
íticks to intermeddle with Puolick Affairs (26). Galba 
was a good Emperor, but an 'i\ Matter of his Palace, 
no lefs Vices reigning there than in that of Nero (2-). i 
Tiberius,, among other things , was commended for ha- 
ving modeft Servants. No Government can be well 
inftituted , where Courtiers Command , and Rob , or 
Proititure its Authority by their Piide and Vices (28). 
If they are good , they make the Prince the lame; if 
wicked, he though really otherwife, will appear fo 

(2$) Pritnum domumfnam coercuit, quod plerifque hand rninm arduiim 
#1, qtam Provincia/» regere; nihil per libertos , fervojque publica rei. 
Tac. in Vie. Agr. (117) Jam afferebant cunÜ* venaba ptpotentea 
tiberti fervornm manix fubitit avid* tanquam apttd fenem feflmantes. 
Tac. 1. Hift. (28) Modejia ferviria. Tac. 4. Ann. 


/ol.l. teaches a Prince how to affert his Dignity. %%% 

oo. From them the Prince's Á&ions .have their value, 
m them depends his good or ill Character • in as much 
is others Virtues and Vices are wont to be imputed to 
nim. If his Domefticks are prudent, they conceal his 
Faults ,• nay, as much as poffible vindicate every Acti- 
on of his, and by extolling, render them more illuftri- 
pus ; they relate them with a Grace that challenges 
Admiration. Whatever comes from the Prince into 
¡Publick, is great in the Peoples Eyes. Princes in their 
palaces are like other Men, but Reipect makes them 
¡imagined greater , and their Retirement from common 
iConverfatioh covers their Sloth and Weaknefs : Where- 
jis , if their Servants are guilty of Imprudence or Infi- 
delity, the People by them , as through Chinks diico- 
j?er it, and quit that Veneration they before had for 

The Prince's Reputation redounds from that of the 
State , if this be provided with good Laws and Magi- 
strates,* if Juftice be obferv'd, and one Religion main- 
land therein ¿ if it pay due ReipecT: and Obedience 
to Majefty ,• if Cafe be taken of Corn and Plenty, if 
HArts and Arms floutim , and one may in all things fee 
lia conftant Order and Harmony proceeding from the 
iiPrince s Hands ; and laftly, if the States Happinefs de- 
pends upon the Prince himfelf : For if that can be in- 
joy'd without this , they will foon defpife him. The 
¡Labourers in Egypt regard not the Skies (29) , for the 
Wile by its Inundations watering and making their Land 
fertile, they have no need of Clouds. 
-¿ : — ^ _ 

(19) Aratores in Mgfptt Caelum non fafpic'tunt. Plia. 





T" 1 H E Oyfter conceives by the Dew of Heaven, 
* in its pureft Womb , the Pearl , that moft beai 
ful Embryo is born. No one would imagine its exqoi 
lite Delicacy , to fee (b courfe and unpolilh'd an out 
íide. It is thus, the Senfes are ufually deceiv d in thei 
Cenfure of Exterior Anions, when they judge only b] 
the outward appearance of things , without íéarchinj 
the iniide. Truth depends not upon Opinion : Let th 
jprince deipife that, if he be fenfible he a& agreeaW 
to Reaibn. He will never dare enter prize any thin) 
difficult or extraordinary, if Fear prompts him to con 
fult the Sentiments of the Mob. In himfelf he inoul< 
look for himfelf, not in others. The Art of Govern 
ment fufFers not it felf to be difturb'd by thofe thii 
Shadows of Reputation. The King has the grcateft 


Vol.!. A Potentate fkouU not depend, &c. z^f 
amo knows perfe&ly how to manage Affairs both of 
Peace and War. The Honour of Subjects the leaft thing 
Dlemiihes , whereas that of Kings is infeparable from 
:he Publick Good ,• this continuing , that increafes, 
jiailing, it periíhes. Befides, Government wpuld be too 
dangerous / had it no better Foundation than the Laws 
bf Reputation ,mftituted by the giddy RabblcContempt 
af fuch is Courage and $teddinefs in a Prince, whoíé 
¡Sovereign Law is the Peoples Safety. Tiberius hereto- 
fore gloried in having fhewn himfelf fearlefs of Af- 
||front6 and Scandal for the Publick Benefit (r). A great 
¡and lively Soul is nothing affraid of the uncertain Ru- 
jmours of the Multitude and Common Fame. He who 
¡deípiíes this imaginary, will thereby obtain real and 
jfolid Glory. This Vabius Maxlmus well knew, when 
he preferr'd the Publick Safety before the Clamours 
and Complaints of the People, accuilng his Delays; 
as did alfo the Great Captain in the Captivity of Duke 
Valentin, who, though he had furrendered, and intruft- 
led himfelf tp his fafe Condud: yet for fome frefli 
Plots he was inform'd he had iaid again ft his Catholick 
Majefty, kept him Prifoner, thinking the Dangers his 
Liberty might caufe more to be relpeáted , than the 
Afperfions were thrown upon him for the Breach of 
his Parole,* from which, at that time, it feem'd by no 
i| means proper for him publickly to clear himfelf. King 
Sancho the Brave, was a Prince renown'd and warlike, 
yet Deaf to the Calumnies of his Subjects, he declin'd 
the Battel of Xeres t. 'Tis better for a Prince to be 
feared by his Enemies as Prudent, than as Rajh and 
Precipitous. * 

My Defign by this Difcourfe is not to make the 
Prince a very Slave to the Commonwealth, fo that for 
any Reaibn . or upon the leaft appearance of its Inte- 
reft, he fliould break his Word , or run Counter to alt 
Treaties and Agreements : For fuch a Violation can 
neither be of any advantage to him, nor his State, but 

fi) Offenfmem pro ¡ttjlitate publica mnpavhlnm. Tac. 4. Ann. 
t Mar. Hiil. Hifp. 


v.%6 A Potentate ¡hould not depend VoL 

will be rather the Ruin of both ,• what is diihoneft be 
ing never long fecure: A rema* kable Inftance of whk 
we have in the Kingdom of Arragon , which has be 
fo often embroiled, tois'd with fo many Storms of C 
lamities and eminent Miferies, becaufe Peter the Fourt 
as well in times of Peace as War, had more regard 
Intereft, than Credit and Renown. Intereft and Honou 
ihould walk hand in hand, and the fame pace,* nor cai 
I be reconciled to this Opinion, That nothing *» glorio* 
but what is fafe y and that "whatever is done to maintai, 
Dominion is honourable (i ). For what is bate, can nevfc 
be a good means to preferve it,* nor if it were, will i 
be therefore the more honourable or excufable. Ml] 
Defign is only to raife the Prince's Mind above rfii 
Vulgar Opinion , and arm him with Conftancy tc 
withftand the vain Murmurs of the Multitude,* that hi 
may know how to temporize, to diflemble Injuries, tc 
lay afide Kingly Gravity, to defpife empty Fame , hi. 
ving his Eyes fix'd upon that which is true and weH 
grounded. In a word, to take Counfel from the tin», 
and neceffity, if the Confervation of his State requiil 
it, and not fuflfer himfelf to be deluded with vain Sha- 
dows of Honour, efteeming that more than the Pu6 
lick Good. A Fault blam'd in King Henry the Fourth. 
i who refus'd to take their Advice, who peffwaded hitfl 
to apprehend Job» V achico , Marquifs of Villena , the 
Author of the Troubles and Commotions among trie 
Grandees of the Kingdom : Saying he had made him 
a promife of a fafe PaiTage to Madrid, which he ought 
not to violate. A frivolous Excufe, to prefer an idle 
Proof of Faith and Clemency to his own Life, and this 
Publick Safety , eipecially towards one , who would 
abufe this his Favour to Plot againft his Royal Perfora, 
which was the fource of great Calamities to the King, 
and his whole Kingdom. Tibtr'ms was not at all move<t 
that fome blamed him for making lo long a Hay at the 

(2) Nihil ghriofum ni/i mum , <& omnia itthcndi dminathnh ftont- 
fia. Salluft. 


/olí. o» Popular Applaufe. 137 

fle of Capea , and neither went to aid the Gauls , of 
A/hom a great part were already lofi ; nor tó appeafe the 
Legions in Germany ( 2). Prudent Conítáncy hears, but 
ices not much regard the Sentiments of the ignorant 
Multitude ¿ knowing if things fucceed well, Murmur 
will afterwards turn to greater Glory, and fenfibly va- 
liih of it felf. The Army diftrufted SauFs Election, and 
n Derifion faid, How jhall this Man five us (4)? Saul 
lowever took no notice of thofe Words, but made as 
f he did no: hear them, (nor indeed fhould Princes 
tear every thing) and the Soldiers, condemning after- 
wards their Ciime, recanted, nay, and made diligent 
"earch for the Author of that Abuíé to put him to 
Death (5). It had not been prudent in Saul to expofe 
lis Election, by difcovering his knowledge of the Peo- 
nes DhTatisfaction. What Levity were it in a Tra- 
veller to be flopped by the importunate Noife of every 
jrafshopper ? To be guided in ones Refolutions by the 
>rating Mob were fo'ly ((■) ; to fear them, and re- 
roke what has been once refolved, bafe and infamous. 
>carce any Council would be fecure , did it depend 
ipon the Multitude, who are incapable of penetrating 
ill the Motives upon which the' Prince A¿ts, nor is it 
it to make them publick ; for that were to give them 
:he Authority of the Scepter. All the Peoples Power 
s included in the Perfcn of the Prince. It is his part 
:o Act, theirs to Obey , with a firm Perfwafion of the 
Equity and Reafonablenefs of his Commands. If every 
me had liberty to ask Reafons of what is injoyned , there 
would be en end of Obedience and Empire (' ). 'Tis as 
neceiTary for a Subjed to be ignorant or thefe things, 
as to know others. The Sovereign JurifdiBicn of things 
r 3od has given to Princes, to Subjects is I? ft tie Glory of The only thing required of a Prince, is to 

(3) Tanto iwpenfius in fecuritatem computus, ñeque loco, tieque vnhti 
mtur, fed utjehtum per jilos dies egit. Tac. 3 Ann. (^4) 1 Sam. 10. 27* 
f$) i Sam. 1 r. 12. («5} Non ex rumore ftat^endum. Tac. 3. Aaa, 
J j Si ubi jubrahfir, quxrere fir,gvilis li:eat\ psrsnnte obfe¡uiOi e;u/n 
Wferium httrcidit. Tac. 1. H<lt. 


x-fS A Potentate jhould not depend Voll 

acquit himfelf of his Duty in his Refolutions and De- 
crees,- if the Succefs prove not anfwerable to his dei 
ilre 3 he ought not to be dilcouraged ,« for it is fuffideni 
that he has done nothing imprudently ; the very befl: 
Counfel is weak and liable to abundance of Accidents 
The greater a Monarchy is , the more expofed it is tc 
the unhappy Cafuakies , which Chance brings with k.; 
or Humane Underftanding is unable to forefee and 
prevent. Grofs Bodies ufually labour under great Di- 
ftempers. Did not the Prince profecure Affairs nofci 
withftanding all Obloquy and Detraction , with Co% 
rage and Conftancy, he would lead but an unhappy 
Life. If he at any time chance tó err, Courage is ne-i 
ceflary, leaft he be dafli'd, and become for the future 
flow and irreiblute. That Prince , who upon nci 
grounds fuipe&s all he does will be difapproved of 
contraéis too much the Limits of his Power, and fur> 
jecls himfelf to a thoufand Terrors of Imagination,whicfc 
generally ariie from ibme private fuperftitious Perfw*l 
fion, or Excefs of Melancholy. Thefe Inconvenience! 
David feems to have acknowledged , when he prayed 
Cod to take away the Reproach which he fear'd (8) 
Let the Prince therefore arm himfelf with Conftancy tc 
refill any Events, and the Opinions of the Vulgar, and 
fiiew his Valour in the Defence of the true and real 
Reputation of his Perfon and Arms , feeing the lofs 01 
irain of this brings the whole Empire into danger 
King Ferdinand the Catholick, very well underftood 
this , when he advifed his Father , John the Second . 
King of Arragon, to adapt himfelf to the Times and Ne* 
ceffity, and endeavour to fecure his Crown by gaining 
the Hearts of the MarquHs of ViUena , and Alpbonfo C+\ 
tillo , Archbiíhop of Toledo f. He did indeed all ho- 
nourable means to effect it ; but could never be oblige 
bafely tó bend his Regal Authority to the Fury and 
Violence of his Subjects , thinking there to be more 
Danger in this, than Advantage in gaining their Affd- 

(%) Pfalm 1 18. 39, f Mar. HÍI*. Hity. 


¡ r ol.I. ott Popular Afplaufe. 239 

jtions. Time is the beft Maftej of theíé Arts, and fuch 
; one may come as will make even mean A¿Hons He- 
(oick, and impute even bafe and fervile Submiffion to 
Fortitude. 'Tis an honourable and lawful End eno- 
■iles them. Tachus accufes Viteflius for being Nero's Af- 
éctate in his Debaucheries without any Ñecejjiry y which bad 
hade it very excufable, but out of mcer Luxury and Lafci- 
bmfnefs (9). To fubmit to Neceffity, requires no left 
kefolution than to overcome it ¿ t and what is fome- 
fimes thought Baíénefs, is a defire of Honour, as when 
¡0 prevent the lofs of this , or at leaft to preíérve it , 
injuries are put up for a time. He that immediately 
runs to Revenge, fuffers himielf to be led more by 
Paflion than Honour. Anger, 'tis true, has Satisfaction, 
put the Ignominy becomes more notorious and pub- 
ick. How oft has Bloodihed been a kind of Rubrick 
pfcribed with Injuries ? How often have we feen in 
[he Offenders gained Face , the offended Perfon's In- 
famy written in Scars, as in ib manyLetteis? Ho- 
nour has been more frequently loft by Revenge than 
biflimulation \ this brings Oblivion , that Remem- 
brance 1 and we more value a Perfon that has prudent- 
ly taken an Affront, than one who has raihly reveng'd 
bne. He , who makes a true and prudent Eftimate of 
¡the price of his Honour , weighs it againft Revenge , 
¡which the former with the Addition 01 a Grain of pub- 
Jick Efteem, out-weighs by much. 

Although it is my Advice, that the Prince value not 
popular Difcourfe ; this, however, I would have limit- 
ed to the Cafes mentioned, that is, when it is compen- 
sated by the Publick Good , or obítru¿fcs the Execution 
of any great Defigns , which the People don t compre- 
hend , at leaft not well underftand : For the Succefr 
land Honour of the thing recovers afterwards the loft 
(Reputation with Interefi It will in the mean time be 
Prudence in the Prince at all times, as much as poflible, 

— • ; ; « : 

(9) Seflari cantantem folitus, non necsjfiirtte, qua bonefiijjttfflf qnifqne t 
ffdinLuxH & fagina mamipatHfemptnfine t Tac. 2f Hift. 


44¿ 'A frince ought Hot to be difcomposd Vol.! 
to conform his Anions to the Inclinations of the Pa 
pie ,• their Approbation working almoit the fame ErTo 
with real GloryV they both confift in Men's Imagina 
tion, and the popular Voice , though falfe, fometime 
gains fo much Credit, that neither Time, ñor any con 
trary Action can ever after efface it. 



HAT an entire Glafs reprefents, the fame when 
broken , each part of it exhibits. Thus the Lion 
views himfelf in both Pieces of that of the prefent Em- 
blem , that Symbol of Fortitude and generous Con- 
ftancy, which a Prince in all Accidents ought to main- 
tain : In as much as he is a Publick Mirror, wherein 
the whole World views itfelf, as King Alfbonfo the Wil<! 


j/cá.1. < at the Change of Fortune. 2^41 

Ítas well obíérvéd , fpeakíng of Kings Anions , and 
ow they ought to be regulated. Whether therefore 
uccefs preíérve, or Misfortunes. break him, he fhould 
¡¡ver appear with one Countenance ; which indeed in 
Proiperity is of fome difficulty ^ confidering how apt the 
j?aflionsare to break forth.of themielve9,and thatReafon 
panilhes with Glory. However, a truly noble Mind 
tiifFers not it felf to be traniported, even, by the higheft 
Bappinefs , as one might fee in Vefyafian , who though 
pe was by the unanimous Content of all faluted Em- 
peror, was yet neither Proud nor Arrogant (1), nor 
puld the Alteration of Affairs work any in him. That 
(Vían, who with his Fortune changes his Mind, con-^ 
feffes he did not deferve it (2). 

This modeft Affurance was eminent too in Pifo, who 
when adopted by Galba , Jook'd, Í0 ferene and uncon- 
bern'd , as if it had been in his Power to be Emperor,- 
pnd not depending upon the Will of another (2). Va- 
lour alfo is wont to be endangerd by adverfe Acci- 
dents , in that they generally find Men unprepared , 
there being fcarce one who ferioufly thinks of all the 
Calamities incident to him. Which makes them fur- 
prife many unawares, and is the reafon the Mind is 
then in ib much Confufion, which proceeds either fiom 
sxceilive Dotage on thofe HappineiTes it falls ihort o£ 
or from fear of lois of Life ; the defire of prolonging 
which is ingrafted in every Man's Nature. Let others 
harbour thofe Paffions , yet in a Prince's Breaft they 
ought never to be entertain'd $ whofe Duty 'tis to Go- 
vern equally in both Fortunes, and to keep always a 
pleafant compofed Countenance and undaunted Speech. 
Thus Otbo appear'd to his Friends , even after the lois 
of his Empire, endeavouring to flop. their unreafonable 

(1) In ipfo nihil tumidum , arrogtns , aut in rebus novis novum fuit. 
*tac. 2. Hift. (l) Frons prívala rnanet, non fe mewijfe fate tur, 

Q*t crcviffe putat. Claud. 

( 3) Nullum lurbati, attt exuttantk animi motum prodiJijTe , fermn evs.i 
patrew, Impcratoremque rever ens \ de fe moJeratw-, mhil in zultu, ha- 
bititqe mutatum., quafi imperare pojfet mega qxarn vellet- T<\c. i. Hift. 

R Teats (.*). 

2-4^ A Prince ouplrt mt to he difcimpos'J Von 

Tears (4). In that bloody Fight at Navn of TonUux 
King Alfhonfo the Ninth , continued in the Heat oft) 
Engagement with the fame Calmnefs of Mind ai 
Looks. No Accident was ever able to diiclofe tie Pi 
iion of King Ferdinand the Carhoiick. Being once ftr 
by a mad Fellow of Barcelona , he feeen'd to be nothii 
difordered, only gave. Command he ihould be feizc 
The Emperor , Charles the Fifth , at the Siege of Inge 
fiadt , changed neither his Looks nor Station, thoi 
the continual Fire of the Enemies Guns had to^e 
Tent in Pieces, and cut off fome by his fide. With 
lefs Conftancy the King of Hungary, (now the m< 
Auguft Emperor) and his Highneis, Ferdinand the \{ 
fant, (both glorious Rivals of Charle s's Courage ai 
Atchievements ) flood undaunted at the Battel of 7 No 
litiguen , not the leaft terrified by the Death of a Coio* 
nel, who was kill'd by a Cannon-mot veiy near them, 
Nor ihould I omit here the Example of Maximilian},, 
Duke of Bavaria ¿nd Elector of the Empire; the fame, 
who was famous for the numerous Victories he obtain 4- 
at the Head of the Catholick League. He was not' 
pufPd up with them, nor fuffer'd afterwards his gieat 
Soul to be broken by the contrary Succefs , though he 
faw his States ruined, and the King of Sweden , ancf. 
Fredtrick, Count Palatine , in his Pal-ace of Monaco. , (a 
Fabrick worthy fo great a Prince ) and tho' he found 
the Duke of Frizeland as much his Enemy as the othéí , 

Let Envy, and the ficklenefs of Times, divide and ; 
daih into never fo many pieces, the G ais of taces, yet, 
in every of them, however fmall, Maje-i> wili -ema'rt 
entire. Whoever is born to a bceivtei , ought nor to be 
ehang'd at any Event or Accident whatever, no thinfej 
any fo grievous and infuppoitab e as for it to nhan* 
don himieif, and diffembie the Pe fon he hejrs. K.«i>il 
Peter , even, when he fell into the Hartas of his 1 o-*. 

(4) FlaciJus are , tntrepicbtt vertit , intewpejlivas /¡torxm !*cbt 
i$'.rcens. Tav. a ; . .lili. 

r ol.T. at the Change of Fortune. a 4$' 

íer 3 and deadly Enemy , conceafd not who he was , 
ay, when it was queftion'd , if it were he or not, he 
ried out aloud, It is I, it is I. This very Coriflancy 
1 preferving a Grandeur and Majeity in misfortunes , 
\ fometimes the beft and only Remedy againft them ; 
s it was widi Torus , King of the India , who being, 
iken Prifoner by Alexander the Great, and demanded 
ow he would be treated : Made anivver, Like a King. 
Lnd when Alexander ask'd him, whether he deíiréd no- 
ting more : He replied , Thai Word comprehends all.. 
Vhich Heroick Anfwei' fo afife&ed Alexander \ that he 
lot only reftored his Kingdom } but gave him other 
xmntries beiides. To yield to* Adverfity , is as it were 
6 fide with it. Valour in the Conquered pleafes the 
^i¿tor 3 either becaufe it renders his Triumph more 
;lorious , or becaufe fuch is the intrinfick Energy of 
Virtue. The Mind is not fubjecl to Violence, nor has 
r ortune any Power over it. The Emperor, Charles 
íe Fifth, ufed fevere Threats to John Frederick, Duke 
if Saxony , to oblige him to Surrender the Dutchy of 
Ttrtemburg To which his Anfwer was , Hts Imperial 
\4ajtfiy may indeed do "what he yleafes with my Body 5 
ut (hall never 'be able to firike fear into this Brea ft. 
Vhich he really ihew'd on another occafion of much 
;reater Danger^ for it happened, as he was playing at 
briefs with Erneft , Duke of Brwfwick , he heard Sen- ; 
ence of Death was pafs'd upon him, which he reT?eiv 5 d 
vith no more Trouble , than if the News had not 
xmcernd him , but chearfully bid the Duke play on * 
vhich generous Carriage wiped . off , in fome meafure, 
he Infamy of Rebellion 3 and procured him Giory.' 
Dne great A&ion even upon a forced Death , leaves 
1 Lufter and Repute ro Life. As has in our .own time 
lappned: Rodrigo Calderón , Marquiís de Sit<vighfias , or 
Jew» Churches , whofe truly Chriftian Valour and.Iie- 
•oick Conftancy, were the whole World's Admiration,' 
n fo much as to turn Envy and Hatred , things com- 
non to one of his Fortune,, into Pity and Commenda-.. 
Ions. None are delivered from violent Cafualties by 

R 2 Timoroufnels, ■' 

2.44 A Prince ought not to he difcompos'il Vol 
Timoroufnefs , nor does Confufion any way lei 
Danger, whereas Reiblution either overcomes, o^ 
leaft renders it illuftrious The People gather what 
ril they are in from the Prince s Countenance, as 
riners do the danger o* the Tempeft from that of thet; 
Pi'ot. For that Reafon ought he to appear equally fc 
rene in Piof(*?rity and Adverilty , leaft Fear daih , c 
Pride exalt him , and others be able to judge of th< 
State of Affairs. This made Tiberius take fo much can 
to hide every unfuccef ful Accident (5). All is in Di| 
order and Confufion, when in the Princes Face, a 
that of Heaven . the Tempefts which threaten t 
Commons are difcernible. To change Colour at ei 
ry Breath of Fortune," betrays a light Judgment ant 
mean Spirit. Conftancy, and an even Look , infpire 
Subjects with Courage, ftrike Enemies with Admirati- 
on. All Men fix their Lyes upon the Prince and il 
they fee Fear there, they fear. Thus 'twas with thofr 
who were at Otbo's Table (6). Befides, there can tx 
Co Fidelity where Fear and Difrruft find Entertain- 
ment (7). Which, however, 1 would have underftood 
of thofe Cafes , wherein it is convenient to diifemble 
Dangers, and conceal Calamities ,• for in others to joiri 
in publick Expreíííons of Sadnefs , don't ill becom< 
the Prince, as that which manifefts his Love to hi! 
Subjects , and engages their Hearts. The Emperor .] 
Charks the Fifth , put himfelf in Mourning, and ex- 
piéis d his Sorrow for the Sacking of Rome. David uf>' 
on the news of the Death of Saul and Jonathan 3 tool 
hold cf his Cloaths , and rent them (0). The fame did 
Jofliua for the lofs rec ived by the Men of Ai ; And bt 
fill to the Earth he fere the Atk cf the Lord (9). And 
indeed, what can be more juft, than in a common 
Calamity -thus to fubmit to God ,• tis a kind of Rebel- 

£5) H&c audita, quanquam abftrufum , for triflifjhna quoq^e maxim 
tccnltantem Tiber mm pertuU'unr. Tac. r. Ann. (¿3 Simal Ctbsnú 
vultum intneri , atque evemt rnainatii ad fufpicicnem mentibus, mm time 
ret otbo timebatur. Tac. t. Hiir. (7) Fides met* infnifta.TiC. 3 Hid 
(9) 2Sam. t. si. (9) yUj>6> 


Vol. T. at the Change of Fortune. 145* 

ion willingly to receive Good only at God's Hands, 
tad not Evil alio (10). He that is humble under Cor- 
e&ion, moves to Pardon. 

Here it may be difputed , whether this Steddineis of 
Mind be commendable in an Inferior, when he needs 
he Aid of the move Potent ,* the Solution of which 
Doubt requires a peculiar Difrin&ion. He, who is un^ 
der Oppreilion, and craves anothers Aílíftance, ihou!d 
not do it with too much Cringing and Solicitude, leaft 
he make his Fortune defperate , there being no Prince, 
who out of pure Companion will reach his Hand to a 
Man fallen , or undertake the Defence of one that has 
already abandoned all hopes of himfeif and his Affairs.. 
Tompefs Caufe toft not a little in the Opinion of Ptolo- 
my } when he faw fo much Submiffion in h¡s AmbaiTa- 
dors. The King of the Cberufci (hewed much more. 
Courage, when upon the lofs of his Kingdom, think- 
ing it his Intereft to procure the Favour of Tiberius. He 
wrote to him not like a Fugitive, or Beggar, but as one 
yvho remembre d his former Fortune ( ■ I ). Nor is the Ex- 
ample of Mhhridatcs lefs Illuftrious; 3 who being over- 
thrown by Eunon , is fa'rd , with a Refolution truly 
Royal, to have thus befpoke him, Mithridaces fo many 
Tears fought by the Romans by Sea and Land , here volun- 
tarily Sur, mdefs him f If, do "ivhat you pleafe with the Off- 
fpring of the great Áchemenes , the only thing my Enemies 
cannot deprive me of (12). Which Words prevailed with 
Eimon to intercede with the Emperor Claudius in his 
behalf (i?)- Let him, who hath faithfully ferved his 
Prince, (peak boldly if he find himfeif injured ; as Her- 
man Cortex, did to Charles the Fifth ; and Stgtjtts to Ger- (14). . In other Cafes prudence ihouid examine 

■ 1 1 l l ■ V 1 11 " 1 ■■ 11 

« £ 0} Job 2. 10. £11") Non ut profugut aut fupplex, fed ex memma, 
frioris fit tun*. Tac. z. Ann. (J 1 a) MithtidAtet terra maiique per tot 
annos Roman» qn¿¡fujs, ffonte adfum ; «fere, ut vales, prole magni Ah me- 
tas , quod mibt jolum holies non abftulemnt Tac. 12. ".na. (13) ¿tyf*» 
thnererHtn,& prece baud degenerare pemotus. Tac. 2 Ann. (14) Stn.u* 
Segeiht ipfe mgens vtftt , <{j memortfi bow focietatis impavidut * v 
ejus in hmc nudum fuere, 

R 3 .^éceílii 

% i6 A Prince oupht not to le Jtfcomposd Vc 

Neceflity, Time , and the Things themíélves , havii 
attentive Refped to the following Maxims. That 
Superior takes bodnefs in an Inferior for an AfFrontj 
imagining he afpires to be his equal, or difparages himj 
and on the other fide,is very apt to flight one he fees tc 
abje<5l and fubmifltve. It was for this reafon , Tibtrk 
nomif:aed none to be Senators, but fuch as were of 
íéi vile Nature, and though lüch Perfons were n< 
fary for his Service, yet could he not endure that Bal 
nefs of Mind (iy). »Thus we fee Princes are com¡ 
tent Judges of every ones natural Vigour and Alacrity, 
and are apt to put Affronts upon thofe whom the] 
know will take them. Vitdlim had not took the libertj 
to keep Valerius Maximus ib long from the Confuíate 
which Galba had conferrd on him, but that he thoughf 
his week Temper "wculd. no' rejtnt the Injury (i6). For tl 
xeaibn a refolute kind of Modefty, and a modelt Cou- 
rage will be highly reijuifite in a Prince, who, if he| 
muft of Neceflity be ruined, had better be fo with 
Mind great and noble, than bafe and degenerous. This 
Marcus Hortalus coniiderd , when Tiberius refufed t( 
affift him in the exrrerrfeít Neceflity (17)- 

When the more powerful denies another the Honom 
due to him, Cefj eciaily in Publick Anions) it is more 
advileable to fnatch, and as 1 may fay, freal, than di- 
ipute them. He that doubts diftrufts his Merit; the 
Éiílembler tacitly owns his want of it, and Modefty 
is afterwafds but laugh'd st. He, who handfomely 
aííunies the Preference due to him, eafily preferves ie 
afterwards. Thus it happ ned once to the German Am* 
bafladors, who feeing thofe ot fuch Nations as furpafc 
fed in Valour and conitant Alliance with the Rima/is, 
feated among the Senators in tewpt/s Theatre, faid, 
¿No Men in tie JVcrU were ]>rtfcr«ble to the Germanf 

(i$) Etiam i//«w, qui liber tatem publicam nollet, tarn projefl* fervi- 
tntium pattern* cedebat. Tac. 3. Ann. (16) Nulla off erfa , fe'dmiiem 
& itjutinm fegnJter lati'Tum Taca.Hift. (ij) Auidt nobilit.uii tt am 
inter Mgufiiai jortun* rciinens. Tac. 2, Ann. . 

Vol. T. at the Chanje of Fortune. 247 

for Arm* and Fidelity (iX), and immediately took Place 
'With the £>enacO'S, every wtf being pake» with their gene' 
rou< Freedom and noble Emuht ¡on (i^). 

As to Favour^ and Gratuities, which depend wholly 

.ppon the Prince's pleafure, although they feem due to 

wick or Vi'tue , the Subject ought not to murmur if 

jhey be not conferr'd upon him : On the contrary, ra- 

ytjier give thanks under ibme honeft Pretext, following 

¡#he Example of fome Officers, who wete difplacd in 

^Vkelltui\ time (10). For a difcreet Courtier ufually, 

tóets acknowledgments clofe all his Diicourfe with the 

-Prince. This piece of Prudence Seneca (hewed after his 

¿Conference with Nero , about the Crimes ¡aid to his 

.«Charge (11). He that complains, declares he has been 

A\\ us'd ,- and Princes have very ¡it cíe Confidence in 

.one they think diíTatisfied; alt of them affecling to be 

¿Jike God in that, of. whom we never comp'ain in our 

.Affliction , nay, we rather give thanks for them* 

In Accufations aTo Conftancy is of ve y g eat Con- 
:léquence 5 ' he that gives way to them, makes himfelf 
a Ctimina!. The InnocenL Pe¡fon, who difowns his 
Actions, does in a manner plead guity. A good Con- 
science arni'el with Truth, triumphs over Envy : If that 
be degenerate and refift not th^^ream of Misfortunes,, 
their Wavses w.ní overwhelm, him,. as a River by the 
foice of its Current throws down the weaker Trees, 
whereas the. deeply rooted ft and immoveable. Ail Se~ 
januss Favourites fell with his Fortune ,• Marcus 'Tc~ 
rentius alone , who couragioufiy acknowledged he had 
courted and.efreem'd his Friendíliip, as that which pro- 
cured him. the emperor Tiberius s Favour, was acquit- 
ted (21); and all other Evidences either baniihed or 
«i n , 1 1 1 i- j 1 ■ > 1 1 ' 1 ■ , . • ■ ' ' •■»■ ■ ' » ' 1 — - 

(18J Nnl 7 9r mortalim amk, fa fide ante Germano* ejje. Tac t^.Ann. 
(19) Qtod comuer a vifentibus except urn quafi tmfntHs an;iqui i ¿r por.a 
Animation?. Tac i $. Ann. (2.0) Alisque jnfuper Vitelln gratix , cGit- 
'juetudim fervitii. Tac. 2. Hift. (l«) Seneca (qui fink omnium cum do- 
minante fermonum) granas agit. T c. 14. Ann. (vl) Cwftantia oratio- 
nu, & quia repertut erat qui efferrct qns. omnei animv agiubant^ &c. 
Tac. 6, Aan. 

R 4 executed. 

a4^ ¿ Trine* ought not to le difeomposd Vol. f. 

executed. In fbrne Cafes this firm aífurance? is ab(or 
lutely neceífary, that Innocence defend not it felf by 
Excufes, for fear of betraying Timoroulhels ,• nor good 
Services be taken Notice of, leaft they be thought to be 
upbraided. Thus Agriffma did when accufed of having 
procured Tlautus the Empire (22). 

Nor íhould the Prince s Perlón only be a Looking- 
Glafs to his Subje¿ts, bu$ he is to ihew himfelf fuch by 
his State alfo , which is as it were his Pi¿ture, and fo 
in that no left than his own Perfon, Religion, Juitice, 
Clemency, and all other Imperial Virtues ought to be 
conlpictfous. And in as much as Councils, Seats of Ju- i 
nice, and Courts of Chancery, are Parts of this Glais,; 
in them the fame Qualities íhould be found as are in 
the whole ; nay, in all particular MinifteFS who repre- 
sent it j for it very much leifens the Prince's Reputa- 
tion to appear favourable to every Pretender to difmils 
them^with fair Promiíes , and give Incouragement to' 
their Hopes ; and on the other fide, put off his Coun- 
cilors , and other Minifters , to deter them by rough 
Ufage from purfuing their Petitions. An Artifice that 
will ibon difcover it felf to be unworthy a Generous 
and Royal Breait. The Minifter is a piece of publick 
Coin, fiamp'd with the- Prince'? Image, which, except 
it be of good Allay, and repreíént him to the Life, will 
be refilled as Counterfeit (24). If the Head, which 
Governs, be of Gold, the Hands alfo which ferve íhould 
be fo too ,• as were thofe of the Spoufe in the Holy 
Scripture (25). - ■ 

Farther, Ambafifadors are alfo principal Parts of this 
Glais , as Perfons in whom the Prince's Authority is' 
lodged. And certainly it would infinitely prejudice the 
Publick Faith to have his Words and Veracity not 
found in thefe : And as they are the Lieutenants of his 

(23) Vbi nihil pro innocentia, quafi diffident , nee beneficik, quafi et» 
probraret, differnit. Tac. 3. Ann. (24) Pr&feÜHSnififormamfHamrefe- 
rat t malt fan inflar fubditis efficitur, Thejm Of at. 17. (25} Caot. 5. 
iij 14. 


bl.I. at the Change of Fortune. 249 

ower and Courage , fo ought they on all Occafions 
> manifeft them , as if the Prince were prefent in Per- 
»n. Thus did Anthony Fonfeca , after he had propofed 
) Charles the Eighth, in his Catholick Majeitys Name, 
lat the Kingdom of Naples ihould not he invaded, till 
had been judicially ¿tetermin'd whofe Title was beit, 
tid faw it came to nothing ; with lingular freedom of 
lind he openly declared his King had now fatisfied his 
ionfcience ; that he was at liberty to take which fide 
e thought moit juft , and immediately in the prefencfi 
f tfre King- and Council , broke the Treaties of Peace 
efore made ¿between the two Crowns.; As the Mini- 
er is to be furniihed with his Prince's Maxims , fo 
ifo ihould he be with his Majefty, Valobr and Magna- 




TyHoever looks ofL the Thorns and Prickles of 
Rote* Tree, will hardly be peifvaded a Daugl 
lb beautiful as the Rofe could proceed from fo defor 
a Mother. One had neec^be indued with a greac Met 
fure of Faith to water it , and wait till it be cloatho 
with Verdure, and bloflbm into that wonderful pom 
of Flowers, of fo delicate a Smell. Yet by Parience at» 
long Expectation, we at length fin^the labour not lofl 
nor that Care ill imployed which has produced fuel 
Beauty and Fragrancy. The firft Branches of Virtn 
are harih and thorny to our depraved Nature, but afti 
fbme time, its Flower of all other , the moil beautifii 
logins to Bloom. Let not the firft fight of things dil 
courage a Prince , for the outfide of very few in Go 
vernment are pleafant; they all feem full of Thorn 


ol.I. Patience and Hope overcome, &c. 15*1 
id Difficulties , but Expedience has found many eafy 
'hich appeared much otherwife to Sloth. The Prince 
íerefore ihouid not be diiheartned ,• for in lightly 
ielding to them, he will be overcome by his own Ap- 
rehenfion rather than any thing real Let him endure 
Eh Courage and Hope, with Patience and Perfeve- 
mce , ftill keeping the means in his Hand. He that 
opes has a good and faithful Companion on his fide , 
mean Time. Whence Philip the Second ufed to fay, 
tnd Time again/I any two. Precipitation is the effect of 
iadnefs , and generally the occafion of great 'Perils. 
'heobald, Earl of Qhampagne , put his Succeffion to the 
¡Town of Navarre, very much in Queftion , by not 
aving patience to wait for his Uncle , King Sanchos 
)eath , but underhand confpiring with the Nobles to 
pifefs himfelf of the Kingdom in his Life-time ; for 
lis put Sanche upon adopting. James the Firft of Arra- 
ys, his Heir. Patience obtains many Trophies. This 
/as Scipios Excellency, who t ll ough. ie had infinite oc- 
Ifions of Difp eafure, was yet fo patient, as never to let 
-fajjionate Word fall front him (1), which thing gave 
iecefs to all his Defigns. He that fufFers with Expcóta- 
ion, vanqui&es the Sights of Fortune, and obliges her 
ot take his Part, that Confidence among ail her V-iciffi- 
R$es like Flattery winning upon her. Columbus, not 
without great hazard , expofes himfelf to the Ocean's 
ncertain Waves, in queir of new Countries. .Neither 
'■JercuUs's Ne plus ultra, at ,Cafpe and Abyla , nor the 
fountains of Waters, that feem to oppofe his Enters 
rize deter him from it ; he by Sailing tells the Sun's 
ieps, and ileals from the Year its Days, from the Days 
heir Hours ; his Needle wants the Pole, his Charts the 
ines, his Companions patience,* all things confpire 
igainft him , but his Hope and Patience rub through 
ill Difficulties., till at length a new World recompences 
lis invincible Conftancy. Ferendum & Sperandum, was 
1 faying of Ewpedocles , and afterwards the Emperor 

(1) Vt mllnm ferox vsrbum excideret. Tic.'liv. 


í$i Patience and Hofie overcome Vol. I 

Macrimss Motto , whence that of this Emblem is bor- 
rowed. Some Dangers are more eafy to furmount thai 
avoid : As ■ gat hocks well knew , when being beaten, 
and befieged in byracuje , he did not bafely Surrenda 
to the Enemy 3 but leaving a {efficient Body d, 
Men for the Defence of the City , marched with tjx 
reft of his Army a^ainft Carthago , and he who cout 
not be victorious in one War , by this means obtain'*! 
a double Triumph. Ralhnef;> frequently overcomes i 
Danger , and defpifing it often confounds an Enemjj 
When* Hanmbal law the u omam after the Battel of Canim 
fend Succours into Spain , he began to fear theii. 
Power and Strength. No one ought to truft Profped^ 
too much , or defpair in Adverfity. Fortune lies be-, 
tween both t as ready to advance as deprefs. Let thi 
Prince therefore keep in the one, and the other, a Coa- 
lrancy and Strength of Mind , prepared to encountei 
any Accident, and not fuffer the Threats of the great» 
eft Tempeft to diiiurb him: For fometimes the Wave 
have caft a Man out of one Ship that is to be wreck'd. 
into another that is to be faved. A great and generous 
Soul Heaven it felf favours. Let not the Prince raihly 
deipair for anothers Dangers , or thofe which Chance 
brings with it. H. thai objervcth the Wind jljall not Jow.\ 
end be that regar deth the Clouds foall not reap ( ? ). Let 
him not imagine he obliges any one by his Affli&ions 
Tears are Womahiih , nor is Fortune appeafed with 
fuch Sacrifices. A great Soul endeavours to give it fell 
Satisfaction or Comfort by fbme heroick and generous 
Action: Thus Agricóla, when he heard of his Son's 
Death, took not the Accident as generally Men do y amb'u 
tioujly } nor in Tears like Women $ but by War diverted hit 
Grief (?)• To be wholly infenfible, is either Vain-» 
glory, or Excefs of Confirmation. 

(2) Eccl. 1 1. 4. (3) Quern cafum , neque , «f plerique fortium W 
íd'mw, ambitiosé, ñeque per lamenta iwfns , ac ten or em multebrcm t& 
<£r in lu8u t b;llum inter remedia erat. Tac, in Yit, Agr, 


!o\. f. the great eft Difficulties. 25^ 

In fuing for Offices and Honours, the Defign 01 this 
emblem is very ufeful. He that can bear and hope , 
mows how to get the better of his Fortune. Whereas 
me that impatient of delay, thinks it bafe to be behold- 
ng and fubmit, íhaíl be defpifed and abandon'd by the 
vhole World. To look on it as a point of Honour 
lot to obey any, is the way to command none. The 
neans are to be meafured by the end ,* if in obtaining 
his'there be more Honour got , than is loft by them, 
¿ertainly they ought to be ufed. Impatience of Sufferings 
»e take for Generofity of Mind, when ic is imprudent 
ffaughtineis. Honour once attain'd, the Tracks made 
n afcending them , prefently wear out. To endure - 
nuch in order to Advancement, is not baie Degenera- 
cy, but extraordinary -Strength of a Mind elevated and 
ifpiring. Some Tempers there are which can't abide 
:o wait , that would have all things ended in a Mo- 
nent ,♦ defiring now to exceed their Equals, by and by 
;heir Superiors 3 and in a little while, even their own 
Hopes. Thefe hurried by this Violence of Ambition 
iefpiie the moft fecure means as flow , and choofe to 
¿mploy the ihorteft, though moft hazardous. But it 
lifually fares with them , as with Buildings raifed in 
hafte , before the Materials have had time to dry and 
fettle, which immediately fall down again. 

The Mafter-piece of Government coniifts in hoping 
and enduring, in that thefe are the only means to do 
things in time , without which nothing can poffibly 
come to maturity. Trees that at the Springs Hrft 
warmth bear Flowers , foon lofe them for not wait- 
ing till the Winters cold was quite gone. He , who 
would ripen Affairs with the Hand , cannot have the 
Satisfaction of tailing the Fruit of them. Impatience is 
the caufe of Mifcarriages and Dangers (4) ,• it creates 
Perils, which by being uneafy under, and too hally (o 
efcape, we augment. Therefore for thofe Evils, as 
well Internal as External , which have by our negli- 

(4) Pro?. 14. 17. 


2 5"4 Tat Unce and Hope overcome ^ &c. VoLI 

genjce been increase in the Commonwealth, 'tis bet- 
ter to let them take their Courfe, and be fenfibly curq 
by Time, than precipitate a Remedy, wherein there! 
more Danger,, If before we could not forefee and 
prevent; at leaft let us learn to bear them afee» 
They are inc'reas'd by Oppofition. A Danger concealj 
or not taken notice of, thereby becomes publick , and 
lays greater Impediments in his way, who thought tti 
flop it. Fear imprudently arm'd againft a Superidj 
Power, does but find it Exerciíé, and render it moré 
powerful by the Addition of its own Spoils. This Ma 
thod Cerealis took to compofe the Minds of thofe <1 
Treves , leaft they ihould take up Arms againft the jR* 
mans, faying , A Fabrick, as that ivas, which had bedt 
the ProduB of Eight hundred years Succefs and Induftry\ 
could not be pttlFd down , but its Ruin muft of mctjjiA 
bury the Authors of it (5). Many things would not Suc- 
ceed fo ill, did not our Fear and Imagination ad: wití 
too much Precipitation. Appreheniion and Jealoufy oi 
Tyranny, when once difcovered , make it begin to be 
really, though it were not before. Whence in fuch like 
Cafes , 'tis a piece of no left Courage to know how to 
dhTemble, than to be too raih in remedying. The forr 
mer is the genuine Effect of Prudence , this generally 
the Refult of Fear. 

£5) Oííogentorttm annorum fortuna, difciplinaque, compages h*c coaluit; 
qu* convelli fine excittio conveñentium non poteft. Tac. 4. Hift. 


oí. I. fffi 



rHE clofer the Breath is prefled in a Trumpet, 
with the greater Harmonv and Variety it goes out 
f it; thus 'tis with Virtue^vhich is never more clear and 
armontous than when fuppreiTed by Malice (i). The 
fame of Vaiour is apr to die , if the Wind of Adver- 
ty don't revive it ¿ that awakens the Mind, and makes 
look about for means to amend it. Happineís, like 
te Rofe^ grows out of Thorns and Miíeries. Alpbmjo 
le Fifth , King of Arragcn , was vanquiíh d and taken 
i a Sea-fight with the Gevoeze ; and that, which in all 
róbability was like to retard his Expedition againft the 
Jngdom of Naples, was the very thing that furthered 

■*i) Multo- urn improbitate deprefa Veritas émcr&t , <fy mocentia d;- 
n(* inter cla fa refpirat, Cicero, 

z$6 Let a Prince learn to dravo Felicity Vot 

it with greater Happineis and Power ; for by makir 
a League with Tbifip , Duke of Milan , who retain 
him Prifoner, he obtain'd both his Liberty, and Fora 
for the Conqueft of that Kingdom. Neceffity con 
pell'd him to get his Hoft of his fide; for in Profperit] 
indeed, every one lives tp himfelf alone, but in Adve 
lity for himfelf and others. Thofe diiclofe the Paffior 
of the Mind , otherwife forgetful, of it felf : Wherea 
by this it learns Caution, and arms it felf with Virtue 
as means to attain real and lafting Happinefs ( 2 
Whence it is not* a little eafier to efcape bad , than b 
continued in ( good Fortune. In Priibn firft appears 
Atyhon¡ó% extraordinary Endowments and Órname» 
of Mind, which till then had lain hid ; and the Duk 
of Milan charrq'd with them , was ambitious of hi 
Friendfhip , and laid theíé Obligations upon him. H 
obtain'd more by lofing the Vidory, than he coul 
have expected had he been Victor. Fortune iports bi ( 
tween Extreams , and takes delight in (hewing he 
Power, in skipping from one to another. There is n 
Virtue but will ihine in Adveriity, as no Star but fpai 
klés with greateft Luitre in the darkeft Night. The 
the weight ihews the Palm's Strength when this 
raifed higher under it. The Roíé preíérves its Leav< l 
longer freih among Nettles than Flowers. Did not V» 
tue exert it felf in Adverfity too,* it would not defer?, 
Victories or Triumphs. 'Tis its Property to Conque 
by fuffering. Whence it evidently appears , how in 
pious the Error (confuted by us in another place) c 
thoíé is, who ad vile the Prince not to be bigotted t 
Virtue , but to comply with Vice when neceflity ihfl 
require ; a time in which he ought more particular! 
to approve himfelf conftant in it, with greater hopes c 
Succels : As it ufually happned to the Emperor , fa 
dinand the Second of Blefled Memory ; who in hi 
greateft Dangers would refolutely affirm , Htd ratbt 

(i) Secundé res acr'wibus fiimulu animum exploraiit j quia mi fit 
toleranlHr, felicitate corrmi'tnmr. Tjc. 1. Hift, 


/ol. I. pkt of Aaverjity. z$y 

\[t the Empire y and ail he had , <W 2W¿ ¿/j at^c/e Family 
eg. from Door to Door , than to commit an unjuft thing 
o maintain his Grandeur. Words truly worthy ib Pious 
i Prince, whofe exemplary Piety and Faith were ib 
icceptable to God Almighty, that he vouchfafed to 
¡ake the Imperial Scepter, and perform his* Office here 
!>n Earth, giving him feveral fignál and miraculous Vi- 
ctories. In the greateft Dangers and Diíheífés ,. when 
hli hope fail'd, and humane Prudence and Valour were 
leftitute of means, he always came oft with moft Suc- 
ieís and greateft Triumph. The Roman Emperors of 
>ld lived in Affluence of Peace, and all manner of De- 
lights , yet were tyrannized over by their own Páfli- 
bns, and rack'd by a thoufahd Fears. But this Pious 
j-Iero found Repole and Tranquility of Mind amidft 
he raging Tempefts , which the Fury of Rebels raifed 
igainft his Empire, and moft Auguft Houfe. The juft 
ings amidft Misfortunes, and the wicked Man weeps 
n his Impiety. Thus the fiery Furnace was as a Chbife 
o the three Children (3). Miferies and Hardihips are 
ittended with great Advantages f they corred: the 
Prince's Pride, and reduce him to Reafon ,« with what 
*ury does the Wind fometimes ftorm ? How arrogantly 
foes the Sea fwell and rage , its foaming Billows like 
Mountains threatning Heaven and Earth ! And yet 2 
Rnall Shower com poles and calms it. Thus Misfortunes 
raining from Heaven allay the Prince's Pride and Pre- 
sumption. They make a juft Governor of a Tyrant , 
of a Prince carelefs and negligent of his Affairs , one 
careful and circumiped. For , then even Neceffity 
obliges him to take Care of his People , to efteem No- 
bility, honour Valour, dojuftice, and refped: Religi- 
on. Power is never in greater Danger than when all 
things fiow profperoufly. For Cares being then laid 
Wide, too much Security is apt to ftitfe Counfcl and 
Prudence. Eafe and Idlenefs has been the Ruin of more 
Princes than Labour. 5 Tis with them as with Bodies , 

(3) Dan. 3. 50. 

S which 

¿58 Let a Prince learn to draw Felicity, &c. Volt 

which are kept in Vigor by Motion , without which 
they languifli and decay. Whence it appears farther, 
how erroneous we are in our Judgments of Good and 
Evil, fcarce ever knowing what is moft for our Advan- 
tage. Adverfity we look on as Vigour and Chaftiie- 
ment, when it is really Warning and Inftru&ion. The 
Prefent of Ear-rings and a Sheep, which Job's Friends 
and Relations made him, feems to intimate, that he 
fhould endure all things with a patient, even Tem- 
per (4), and that thofe Afflictions were precious Admo- 
nitions of God whifper'd in his Ear. God s afflicting 
us ibmetimes is wonderful Mercy, and on the contrary 
his Recómpences are Puniifements ,• for by thefe he 
clears, as it were , the Bill of our Debts , and by pay- 
ing for fome of our Merits , remains Creditor to our 
Offences ,* whereas by afflicting us, he at once pays him» 
íélf, and excites us to Amendment. 

£4) Job 41» 12/ 




T* H E expert and pruderi Seaman is not always car- 
■*- ried at the Pleafure of the Wind , but rather by 
he Benefit of it , fo difpofes the Sails of his Ship, that 
le arrives at the defired Port, and with the fame Wind 
ands at which he pleafes of two oppofite Shores, with- 
>ut endangering his Voyage. 

But when the Heaven's calm) by the help of Sails and! 
3ars he out ftrips even the Wind it íélf. With no leis 
2are and Diligence the Prince ought to Steer theVeflel of 
lis State in the tempeftuous Sea of his Reign, fo atten- 
ively obferving all Storms that he may with Prudence 
uid Valour make ufe of the fame in their time and piace. 
He is a Pilot , to whofe Condud the Life and Safety 
bf all is committed ; nor is any Ship more hazardous 
than a Crown expofed to fo many Winds of Ambition, 

S 2 ÍO 

7.6o A Prince (hould Sail with all Winds. 

to many Rocks of Enemies , and Storms of Pe< 
King Sancho the Brave needed all his Induitry to ai 
himfelf againft Fortune , and fecure the Right of hi 
Crown. Almoit the whole Science of Politicks con 
iifts in knowing how to difcern Times, and make ui 
of them: A Storm fometimes bringing a Ship foone 
into Harbour than a Calm. He, who can break th 
force of ill Fortune, renders it favourable ; and' or. 
that knowing a Danger yields to it , and gives it time 
at length furmounts it. When the Sailor finds ther 
is no contending with the Billows , he irrikes Sail an» 
abandons himfelf to them ,• and becaufe his Refiftano 
would rather add force to the Wind , ufes fome nai 
row Creek to reft his Ship in , and ihelter it from th 
Waves. Something muft be granted Dangers , if on 
would eicape them. James the Firit, King of Arragn 
was fenfible of the Averfion his Nobles and Peopl< 
had to him, and that it was by no means convenien 
to increafe their Fury by an untimely Oppofition , bu 
rather to give it time to fink of it felf ; as Rivers do 
whofe Waters in a Tempeft fwell and overflow thei 
Banks, voluntarily fuffer'd himfelf to be play'd upon 
and as it were imprifoned, till he reftored all things t< 
their former Calmnefs and Tranquility, and reinftal 
ted himfelf in the Throne. The lame difcreet Mode 
radon Queen Mary ufed, when by Tiding with tW 
Grandees, and fatisfying their Ambition, ihe prefervec 1 
the Crown of Caftile, during the Minority of her Son 
Ferdinand the Fourth f. Did the Sailor think it a diihd 
Hour to yield to a Storm, and were refolved with Sail; 
and Oars to withftand it, his Ruin would be inevitable 
Conftancy confifrs not in unfeaibnable ftruggling, bu¡ 
in hoping, and fo enduring Danger, without lettinf 
Fortune get the upper hand of one. In fuch Cafes the 
Glory is to eicape fafe. What feems Bafenefs of Mine 
in them , is afterwards Magnanimity crown'd witr 
Succefs. When King sllpbonfo the Wife , faw himftU 

f Mar, Bift. Hifp. *" 


Vol. T. A Prince Jhould Sail with all Winds. z6t 

deprived of his Kingdom, putting his whole Confi- 
dence in the King of Morocco's Afliftance , made no 
difficulty to beg of Alpbonfo de Guzman , Governor of 
5t. Lucar de Barameda, who upon fome Difguft had re- 
fired to that Prince's Court , that forgetting all former 
injuries, and remembring their ancient Amity, and his 
Mobility, he would irand his Friend , and endeavour 
lo be an Inftrument of that King's fupplying him with 
Men and Money. Which Letters are to this Day kept 
in rhat moft Uluirrious and Ancient Houie. 

Nevertheleis Kings ought not to yield to their Sub- 
jects violence, unlefs in Cafes of Extremity, for he 
rery little confults his Authority, who debafes himfelf 
jby too much Condefcention. The dilhonourable Terms 
¡King Ferdinand the Holy, conitrain'd by his Non-age, 
made the Houfe of Zara, no way appealed them. Nor 
could Ifabella reclaim Alpbonfo Carillo, Biíhop of Toledo , 
though fhe honour'd him with a Vifit at Alcalá. I 
confeis in, defperate Cafes, prudence is wont to try 
all ways that Chance can render poffible. It is great 
Courage and Strength of Reafon, on Occañons of that 
Nature to reftrain the Spirits , and weigh the prefent 
Neceflity, and greatnefs of the Danger againft fuch 
means as may contribute more to the State's Preferva- 
Ition. No one was ever more Jealous of his Grandeur 
¡than Tiberius , yet he diiTembled the Boldn*. fs of Lentu- 
lus Germánicas , who having the Command of the Ger~ 
man Legions, was fo audacious as to write to him with 
Threats, not to fend him a Succeflbr , covenanting as 
'twere to , let his Prince enjoy the Empire, provided 
he were continued in his Province (i)¿ and he, who 
could not put up the Emulation of his Sons , took this 
flight patiently. Not but he knew the ill Confequence 
of letting fuch Difobedience go unpunilhed , but if he 
oppofed it, he confider'd he ihould incurr the publick 
Odium ; that he was now in Years,and in a State where 

'(0 Reputante Tiberio, publicum fthi odium, extremam £tatem } magif- 
¿te fama, quam vi ftare res fuá.'. Tac 6. Ann. 

S 3 his 

i6z A Trixce fbould Sail with a H Winds. V< 

his Affairs depended more upon Reputation th 
Strength. Subje&s would be little beholding to tl 
Valour of the Prince who governs them , if he ihoul 
prefently in ill Fortune fubmit to Neceffity ,* and o 
the other fide as little to his Prudence , if when that 
Fortune can't be overcome, he will however withftand 
it. Courage lhould be moderated by Prudence and 
Addrefs, and what cannot be effected by Strength 
ihould be the Work of Art and Induftry. 'Tis no lei 
glorious to avoid than to furmount a Danger. To flfl 
it always is Sloth ; to expect, Ignorance or Surprize ; to 
defpair Cowardice. Men ot Courage make Head 
againft Fortune her felf. The Prince s Duty and End 
is not lightly to conceit with his State upon the Bil- 
lows , but to conduct it to the Haven of Prefprvation 
and Safety. That is efteemed valiant Wiiclom , which 
draws Benefit out of Adverfity; as alio, that which by 
ftruggiing compaifes its Ends iooner. Kings, the Ma- 
ilers of Times and Things, are always followed, never- 
led by them. There s no Building, but whofe Ruins, 
with what Addition Induftry is wonc to make, may 
Erect a more ftately Fabrick : Nor any State fo intirely 
abandon'd by Fortune, that Valour cannot preferve, 
and even advance, provided it confult Prudence upon 
Events, and know how to make right ufe of them, 
or at leaft to turn them to its Advantage. Ferdinand 
the Catholick , and Ltivts the Twelfth of France , had 
divided between them the Kingdom of Naples; and 
the great Captain knowing the Circle of a Crown to 
have but one Center , and that Empire admits of no 
Companion , endeavoured immediately to get his Ma- 
tter's Share into his Hands ; that in Cafe of after Di- 
iputes , which he forefaw would arife between thole 
two Kings, he might be the more at leafure, and ufe 
them afterwards to difpoifefs the King of France of his 
Part, as in Effect it happned Accidents, it is true,' 
have fome force,- but we increafe or diminiih them 
according to our Carnage under them. Our Igno- 
rance gives Divinity and Power to Fortune , in that 

Vol. I. A Prince fhould Sail with all Winds. 16$ 

we lightly refign our lelves to her Viciffitudes. Did we 
change our Cuftoms and Meafures as oft as fhe does 
the Times , ihe would not be fo powerful , nor we io 
fubjeót to her Empire. The Make of our Cloaths 
we alter with the Mode , but negleft our Mind and 
Manners. What Wind does not the skilful Pilot make 
ferviceable to his Voyage ? As that veres he trims his 
Sails , and thus all conduce to the end he propofes: 
We refufe to ihake off the ill Habits of our Nature , 
cither out of Self-love or Imprudence, and afterwards 
lay the fault on Cafualty. We grow defperate be- 
fore we feek to remedy our Misfortunes, and through 
Obftinacy or Inadvertency, let Defpair get the Afcen- 
! dant over us. We cannot in Adverfity lay afide that 
Pride , Anger , Vain-glory , Detraction , and thofe 
other Vices which Prosperity bred in us • nor are with- 
out great difficulty indued to acknowledge them that 
have brought us into that unhappy Condition. Every 
moment in. every Affair , with whomfoever of his 
Subje<fts the Prince fhall have to do, he ought to 
differ from himfelf and change his Nature. Nor does 
this require any extraordinary Knowledge , but a 
certain Difpofition only, and Capacity to adapt ones 
íélf to all Contingences , and Prudence to foreiee 

Now, as we are loft in Adverfity for want of fur- 
ling the Sails of our Paflions, and fubmitting to it for 3 
time,* fo alio do we bring Deftru&ion upon our felves 
and Princes , when we indifcreetly and conceitedly 
go about to meafure their Intereft , Pailions , and In- 
clinations , by our own Natures and Advantages : It 
being imponible for a Minifter of a liberal Temper 
to exert his Generofity under a Covetous, Griping 
Prince ,• or one Valiant and A¿Hve with one Slothful 
and Cowardly. Our Motions -mould be regulated by 
the Activity of the Prince's Sphere. This was a fault 
in Corbulo , who ferving Claudius , a pufiianimous , 
mean-fpirited Prince, made many raih Attempts, by 

S 4 which 

2.64 A Prhce JkruU Sail with all Winh. Vol.t. 
which he could net but be difagreeable to him (4). In 
fome Minifters an imprudent Zeal is the caufe of thisi 
Error ; jn others, which is moft frequent ■, Self-lovei 
and Vain-glory, which makes them defirous to appear 
prudent in the Eves of the World, ano! íhew their 
Ability , as if, forfooth, by their means ¡alone the 
Prince fucceeded ,• but that whatever he undertakes by 
himfelf, or others, is faulty ; and thus under Cpk 
of Zeal they púbiiíh the Goverment's Defects, and dif- 
credit their Prince : Artifices which generally the Mj- 
nifter himfelf feels the Effect of afterwards by the loG 
of his Prince's Favour. He that confults his Intereft, 
and would efiabliih his Fortune, muft with ail poffible 
fpeed fly fuch Affectations, as odious to the Prince and 
whole World ,• he ihould be more ferviceable in Deed 
than in Word ,• he ihould conform to the Piince's 
Nature and Condition , reducing him to Reafon, and 
his Duty, under Colour of Service, with Humility and 
a quiet Induirry, without Noife and Arrogance (%). 
It is the ruin of Valour and Virtue to be too nice Ob- 
fervers of Cosiftancy , and to think that their whole 
Reputation depends upon k; for in the mean time 
others more various, who can transform themfelves into 
any Shape, and fuit theirs to the Prince's Nature, carry 
away the Gratuities and Preferments. 

But thefe are not to be ufed with Metos Defign , to 
deceive,* but to prevent being unadviíédly ruined ac 
Court , or to render one . more ferviceable to the 
Prince, for theie arelóme of fuch a Make, that it is 
abiblutely neceflary for the Minifter to put on their 
Nature ; and as I may fay, to creep into them , to 
make them move and act ; as Men , who neither will 
be directed by others Counfel, nor can difpatch their 
own (6), And cqnfequently not always what is moll 

(4} Cur boffem concitet * adverfa in Rerr.p. cafara ; fin profpere egrf- 
fet , formiclcfaf'r/: tact xirwn infignem , ¿r ignavo prhtcipi pr£¿r,ivem. 
Tiic.i. Ann. ($) Tac. 5. Ann. £6) Ncq»c alienis conjilik ngi, n> 
que fua expediré. Tac 3. Htft. . 


fol.I. A Prince fkouU Sail with all Winds. z6$ 
xpedient is to be advifed a Prince , but what he is in 
)uty obli'g'd to" execute. Thole courageous Counfels 
hrfaich were given Viteüius , though the beft in the 
Vórld , were ufelefs becaafe he wanted Refolution to 
Ait them in Practice (7) ; he was ufualiy deaf to them. 
4inifteis are as it were the Prince's Sails. Now, if 
hey are large, and the Prince a íhallow VeiTel, if they 
•ref always loofed without Confideration of the Bur- 
hen of the Boat; they will certainly overíét it. 

£7) Surdx ad [orna en filia Vitellh aures. Jac. 3. Hift. 

E Mr 




HP H A T the Prince may not efcape the Storm with 
**■ out full Inftruftions in all Accidents that ill For 
tune can throw him intoj this Device repreíénts thi ! 
choice of the leiTer Evil, when the greater are inevita 
ble. Thus the Pilot , when he has loft all hopes o .] 
Mng laved by Oppofition, or Compliance with th< 
Tempeft, endeavours to make the Land , and run hi;- 
Ship afhore,* where, if he lofe his Ship, yet he fave' 
his Life and Merchandize. It was very commendable 
in the Romans , that when they could not oppofe For, 
tune, they provided for their own Security. The 
Prince's Valour confiits not only in refifting, but withal 
in weighing Dangers, and fubmitting to the lefs, when 
the greater is infuperable. For as it is the part of Pru- 
dence to prevent , id it is of Courage and Conftancf 

/ol.L Of two Evils the lefs ought, &c z6 7 

o bear patiently what is not in the power of Prudence 
o decline , a thing Alphenfo the Sixth was a great Ma- 
!ler of ; a Prince modeft in Profperity, valiant in Ad- 
¡rerfity , never unprepared for any Accident. J Tis a 
Vain-glory of a Prince , who with more Temerity 
:han Valour , chooíés rather to die in the greater Dan- 
ger, than efcape in the lefler. He confults more his 
Dwn Fame than the Publick Safety ,• or rather wants 
Courage to defpife the Opinions of the Multitude , 
who inconfiderately , and without any knowledge of 
:he Accidents, condemn prudent Refblutionsj and- 
Iwhen in Danger, are againft having recourfe to Reme- 
dies fo dangerous and violent. That fometimes looks 
like Courage is Cowardice ; where preíénce of Mind 
is wanting to hope in danger , the Confufion of Fear 
cafts us into it. When Prudence and Fortitude go hand 
¡n hand, then Confideration takes place ; and if it find 
not fafety in the lefler , is not affraid to encounter the 
greater Danger. J Tis a bafe weakneis to $e with fear. 
There is no Valour like what neceflity infpires. J Tis 
commonly the laft Remedy in deiperate cafes , neither 
to hope nor quite defpair. Thus a Ship not daring to 
truft the Shore, abandons it felf to the wide Sea, and 
by the force of its Billows eícapes. One Peril is ordi- 
narily the Remedy of another. Upon this, I conceive, 
was grounded the Counfel fome gave Galba in a Con- 
lpiracy againft him, to oppofe the firft fury of it (i). 
Gardas Gomez, defended the Fort of Xerez, } (which he 
was Governor of in the time of Alphovfo the Wife) 
land although he faw all ¡lis Men kill'd or wounded , 
would not Surrender , nor accept the Terms , though 
honourable, which the Moors offer'd him ; for having 
little Confidence in them, he chofe rather to die glori- 
oufly in the Arms of his Fidelity , than thoie of his 
Enemies ; and what in all appearance was like to coft 
him his Life, in a wonderful manner chainvd his Erie- 

(t) Proinde intuía qua indecora , ve I ft cadere neceffe fit, occurrcrdu.Ti 
ájfcrimini. Tac. i. Hilt. 



i68 Of two Evils the lefs ou$ht 

mies, who admiring his Bravery and Refolution, 
Hook drew him our of the Citadel alive , uiing biro 
with great Civility, and carefully drefling the Wounds 
he liad receiv'd during the siege f. Such is the force 
of Valour , that it captivates even Enemies. Courage 
has given life to more than Fear. I know not what 
Divinity attends and refcues it from Dangers. When 
Ferdinand , the Holy , befieg'd Sev'tl , Gardas Fenz, it 
Vargas, a Citizen of Toledo , with another, being fepa», 
rated from their Company, were pailing along the 
•River Guadalquivir, when on a fudden they fpy feven 
Mcor'.fli Horfe making towards them : His Comeradc 
advifes him to retire , but Gardas not to incurr the Ig- 
nominy of Cowardice by a diihonourable Flight, pulls < 
down the Vizer of his Helmet , brandiflies his Sword 
and advances by himfelf: The Minors knowing his' 
Perlón , and admiring his Refolution , let him pal 

without attacking him. Thus his Heroick Vaiour fav'd 
him; for had he fled with his Companion, the En* 
my had in all probability purfued and took him Prifoner. 
It requires a Mind free and difingag'd to examine 
Dangers,- firft in the Report, and afterwards in the 
Quality of them : In the Rumour, becaufe thofe are ¡ 
generally efíeem'd greareft which are fartheft off. The 
People hear and tremble at them , and feditioufly 
ipread and increaíé them , rejoycing at their own Mis-' 
fortunes becaufe unufual, or out of Difaffeftion to the 
preient Government. It is therefore the Prince s parr 
to appear firm, and to difperie fuch idle Apprehenfi- 
ons. As upon thofe Reports which were fpread in the 
time of Tiberius , of the Revolt of the Provinces of 
France, Spain, and Germany, he never betrayed the leaft 
difcompofure, nor chang'd his Refidence , nor way of 
living, as well knowing the levity of fuch Reports (2). 
If once a Prince furrender to Fear , he will be ever 

f Mar. Hifl Hifp (l) T*nto ¡mpenfiut in fecuritatem compofitus , 
neque hcn y neque \ultn nwtato, feci Ht folitum per Hits dies egit ; altitn- 
dhe animi, an competerá^ módica ejfe <fy vnl¿jtii leviorai Tac. 3. Hifl. 


Vol.í. always to he Chofen. z6$ 

after uncapable of refolving. For then prudent Coun- 
fels and popular Rumours will be receiv'd with equal 
credit. As they were by ViteUius in the Civil War 
with Vefyafian (:). Dangers imminent appear greateif, 
being cloath'd by Fear with horror , and by Prefence 
¡magnified ; and we by endeavouring to efcape them, 
fall into others abundantly greater, which though they 
feem at a diftance, we afterwards find too near. 'Tis 
idle to imagine we can avert them by interpoiing a lit- 
tle time. Many have vanilhed by being refiíted, on 
the contrary , Oppofition has encreas d others , and 
they have prov'd real , which were only imaginary. 
!As it happened to the Syrians Army before Samaria (%). 
|Fear of danger lias deftroy'd more than Danger it felf. 
What vain Apprehenllon can do ? We have within 
thefe few Years feen at a publick Bull-fight at Madrid , 
when a fuddain Bruit being rais d of fome danger in 
the place where they fought , ft ruck Confuiion and 
Terror into ail , though not one knew the Reafon. 
The confus'd Flight of fome increafed the Confterna- 
tion , and becaufe none would ft ay to know the cer- 
tainty, many ran into the Jaws of Death by the fame 
way they took to efcape it ; and the Confequence had 
been much worfe , had not the Conftancy of Philip 
the Fourth, whom every ones Eyes were upon, un- 
mov'd at the Commotion and Rumour, rais d the trem- 
bling Spirits of his Subjects, except the Prince in Dan- 
gers and Misfortunes of this Nature., can reprefs the 
Peoples fears, Counfels are confounded, aii Command, 
and none Obey. 

To be too cautious in avoiding Dangers., is ibme- 
times the utter Ruin of States. kredzrick, Count Pala- 
tine, had not loft his, and his Electorate , had not fear 
after his Defeat given Wings to him to abandon all : 
For he might ealily have retired to P-, ague , or fome 

(3) Quia in metu confilia frv.der.tkm , (¿r vulgi rumor jv.xfa audiun- 
tun Ibid, (4J 2 Kings 6,7. 


iyo Of two Evils the lefs ought VbLf 

other place, with the Remnant of his Forces, ar 
compounded with the Emperor, ib by making chok 
of the leiTer Evil have efcap'd the greater. 

We are oftentimes deluded by fear fo difguifed, thi 
we take it for Prudence , and Conftancy for Raf 
nefs. We fometifnes boggle , and are at a ftand whai 
to refolve, and in the interim the Danger fteals or 
us. All things are not to be fear'd , nor is Delibera- 
tion always required , for between Prudence and Pre- 
cipitation, Valour often defigns noble Actions. Th$ 
Great Captain having entered the River Garilla» witt 
his Army, was redue'd to fuch Streights , that his Sol- 
diers mutined and defer ted ; and when his Officen 
advifed him to Retreat , he anfwered , This I ban 
refolvd with my felf, rather to gain Ground , though bm 
enough for a Grave , than give hack a fief y might I 
live an hundred Tears. An Heroick Sentence, worthy 
the Courage and Prudence of fo Great a Man. H< 
well knew, that without Rafhnefs there was no hopeSj 
in the Cafe he then was ; but weighing the Dangei 
againft the Credit of his Arms, the only lupport of h« 
Faétion in the Kingdom, which entirely depended up-i 
on the Succefs of that Expedition , he chofe rather tc 
put all to the riíque of one Battel, and maintain hii 
Repute , than to loie by degrees with di/honourJ 
How often for want of a timely Incifion have we la 
Wounds fefter and ipread. 

Some Dangers vaniih of themfelves , others are in-, 
creafed by negligence , and waft Kingdoms infenilbly! 
and make them perifh as it were by a.Confumption] 
Some are unknown ; of thefe one can't be too Cau-I 
tious, for that they furprife before a Remedy can bcj 
provided. Others are known but flighted, by thefti 
negligence , and too much confidence are ufually íuf i 
ferers. No Danger, though never ib inconfiderabk; 
iTiould be defpifed , for Time , and other Accidents of-j 
ten augment them, and Valour confifts not fo much ta 


r ol. I. always to le Chofen. 27 1 

anquiihing, as in diverting Dangers. To lire in fight 
pereof, is as bad as to fuffer them (?)• 

Nor is the Confidence we put in another's Clemen- 
\y left treacherous , when to decline one Danger we 
ill into a greater , as when we furrender our felves ac 
pifcretion to an Enemy ; we confider in him only 
pe generofity of Pardon , not the force of Revenge 
r Ambition ; we meafure his Compaflion by our 
irief and Affliction , and are apt to perfuade our 
;lves that we can move him to relieve us. When 
[ames the Third , King of Majorca , was too weak for 
is Brother-in-Law j Teter the Fourth of Arragon, who 
pon I know not what pretence would difpoiTels him 
f his Dominions,* he put himfelf into his Hands, 
linking this Submiffion would obtain what his Arms 
ould not; but that King was more influenc d by Am- 
ition than Clemency , fo that he deprived him of his 
kingdom and Title. Thus Dangers deceive us, and 
•e find that to be the greater, which we chofe as the 
¡ffer. There can be no afliirance in Couníél ground- 
i on Principles that depend on anothers pleafure. 
Pe deceive our felves in iuppofing others will aft no- 
ling but what is agreeable to Religion, Juitice, Rela- 
on, or Friendihip, or but what is confident with 
íeir Honour and Intereft. Not confidering that Men 
re not always guided by their Advantage or Duty, but 
ither by their private Paflions and Sentiments ,♦ and 
pnfequently their Actions are not only to be examined 
y the Rule of Reafon, but alio by that of Malice, and 
he Experience of the ordinary Injuftices and Tyrannies 
jf the World. 

[ Dangers are a Prince's beft Mailers. The pa ft teach 
ow to remedy the prefent , and prevent the future r > 
thofe of others are , 'tis true , inftru&ing , but they . 

($) Nemo Tmrtalium jnxta viper am fecuros fomnos fapit , qu* etfi non 
trcmiat arte folicitat -, turns eft perire nm pojfe , quam jnxta periculam 
toftriiffe. Sand. Hicr. 


27 fc Of two Evils the lefs ought, &c. V !.| 

are eafily forgot. Our own leave in the Soul fi 
Marks and Scars of the lofles fuftairfd , as that wl 
has once wounded the Imagination does fear. . 
not then contempt or forgetrulnefs ever crafe ther 
efpecially when having eicapd a Danger, we fam 
the fame will never return, or if it does, will not au 
noy us ; for though fome one Circumftance , which h 
very unlikely to happen a iecond time, may remove 
Dangers, yet other fucceeding new ones make then 


lol. I- 



•'.. "i * > 

FROM Nature, this liniverfal Commonwealth of 
things, and Empire of mixt Bodies, derive their O- 
riginal, the fupreme Government of which die lays 
aim to ; and for the more firm eftabliihment, and more 
cure maintaining of it, has made her felf fo loved by them a 
íat the Elements, even in the midft of their contrariety 
ith an admirable confent, confpire to preierve it. All 
lings would be foon diffblv'd, did they hate Nature their 
rincefs and Sovereign, who with mutual ties of Love and 
enevolence, ás with the fafteft knot, unites them.- It is this 
«ove which holds the Earth in ¿Equilibrio, and makes 
le Orbs of Heaven whirl round it. Let this Monar- 
iy of things created, founded in their firft Being, be á 
.elibrr to defend their Perfons . and Subjects by affeftion, 

T me 

*74 Love of his Suhjetts Vol.! 

the moft faithfull guard they can have about them (i ). 

Claud. Not Guards , nor Groves of Pikes defend like Love 
This is the only impregnable Fort (2). For which reafoi 
the Bees elect: a King without a Sting, for he has no neec 
of Arms, who is beloved by his Subjects. Nature wouk 
by no means have it in his power to hurt, whofe duty *tí¡ 
to govern, leaft he become odious, and promote his owi 
ruin Tbegreatefi and mojl abfolute power a Prince can htm 
(favsK. Alphonfo) is when he loves his People, and they red 
procally love him. The body defends the Head, upon ac 
count of the*Loveit bears it, in confideration, that thisdi 
reds and preferves it : elle would it not hold up its arm to 
ward the threatning blow. Who would expofe himfelf t< 
Hazards, except he had a Love for his Prince? Who pro 
tect and defend his Crown ? The whole Kingdom of Caftil 
Tided with the Infant Henry, agáinft K. Peter the Cruel, be 
caufe the one was beloved by all, the other as univerfall; 
hated. The firft Principle of the ruin of Kingdoms, ant 
all the Revolutions in States is Hatred. The Kings Ordom 
and Fruela the Second were fo abominated by their Subjects 
that the very name of King became odious ; Cajlile was re 
due'd into a Commonwealth, and the Government divida 
between two Judges, one of which adminiftred affairs 
Peace, the other thofe of Warf. Portugal never took U| 
Arms againft its Kings, nor revolted from its obedience 
the reaibn is, it bears a fincere affection towards them ; aru 
if at any time it has excluded one and admitted another 
'twas, becaufe one was belov'd, the other for Male-admini 
ftration hated. It was the advice oí James the Firft of Ar 
ragon to Alphonfo the Wife, to feek rather the Love thai 
Fear of his Subjects, and to ingratiate himfelf with the Clci 
gy and Commons, that he might be the better able to grap 
pie with the Nobility ; which Counfel if he had follow'd 
he had never loft the Crown. Nero no iboner ceas'd to b 
- ■ ■ - 1 

(1) Corporis cujiodiam tutijpmam (Jfe putatam in virtute amicorm 
turn in btnevtlentia civiuta ejfe eolheatam. Ifocr. ad Nic. (:) Sa!im 
Vrinciftm in alerto dementia prajlabit, vivum erit inexpxgnabik 
mentum amor eivium, Sen. de Clem. lib. 1. ca. 19. f Mar. hift. Hifj 



^ol. í. á V rimes léfl Security. iy§ 

ov'd, than Confpiracies were form'd againft him, a thing 
vhich Subrint Flavins upbraided him with to his face (3). 
A King's Power and Majefty confift not in his own Perlón, 
>ut in the 'Affection and good Will of his Subjects. If they 
)e difaffected, who will oppofe his Enemies? Tis Preíérva- 
tion makes the people want a King, but that can never be 
expected from one, who makes himfelf hated. The Arrogo- 
mans prudently forefaw this, when having call'd to the 
Crown Peter Atibar ez Lord of Borgia, from whom the 
rnoft ancient and illuftrious Family of the Dukes of Gandid 
is defcended, they afterwards repented, and would not have 
him for their King, becaufe they fa w he us'd them with Au- 
fterity and Rigour, even before his Election. Contrary to¡ 
what Ferdinand the Firft, King of Arragon did, who by 
Love and Benevolence, engaged the hearts of all in that 
Kingdom, as alfo in Caftile during his Reign there. We 
have feen many Princes ruin'd by Fear, none ever by Love.' 
If therefore a Prince would be formidable, let it be to his 
Enemies, but let him endeavour to be belov'd by his Sub- 
jects} without which, though he come victorious ovei 
them, he will atlaft fall by the hands of thefe. As it befell 
Bardanas King of Perfia (4). Love and Refpett may be 
)oyned, but not Love and fervile Fear. He who is fear'd té 
hated, and he who is hated is by no means fecure. 

Quern metuunt, oderunt. 
¿*nem quifque odit periiffe expedit. Enn. 

He who is fear'd by many, alfo fears many. And what 
greater misfortune is there, than, to command thofe who o- 
bey through Fear, and govern Bodies rather than, Minds? 
The difference between the juft Prince and the Tyrant is, 
That one ufes Arms to maintain his Subjects in Peace, the o- 
ther to protect himfelf againft them. If the ftrength and 

(3) Nee quifquam tibi fidelior militum fuit , dum amari meruifii, cdiffi 
Ccepi poftquam parricida Matris & Uxó<-is, auriga, Infirió, £# ¿ncettdiari- 
us extitifti. Tac. 15. ann. (4) Claritudine paucos inter fan at urn Regura t 
fi perinde añartrñ inter populares, qvarn metum spud jíóftts quaJi'ViJfeP* 
Tac. ri.amr. 

T % jfówéíí 

276 Love of hh Suh jen s VoL 

power of a Prince hated, be (mail, he is much expofed 
danger from his Subjects ; if great, yet much more. ¿ 
the greater their fear is, the more follicitous are they to pro 
vide for their Security, as apprehending his cruelty will en. 
creafe with his Grandeur, as in Bardanas King of Perfo 
whofe Glory made him more fevere and infupportable t< 
hisSubjedts fj) If not for fear of danger, atleaft in gra- 
titude,a Prince ihould avoid being terrible to thole by whon 
he reigns. Whence that was a very unworthy faying of Ca 
ligula, Let themhate me, fo they fear me; as if the iecuritj" 
of Empire confined in Fear : Whereas no power can tx 
lading where fear bears the fway. And though Seneca feid 
He horns not how to govern, who, is too fearfull of Hatred' 
Fear defends Kingdoms: Tis a Tyrannick Maxim, or is t( 
be underftood of that vain Fear which fometiraes Princes an. 
in of offending others, even when their Commands are juft : 
which doubtlefs is dangerous, and not a little derogatory 
from their Authority. He can never reign, who wants Con- 
ftancy and Courage to defpife the Hatred of ill men, to pre- 
ferve the good. Nor is Caligula's Sentence juftifVd by thai! 
of the Emptror Tiberius; Let them hate me, fo they approvt 
me. For no aftion of a perfon hated is ever approv'd. Ha- 
tred blames all, and puts the word Conftruftion on ever) 
thing. When once a Prince is hated, his good actions as 
well as bad are interpreted againft him. It feems neceliarj 
for a Tyrant to keep his Subjects in awe, in as much as hii 
Empire being violent, mud be fupported by violent means, 
there wanting thofe two Obligations of Nature and volunta- 
ry Subjection, which, as Alphonfo the Wife fays, are tbt 
greateji Debts a man can owe his Lord. And the T\ rant 
fenfible, that without thefe bands 'tis impoflible there 
ihould be real Love between him and his Subjects, endea- 
vours by force to make Fear effect what ought to proceed 
from natural Affection ; and as his difturbed Confcience 
fears Cruelty againft it felf, it exercifes it upon others (6). 
But the lamentable examples of all Tyrants abundantly fliew 

(y) Ingerís gloria, atque eoferscw; & fubjeftif wtolersntior, Tac. 
«i.ann. (6) Wifd. 17. 11, 


Vol.1. a Prince's heft Security. 277 

low ihort-liv'd this method is. For though we fee the Em- 
ires of the Turks, Mufcovites and Tartars have been con ti- 
med for many Ages by Fear alone, yet thefe barbarous Na- 
:ions ought not to be made a Precedent : Their Manners are 

favage, that they feera to have more of the Brute than the 
Man, being commonly led more by Pumihment than reafon, 
ind confequently by that only can be kept in fubjection, as 
Brutes are not tamed but by Force and Fear. Yet generous 
Spirits iuffer not themfelves to be compell'd or cheated into 
¿bedience, but are induc'd thereto by fincerity and reafon. 
For, fays King A Ipbonfo, our people being loyal and couragious, 
\heir Loyalty ought to be maintain 'd by truth, and their Cou- 
rage by right and juflice. 

There is ufually twixt the Prince and his Subjects fuch a 
kind of inclination and natural Sympathy, as renders him a- 
miable without any more care ; for a Prince who deferv'd 
Hatred is fometimes lov'd, and on the contrary one hated 
who merited Love. And though eminent Vermes and Ac- 
compliPnmentsof Mind and Body are wont of themfelves to 
challenge Love, yet they have not always this effect, unleis 
accompanied with an agreeable kind of Humour, a fweet, 
obliging Air, which through the Eyes, as Windows of the 
Mind, (hews the inward Goodnefs, and engages mens Affe- 
ftions. Befidesthat, accidents which could not be prevent- 
ed, or fome finifter appreheniion may fo break this Love 
and good Will between the Prince and Subject, that it can 
never after be re-united ; yet much may be done in that calé 
by skill and addrefs, in knowing how to govern to the fatif- 
faction of the Nobles and Commons, avoiding giving them 
any occafion of difpleafure, and behaving himielf in all par- 
ticulars, fo as to create a good opinion of his Government. 
Butfince the means whereby the Affections of Subjects may 
be procured, are every where fcatter'd through this Book, 

1 ihall only fay here in general, that nothing contributes 
more to the obtaining it, than Religion, Jufticeand Libera- 

But becaufe without fome Species of Fear, Love would 
be foon turn'd to Contempt, and the edge of Regal Autho- 

T } rity 

a, 7 8 Love of his SuljeEls Vol. I 

rity blunted (7), it is highly requifitc, that Subjects enter 
tain fuch an awe as arifes from Refpecl and Veneration, no, 
that which is the refult of danger from Injuflice and Tyran 
ny. So neceflary it is for a Prince to make himfelf feared b 
not furTcring Indignities, maintaining Juftice, andabhorrinj 
Vice, that without fuch an awe in Subjects, 'cwould be im 
poffible to be longfecure.- For all naturally defire Liberty 
and the inferior part of man rebells againft Reafon, and i 
incorrigible but by Fear. The Prince muft therefore tam 
his Subjects as the Horre-courfer breaks his Colt, (thefi 
gure of the prefent EmblemJ who with the fame han<. 
firokesand curries him and threatens him with the Whip 
Both the Rod and the Manna were kept in the Ark of thi 
Tabernacle, to intimate, as I imagin, that Rigour and Cle 
mency ihould be joyn'd in the Prince's perfon. God's Rot 
and Staff comforted David \ for if that wounded, thisfup 
ported him (%). When God gave the Law of the Deca 
logue to the Ifraelites on Mount Sinai, he at once terrifie< 
them with Thunder and Lightning, and pleafing, allurt 
them with Heavenly Mufick ; both the one and the other i 
neceflary to preferve a Love and Veneration in Subjetfs. Le 
this therefore be the Prince's Study, to make himfelf a 
once lov'd and fear'd: lov'd, as the Protector of his People 
fear'd, as the Soul of the Law, upon which all their Live 
and Eflates depend : lov'd for his Rewards, fear'd for hi: 
Puniihments : lov'd for his Goodnefi, fear'd for his Autho- 
rity : lov'd as a Promoterof Peace, fear'd as Arbiter of War 
So that the good in loving him may find caufe to fear 
the Bad in fearing him may find fomething to love in him 
This Fear is as neceflary to the prefervation of the Sec 
ptre. as that which proceeds from the Pride, Injuflice, and 
Tyranny of the Prince, is prejudicial and dangerous to it 
in leading to Defpair (9). The one procures his Libert) 
with the Prince's RuinjGod breaking the Staff of the wicked 
and rhe Sceptre of fuch as rule with too much feverity (10J 

(7) Timor e Princeps aciem author it at it fuá non pat i tur hebefeere. Cic 
1. Car. (8,)Pf as, 4. Exod 19. ( 9 ) Jtaagere inftiijetlit, ut mtgh 
vereantur fever it at an, yuam ut faitiam tint detefttntur. Colum. (10, 


rol. I. A Princes left Security, 279 

/Vhereas the other by conforming himfelf to Reafon , 

udies to avoid his Anger and Puniiliment. This Fear is 

>f the fame brood with Love. For there ca"n be no Love 

without fear of lofing the Object lov'd> and care to continue 

n its favour. But fince 'tis not fo much in the Prince's pow- 

:r to beget Love as Fear, 'tis better for him to ground his 

fecurity on this than that alone, which as the product of the 

Will is various and inconftant; nor is any artificial Flattery, 

any forc'd Complaifance fufficient to gain the Hearts of all. 

frhat Prince I take for a great Governour, who alive is 

fear'd, and dead, lov'd by his Subjects ; as Ferdinand the 

iCatbolick was, for if he be not lov'd, 'twill fuffice that he is 

«fteem'd and fear'd. 


Here is an a icient Medal to be feen, upon the Re. 

verfe of which is engraven a flaih of Lightning 

upon an Altar, to fignifie, that a Princes feveri- 

T 4 ty 

x8o A well-temper d Compla'tfance Vol. 

ty ought to yield to Prayers: anErablem offenfivre to the Ey$ 
the Lightning of Punifhment being reprefented fo lively ai 
fo near to Pardon,that fear may be apt to daih all hope int! 
goodnefs of the Altar. And though it be fit fometime, 
that the looks of the Prince before whom the criminal bends 
ihould at once reprefent the Terror of Juftice, and Mildnefi 
of Mercy ; yet this is not always proper, for that were con- 
trary to the advice of the H. Spirit, who would have Lift 
and Clemency (hine in a King's Countenance (i). In this 
Emblem therefore, inftead of the Lightning I have plac'd 
upon the Altar the Golden Fleece, introduc'd by Philip the 
Good Duke of Burgundy, not to fignifie, as many imagin 
the fabulous Fleece of Colchos, but that of Gideon, which 
for a token of Victory was moiftned with the Dew of Hea- 
ven, when all the Country about it was dry (2). A Sym- 
bol whereby Meeknefs and Humility is exprefs'd, as the 
fame isfignified by that immaculate Lamb the Son o£ God, 
offer'd for the World's Salvation. The Prince is a Victim 
devoted to Fatigues and Dangers for the common good of 
his Subjects. A precious Fleece, rich in Dew and other 
Blefiings of Heaven,. Here they ought at all times to find 
wherewithal to quench their Thirfi, to redrefs their Grie- 
vanees ; let him be always affable, always fincere and be- 
nign towards them, which will be more effectual than feve- 
rity. Upon the fight of Alexander's pleafing Looks, the 
Confpirators immediately threw down their Arms. The 
ferenity of Auguftus tied the hands of the Gaul, who went 
to throw him down a Precipice in the Alps. The modeft 
and fweet Temper of King Ordonno the firft ftrangely won 
the Hearts of his Subjects. Sancho the Third was called the 
'Defired, not fo much for the iliortnefs of his Life, as for 
Jiis Affability. And the Arragonians received Ferdinand 
the Infant, King Martins Nephew to the Crown, upo.T a 
liking they took to his obliging Demeanour. Modeftvand 
good Humour all muft love. Obedience is fufficiently'hea- 
yy and odious of it felf j let not the Prince add Rigour to 
it; for that is a File, wherewith natuial Liberty generally 

1 — 

(1) frpv. 16. 1$. (i)]üá.6, 37. 


Vol. I. 

.1. a Primely Qualification. z8i 

cuts the chains of Slavery. If Princes in Adverfity think 
Complaisance and Humanity to be ufed for # a remedy, why 
fhouldit notas well in Profperity for a Prefervative í The 
benign Afpedt erf the Prince gains a pleating Empire over 
mens minds ; 'tis a diflTimulation of Sovereignty. 

By Complacency, I do not here mean that which is fo 
vulgar, that jfc 4 begets Contempt, but which has fo agreea- 
ble a mixture-of Gravity and Authority, as leaves room for 
Love, but a Love attended with refpeft: for where this is 
wanting, that is apt to turn too familiar and afpire to an E- 
qualiry. And if the auguft part of Majefty be not main- 
tain'djthere will be no difference between thePrince and Sub- 
je& (;). Some ornament of the Perfon (as has been be- 
fore hinted) anda well temper'd Gravity is rcquifite to fup- 
portthe Royal Dignity ; for I can by no means approve of 
a Prince s making himfelf fo familiar with every one, that 
it may be faid of him as it was of dgrhola % who was fo 
plain in hisdrefs, fo condefcending and familiar, that many 
fought his Fame in his perfon, but few found it (4), For 
what is common, no one admires, and refpett is the genu- 
ine effect of admiration. Some grave feverity muft appear 
in the Prince's face, and Something extraordinary in his 
Carriage and Royal Port to (hew fupreme power; but this 
feverity ihould be fo qualified by Sweetnefs, that jointly they 
may beget Love and Reverence in the Subject, not Fear (5 I. 
The Sword has been often drawn in France againft the 
Ilegal Majefty, for being too familiar. Affability muft not 
diminiih Authority, nor Severity Love ; a thing Tacitus ad- 
mir'd in agrícola, (6.) and commended in the Emperor 
Titus, who appeared affable to his Soldiers without derogá- 
is) Qomitas facile fauftumomm atterit, & in familiar ¿ confuetudint 
agre cufiodias Mud opinionis augufltim. Herod, lib. I. (^) Cultu modi. 
cut, fermone jacilis ; adeo ut plertque, quibus magnos 'vivos per ambitionem 
aftimare mos efl, vifo afpecloque agrícola, quirerent famam, pauci in- 
terpretarentur. Tac. in vit. Agr. (5) Et videri velle non afperum, fed 
cum gravitate honeftum, & talem, ut eumnon timeant ubvii, fed magis 
rever eantur. Arift. Pol. lib. j. c. 1 1. (6) NccMi quod rarijjimum efi, 
tut faciltas authoritatem, aut feveritao amor em diminuí t. Tac. in vit. 


a.8i A well-temper dC omplai fame Vol.!. 

ting from his Authority as General (7). Let the Prince 
compofe his Looks, that they may at once aflert Authors 
ty and invite Love ; let him appear grave, not auftere ; a. 
rímate, not drive into Defpair : looking always with a 
gracefull, agreeable Smile, ufing words complaifant, and 
gravely courteous. Some think themfelves no Princes, ex- 
ceptthey ihew fomething irregular in their Expreflbns, 
Looks and Port, contrary to the common way of other 
men: fo ignorant Statuaries think the art and perfection of 
a Colofs, confifis in having bloated Cheeks, blubber Lips, 
lowring Brows and iquint Eyes. 

True Greatnefs doth not conjift in mighty State, f 
In lofty Mein and Words, or haughty Gate. 

King Abafuerus was of fo terrible an Afpeft, that Queen 
Hefter coming into his prefence fell into a Swoon (o),and had 
not recovered, but that the King,his Spirit being changed by 
a divine Impreifion (10), held out the Scepter fn), to ihew 
her it was but a piece of gilded Wood, and himfelf a Man, 
nota Vifion as (he imagined (11% If Majeity too fevere and 
diforderly could produce this EfFecT; in a Queen, what will 
it in a private perfon opprefled with Poverty and Afflicti- 
on ? The Holy Scriptures call a Prince Phyfician (13), and 
Father (1 4), and neither this cures nor that governs with 

But if upon occafion, the Prince frowns upon a Subject 
let his Reprimands begin with an Encomium on his Vir- 
tues, afterwards laying before him the Deformity of his 
Crime, and thus ftrike him with a generous Fear, in as much 
as the ihadow of Vice is raoft confpicuous when oppos'd to 
the light of Vertue; care alfo mould be taken, that there- 
proof be not fo harili and publick, that the Subjeft lofing 
his Reputation, fhall withal , lofe all hopes of retrieving it, 

l *^*' ' — ^'^ . . ..ii 

(7) Atqueipfe, ut fuper fortmam crederetur, decorum fe, promptumam 
mrrns ojlentabat, comitate & alloqmis officia provocan;, ac plerummu in 
cptri,in agmtne, m gregario mili t i mixtas, incorrupto ducis honore Tac. 

(13) Ibid. (13; Mm. 3.7. (i^)Ecd 4.10. 


Vol. T. a Princely Qualification. 283 

and fo obftinately perfift in his fault. Let Anger therefore 
and Mildneís, Puniihment and Rewards be fo intermixed, 
as in the Golden Fleece, the Steels and Flints are knit to- 
gether, and between them Flames of Fire, to fignifie that 
the Prince's Heart íliould retemblé the Fire-ftone or Flint, 
which keeps the fparks of its Anger (hut up, leaft they 
ihould hurt any one raflily ; yet in fuch a manner, that if it 
happen to be ftruck by Injury or Contempt, it immediate- 
ly breaks out into fire of Revenge and Juftice, yet thofe not 
fo quick in execution, but it has the Dew of the Fleece at 
hand to extinguiih, at leaft to moderate them. God faid to 
Ezekiel, as Adamant and Flint have I made thy fore-head (15), 
fignifying by that the conftancy of Juftice, and by this 
the fire of Piety. But if the Prince cannot break his rough 
and favage Nature, let him at leaft keep an obliging Family 
to fupply his place, giving a courteous reception to all Ruli- 
nefs and Petitions. A Prince is often beloved or hated up- 
on account of his Servants ; they very much cloak their Ma- 
iler's roughnefs, if they have the skill to moderate it, or to 
excufe it by their Affability and Difcretion. 

Some Nations hide the Royal Majefty behind Veils and 
Curtains when he gives Audience, without expofing him to 
the people. ACuftom inhumane to the Prince,fevere and cru- 
el to the Subjects, who ufually find comfort in their Prince's 
prefence, if not in his hands. This Retreat may make the 
Prince more fear'd, but never more beloved. Tis through 
the Eyes and Ears that Love ftrikes the Heart. What we 
neither fee nor hear, we can't love. A Prince who refufes 
the fight and fpeech of his Subjects, refufes to hear their 
Neceffities and to remedy them ; the Tongue is an eaíie 
jnftrument, that ought to reconcile the Minds of all: let 
not the Prince make it harih and dif-agreeablc. King John 
the Firft, becaufe he was fhort, and had an impediment 
in his Speech, loft the Tortuguefe in his Pretenfion to that 
Crown, upon the death of King Peter. 

Tis not fufficient for the Prince to difpatch bufinefs by 
Memorials and Petitions, for by them the Sentiments are 

(ij) Ezek. 3 9. 



284 A well- temper 'd Complaisance Vol.1. 

not fo well exprefs'd. They not being attended with Sighs 
and other moving A&ions, they are biit dry Tears, am" 
have not that force upon the Prince. 

The doors of Temples are always open, fo alfo ihould 
thofe of Palaces ; for Princes are God's Vicegerents, and 
the Altars (as we have faidj which the people fly to in their 
Affli&ions and Calamities. Twould be a fcandalous thing 
tora Soldier to find itmoreeafic to charge through a Squa- 
dron of Pikes, than to come to the prefence through the 
midft of Swifs and Dutch Guards, who, like armed Hcdgw 
hogs, are neither gain'd by Prayers nor Civility. Let peo- 
ple come to me, fays the Emperor Rodolpbm, for I am not Em* 
peror to be flint up in a box. This retirement makes the 
mindfavage (16J. Attention to Government, and Com- 
munication foften the temper and render it eafie. Princes, 
like Hawks, are tam'd by the ailiduity of Affairs, and by 
familiarity with Men. The Kingdom of Leon rebelled a- 
gainft King Ramirez the Third, for his difficulty of Accefs. 
King Ferdinand the Holy was deny'd to none, and every 
one had admittance even to his moft private Apartment: 
The Kings Alphonfo the Twelfth, and Henry the Third, 
gave publick Audience three times a Week, as did alfo their 
Catholick Majefties, Ferdinand and Ifabella f. Nature has 
put doors to the Eyes and Tongue, but has left the Ears 
open, that they may be ready to hear at all times. Let not 
a Prince then ftop 'em, but hearken favourably to thofe 
that would fpeak to him. Let him comfort either by Re- 
ward or Hope, for that is one kind of fatisfa&ion which 
fupports Merit. Let him not always ufe fet Forms and ge- 
neral Anfwers ; for thofe which are given to all fatisfienone¿ 
nor is it a fmall trouble to the Petitioner to receive an an- 
fwer that he knew before .- Let him not always hear, lee him 
asklbmetimes f 17), for he who does not enquire, will ner 
ver be well inform'd. Let him throughly know the ftateof 
affairs, and let his Audiences be inftructive, not merely cere* 
monial ; as were thofe of Ferdinand the Holy, Alphonfo King 

(16) Etiam fera animal ¿a fi claufa t eneas, virtutis ebiivifcuntur . Tac 
4. Hiíh t Mar. hift. Hifp. (17) Eccl. 23. 12. 


Vol.1. a Primely Qualification. 285" 

of Arragon, King Ferdinand the Catholick, and the Empe- 
ror Charles the Fifth, by which they were beloved and re- 
fpefted by their Subjects, and efteem'd by Strangers. As 
íhe Audience ihould be eafie, fo it ought alio to be fpeedy ; 
for the delay of a benefit diminiíhes the Obligation. Tho* 
there are fome affairs of that Nature, that 'tis better to let 
time undeceive them, than either the Prince or his Mini- 
fters. For all had rather be entertain'd with Hope, than 
be difpatch'd with Defpair, which in prudent Courts is 
found, not given. 

Idont approve of the Prince's expofing himfelf in the 
Streets and publick places, for the People; 'tis true, admire 
him the firft time, obferve him the fecond, and flight him 
the third (1 8). That which is not feen is refpe&ed moft (19), 
and the Eyes often defpife what the opinion efteem'd. 
Tis not convenient the people ihould know whether the 
chain of their Slavery be of Iron or of Gold, paifing judg- 
ment upon the parts and qualifications of the Prince.. We 
refpe&that moftwhichis fartheft diftant (10). SomeNa- 
tions take the Prince's Affability and Complaifance for a 
Vice. Others diflike his refervedneis, and would have him 
mild and courteous, as the Porruguefe and the French. The 
Extreams in one and t'other are always dangerous,- and he 
will be beft able to moderate them, who in his Actions and 
Government, remembers that he is both Prince and Man. 

(18) Continuas afpeclu/ minus verendos magnos homines ipfa Jodelste 
facit. Li v. (19) Arcebantur confpeftv, quo venerationis plus inejjet. T*C 
- hift. (20) Cut major e hnginquo reverest/a. Tac ; 1. ann. 

t Ki- 


L'derality ina Prince , what, Vol. I 

EM&JL&M XL. 4* 

TH E Scriptures call Princes Mountains, and the reí 
of Mankind, Hills and Valleys (i). This compa 
rifon comprehends the great Affinity between them 
for Mountains are Princes of the Earth, as being neare 
Heaven, and fuperiour to the other works of Nature, asal 
fo for their Liberality, by which from their own generon 
Bowels, they fupply with continual Streams the drought 
Plains and Vallies beneath, cloathing them with Flower 
and Verdure, this being the true property of Princes. B 
this vertue more than any is a Prince ally'd to Gcd, who i 
ever giving to all plentifully (2) ; 'tis this renders obedienc 
more prompt, for a Prefent from him who could command 
forces Obligation. Subjection is agreeable when 'tis beneficia 

(1) Ye Mountains of Ifrael, hear the word of the Lord God, thu 
faith the Lord God to the Mountains, and to the Hills, to the Ri 
vers, and to the Valleys, Ezek, 6. 3. (2) James 1. y. 


Vol. I. an¿I how to he retrain d. 287 

King Charles oí Navarre, call'd the Noble, gain'd the Love 
of all by his Liberality. King Henry the Second did thereby 
wipe out the Murder of his Brother King Peter, and efta- 
Wifhed his Right to the Crown. What cannot a liberal 
Prince do? What can't a golden Scepter oblige to? Even 
Tyranny (3) is conniv'd at and born with, when the Prince 
knows how to give, efpecially when it gains the Applaufe 
of the people, by fupplying the publick Neceflities, and re- 
warding perfons of Merit. This vertue, in my opinion, 
maintained Tiberius in the Empire, for this he always pra- 
ftis'd (4). But there is nothing more pernicious to a 
Prince, than Liberality and Goodnefs (for they ufually go 
together) if not ufed with Moderation. Liberality, fays 
King Alphonfo the Wife, becomes all men of power, but prin- 
cipally a King, when he ufes it to purpoje, and as be jhould. 
Gardas Sancho, King of Navarr, loft his Subjects affections, 
by the fame Liberality with which he hop'd to have gain'd 
them ; for to maintain it, he oppreft them with Taxes and 
Impofitions. ' Prodigality is little diftant from Rapine or 
Tyranny; for when the Treafury is drained by Ambition, it 
mud of neceffity be recruited by ill and indirect means {5 J. 
He who gives more than he is able, fays Alphonfo the Wife, 
ii not liberal but prodigal ; and when his own flock fails, he 
will be obliged to make ufe of others ; fo that if on one fide he 
makes Friends by what he gives, he on tlf other fide makes E- 
nemies by what he takes away. Diego d' Arias, Treafurer to 
King Henry the Fourth, leaft he ihould fall into this incon- 
venience, reprcfented to him the Extravagance of his Libe- 
rality, and that 'twas convenient, that his Retinue ihould 
be reduc'd to a leffer number, and that the Salaries allow'd 
to fuch as did not actually ferve, or were any ways incapaci- 
tated, might be taken off: to whom the King made this 
Anfwer, / too, were I Arias, jhould more refpett my Money 
than my Liberality ; you ¡ay well as to your felf, but as for me, 
I'll del as becomes a King, without fear of poverty, or expofing 

(}) Prov. j 9. 6. (i\) Quam virtutem din retinttit, cam ca'trat 
txueret. Tac i . ann. (5) Ac velut f/erfringere ararium : q'-:;dj7am~ 
titiom exhaufirtmtti , fer [celera fupplendum erit. Tac. 2. ar.n 


2,88 Liberality in a Prince, what, Vol. 

my felfto the necejfity ofraiftng new 7 axes. 9 Tis the duty of 
King to give, and to mea fare his Authority by the publi 
Good, not his own particular, which is the true fruit of Riel 
To fome we give becaufe they are good, to others, that tl 
mayrft be bad. Words truly worthy a King, if he had been \ 
guided by thefe confiderations, but his gifts were always 
exceflive and without order, without the leaft regard to the 
Merit of the Party, as his Brother-in-law King Ferdinand, 
obferved in one of his Laws, faying, That he gave Reward» 
for Shew not for Merit. Whence we may obferve the cir¿ 
cumfpeftion a Prince ought to obferve in his Liberality, 
for fear of giving occaiion to his Subjects to acknowledge his 
Authority , only to receive from him, not to obey him. An: 
extravagant Subject ruins only himfelf. But a Prince, hin> \ 
íelf and State too The Treafury would be loon at an ebb, 
if the Prince fhould be extravagantly liberal, without con-' 
fidering, that they are the Magazines for publick NecefB-i 
ties. The Mountains don't iquander away the Snow which 
the Vapours of the Fields and Valleys heap upon its top, but 
on the contrary, preferve it againít Summer, and then in i 
gentle Streams returns it upon the fame grounds it was at- 
tracted from. They don't defcend all at once, for fo they 
would not aniwer their defign, and would be flighted as ufe-i 
lefs, for Liberality is the greateit Enemy to Liberality; nor 
do they immediately mix with the Rivers leaving the Plains 
and Vallies dry, as Princes ufually do, who give to the 
Rich what ought to be diitributed among the Poor, and 
drain the thirfty fandsto fupply thebrimfull Lakes, which 
have no need of it. Tis a great fault to gain the favour of 
the Rich at the expence of the poor ; and by vain extrava- 1 
gance to opprefs the body of the State, whofe ruin is always 
promoted by the pride and vanity of a few. The people can- 
not brook to fee that power vainly iquander'd away, which 
ought to be employed to the prefervation of them, and the 
Prince's dignity.- The rewards of a Prodigal are not efteem'd, 
becaufe they are common, and proceed from the vice of Ex- 
travagance, notthevertue of Liberality, and by giving all 
to a few he offends many ; that which is given to forne 
particular ones, being wanted in general by all. He who 


Vol. I. and how to he reftramd. 289 

gives without care or choice, enriches indeed, but rewards 
not : to give to thofe who deferve, 'tis neceííary to be fpa- 
ring to others. So that a Prince ought to ufe great Pru- 
dence and Judgment in the Diftribution of Rewards (6). 
For when they are well diftributed, though they fall on but 
few, they affe¿l many. The Scriptures command all Offe- 
rings to be made with Salt, which is the fame as Pru- 
&ence(7), equally diftant from Prodigality and Avarice. But 
becaufe a Prince ought tobe generous to all, let him imitate 
\Awrora y which, as it pafles, always leaves fomething, tho* 
'but Dew and Flowers. Nay often latisfies only with its 
Beauty and Pleafantnefs. Let him give to all, but with 
Huch Moderation, that without putting it out of his power 
pgive more, he may content them. Some by Prefents, 
|íbme by Words, and fome by Affability (8) ; for oftentimes 
[the Eyes give more than the Hands. Liberality is the only 
Vertue, which mould be fometimes in the opinion of others, 
inore than in the perfon of the Prince; Experience teaching 
tis, that 'tis fufficient that he exprefs fome Demon ft rations, 
with fuch Addrefs, that he may be generally efteem'd libe- 
ral ; fo that he muft avoid Refufals, for 'tis a great trouble 
to receive them from a Prince. What he cannot give to 
¡day, he may give to morrow ; and if he cannot, 'tis better 
to let time difcover it than to tell it himfelf. He who re- 
fufes, either does not diftinguiih Merit, or ihews his want 
of Power or Will, and neither of thefe Declarations become 
a Prince, whofe Power and Grandure the Petitioner ac- 
knowledges. - , . 

Let a Prince be generous in the Reward of Vertue, but 
fet it be with Offices and Imployments, and other Reverjues 
'already allotted to Liberality, not with the Crown-Rents,' 
and Treafury referv'd for greater ufes. King Ferdinand the 
Catholickwas very liberal, but not to the Prejudice of the 
Crown. He was (at his firft coming to the Crown) flow 
in the Diftribution of Offices, the better to gain mens minds,; 
and to reward thofe who had followed his Party. He knew 
With great Prudence to mingle Liberality with Frugality. 

(6) Pial. 98, 4. (:) Eevit. 2. 14. Eccl. 35'. ir. (8)" Eccl. 3?. 1 r,. 

u Oi 

290 Liherality in a Prince, n>bat y VoM 

Of which he has not only left us an Example but alio i 
Law, in thefe words : Kings ought not to be jo generous am 
bountifully as that it may Joe termed Extravagance ; for tbi 
vertue of Liberality ought to be ufed with order and meafure 
without Detriment to the Crown and Rcyal Dignity f. T( 
lay up the better to employ, is not Avarice, but premedita 
ted ¡ Liberality. To give inconfiderately, is either Vanit] 
or Folly. By this Parfimony King dlphonfo the Wife rais'í 
the Monarchy, and loft the Crown by his profufe Extrava 
gance; one of the principal Complaints the Kingdom raadt 
againft him,, was, That he had given the Emprefs Martk 
thirty thoufand Marks of Silver, to redeem her Husbanc 
Baldwin,, whom the Sultan of <^gypt retained Prifoner ; ir 
which he was more vain than prudent. King Henry th< 
Second found the damage of having weakned the pown 
of his Crown by his too great Bounty, and therefore re 
vok'd it by his laft Will. Time and Opportunity ought tí 
guide Princes in their Liberality ; fometimes it ought to b< 
moderated, when the Expences of War, and the publicl 
Neceifities are great, and to be apply'd to avert Dangers 
and to facilitate Deiigns; in which hefaves moft, whofpend 
moft: for he who gives by little and little, fpends his Mo- 
ney, without attaining his end. War is avoided, and Vifto 
ry and Peace purchafed by Liberality (9). 

The Prodigality of a Prince may be corrected by commit 
ting the management of his Treasures to thrifty frugal Mil 
nifters, as may his Avarice by generous ones. 'Tis neceflan 
fometimes to let a Prince fee the fumm of his Liberality 
for Grants are made fometimes without consideration; ani 
if the Prince kept an account of his Expences he wo ok 
donbtlefs moderate them; and 'tis not always Liberality t( 
grant Gratuities, for Avarice is often vanquiih'd by Impor- 
tunity, or fometimes weary with contending, grants then 
through Defpair. 

Tis natural to all Princes to give tothofe who have moft 
I know not whether through Fear or Efteem of Power 
This that great Courtier Jofeph well underftood, when cal 

t L. 3. tic. 10. lib. 5, Recop. (9) Pioa 21. 9» 

Vol. I. and how to he r eft r atria, 2,91 

ing his Father and Brothers into ¿&gypt> and offering them 
n Pharaoh's name all the Good of that Kingdom (10), he 
rid them bring with them all the Riches and Goods that 
:hey had (1 1) ; knowing, that if they came rich, the King 
would be more liberal to them ; fo that he who experts 
Bounty from a Prince, muft not reprefent to him his Po- 
verty and Mifery. There are no more ready means to have, 
Chan to have ( 1 2), 

(10) Gen. 45. 18. (u) Ibid. ver. ao. (12) Luke 19. 26. 



HE Motto of this Emblem has been famous to all 
Antiquity. Some attribute it to Bias, to Pytha- 
goras, Thates and Hornet ; but I think 'tis more 
teafonao'y alcrib'd to the Delphkk Oracles, for it feems ra- 
ther a Divine than Humane Sentence, fit to be engraven on 
all the Crowns, Sceptres, and Rings of Princes. To this 

O $ M 

*9¿ Moderation in all things Vol. F. 

isreduc'd the whole Science of Government, which confifti 
in avoiding Extreams, and loves the middle, where Vcrtut 
keeps its Sphere. 'Twas ask'd Sócrates, Which was th« 
propereft Venue for a young Man, and he anfwer'd, No- 

t thing to Excefs, by which he comprehended all. To thij 

* Motto the body of the prefent Emblem feems well fuited : 
Corn lay'd by the violence of unieafonable Rain, when gen- 
tle Dews were fufficient (i). Honours by being too great 
fuit ill with Subje&s, and rather difgrace than adorn them. 
There are fome favours fo out of feafon, that they pafs for 
Injuries; What avails it for the Prince to do a benefit, if by : 
his auftere Looks and rugged Words, he feems, as 'twere, 
to throw it at one, or does it fo unfeafonably, that it does no 
kindnefs. The Benefit and Favour is loft, and the hand ab- ; 
horr'd that gave it. Which made King Alphonfo the Wife 
fay, That Rewards ¡hould be given jo á propos, that they may 
he beneficial to the Receiver f. 

As there are errors in Excefs of Rewards and Favours, 
fo there is alfo in Punifhments. Such an exact*Rigour 
better becomes a Minifter of Juftice than a Prince ; he is 
not at hiá Liberty, but the Prince has the Keys of the Law 
in his own hand. 'Tis not Juftice which is too fevere, nor' 
Mercy which is not moderate, and fo of other Vertues. 

The fame Moderation a Prince out to obfervé in the arts' 
of Peace and War, fo guiding the Chariot of the Govern- 
ment, as they did in the Games of old, that the Wheels 
may not touch the Goals, for fo they would be broken ;' 
the art of the ancient Racers coniifted, in meafuring the di- 
ftance fo exa&ly, as to pafs as near as poífible, without 
touching either end. 

What a Prince ought to take moft care of, is the Mo- 
deration of his Pailions, governing them with fuch Pru- 
dence, that he may neither defire, hope, love or fear with 
too much Ardour and Violence, rais'd by the Will not by 

(i) Magni anirai eft magna contemner e t prudent it eft mediocria rr.jllt, 
quam nimia ; i ft* enim utiitafunt ; ilia quod fuperfluunt nteent S/c/i*' 
gttim nimia fternit ukertas, fie Kami onere franguntur, fie ad matunta» 
(em nmprvenit nimia faxttnditat ,Stn. Epift. 39. f L. i.tic.2i.p.a. 


oí. I. well becoming a Prince. 29 % 

eafori. The defires of private perfons may be eafily accom- 
lifli'd, but thofe of Princes not, for thofe are proportion^! 
their conditions, and thefe are ufually greater than the 
orce of their Grandure, tending always to Extreams. Al- 
oft all Princes either ruin themfelves, or run into great in- 
conveniences, through Excefs of Ambition, mans defire be- 
iing unlimited, and the poilibility of things very narrow, it 
rarely happens that the firft are meafured by the latter, or 
that there is any ' Juftice between them. Hence Princes 
Peek pretences to rob their Neighbours, nay their greateit 
Friends, afpiring ever at the enlargement of their State, 
Iwithout meafuring their bodies with their Strength, and 
their Government with Humane Capacity, which cannot 
maintain all that may be acquired. The Grandure of Em- 
pires lies upon their own Shoulders, and are always ready 
to falljopprefs'd with their own weight. Let Princes therefore 
endeavour to maintain their States, which either Succeffion 
or Election has given them ; and if any juft occaiion (hall 
offer of enlarging them, let them make ufe of it a God's 
name, but with fuch caution, as the Event (hall iliew to 

Ambition is not lefs dangerous in the Excefs of its Fears 
than of its Defires, efpecially in that which is acquired by 
Violence. Fear fuggefts no means which are not immedi- 
ately made ufe of for its prefervation. There is none of the 
line of the party wrong'd, or any one who has the leaftpre- 
tenfion to the State, though never fo remote, but is fear'd. 
Tyranny ufually propofes nothing lefs than a general ruin. 
Thus Mncianus praclis'd, killing the Son of Vitelliits (2). 
The fame alfo is taught in the School of Machiavell y whofe 
¡Scholars forgetting the Example of David, who fought out 
¡SúuI's Relations, that they might partake of his Mercy f$), 
follow that of fome Tyrants, as if all were not ruin'd by 
thefe pernicious practices ; and if any one has been preferv'd 
if as we (hall obferve) 'twas by changing them for the better. 
Moft Kingdoms are augmented by Ufurpation, and after- 

(1,) Man fur am difcordiam obi end ens, nifemina belli refirinxijfet. Tac. 
f. ann. (i) Z Sam 9 3. 

U ; wards 

294 Moderation in all things Vol.1. 

wards maintain^ by Juftice, and legitimated by time. Ex- 
treme violence is extreme danger. Cyrus invaded Lyd'ta, 
and difpoflefs'd King Crcefia. But had he had any of our 
Politicians, they would haveadvis'd him, for his greater Se- 
curity, to have taken him off. Yet Cyrus reftor'd him one' 
City, by which he might iupport his Royal Dignity; and 
Yis certain, he had provok'd the Hatred and Arms of all 
Greece, if he had fhew'd himfelf cruel (4). Tyranny is e- 
qually hatefull to God and Man; nor are there wanting in 
fuch cafes, fome mild means, by which the mind may be 
diverted, from lhedding Blood, from breaking the Line of 
Succeffion, from diminiihing, or transferring the greatnefi 
of States, and taking offthoiewhomayafpire to the Crown; 
which had they been obferved in Tortugal, that people had 
never revolted. 

When the danger is fo evident, that it obliges to Defence 
and natural Prefervation, the Prince ought to flrike at the 
Root, that it may not fprout again, keeping a watchful! 
Eye upon it, leaft it fliould happen, as it did to the Fhili- 
fiin Princes, who having cut off Sampfon's hair, wherein lay 
all his Strength, began to ridicule him, not confidering 
that it might grow again, as it afterwards did ("5), when he 
pull'd the Temple upon their Heads (6), killing more En&» 
mies dying than he had done living (7). 

Inordinate Ambition moreover perfwades the Oppreilion 
of the libeny of the people, the humbling of the Nobility, 
the weakningof the potent and rich, and the reduction ot 
all to the Royal Prerogative, thinking that the more ablb- 
lute, the more firm it is; and that the lower the people 
are redue'd, the higher its Glory rifes ; an error by which 
Flattery gains the Hearts of Princes, and leads them into 
great dangers. 'Tis Modefty that preferves Empires, fo 
correcting the Prince's Ambition, that it may maintain it 
within the bounds of Rcafon, the power of his Dignity, the 
honour of the Nobility, and the liberty of the people, for 
no Monarchy is Jailing which is not mixt, that is com- 

(4J Hce dementia non minus titilis >vi¿?tr¡ quam viilo fuit. Tac. 2. 
hift. (s)Judg. 16. 21. (5; Ibid. (7} Ibid. 


Vol.!. well hecomlnga Vrime. 295 

pos'd of Ariftocracy and Democracy ( 8 ). Abiblute 
Power is Tyranny. Whoever promotes that promotes his 
own ruin. A Prince ought not to govern as the Lord, but 
as the Father, the Protector and Governour of his 
States (9). 

Theíé diforders of Ambition proceed from a long ufe 
and abufe of Dominion, which covets all for it felf; in 
which 'tis neceiTary Princes mould conquer themfelves, and 
fubmit to reafon, however difficult the attempt appear ; for 
many can conquer others, kw themfelves. This Victory is 
of Force, that of Reafon. Tis not Valour to conquer in 
Battle, but to fubduc the Paifions. Obedience and Necef- 
fity make Subjects humble and modeft ; Superiority and 
Power render Princes proud ; Pride has deftroy'd more 
Kingdoms than the Sword ; more Princes have ruin'd them- 
felves than have been undone by others. The remedy con- 
firms in the Prince's knowledge of himfelf, by retiring within 
tiimfelf, and coniidering, that though the Scepter diitin- 
guiihes him from his Subjects, they much exceed him in 
endowments of Mind, more noble than his Grandure. That 
if Reafon might take place, the moft accompliuYd man 
would be King. That the hand with which he governs the 
World, is ofClay, and Subject to the Leproiie, and all 0- 
ther human Miferies, as God gave Mofes to underftand (10), 
that knowing his-own Miferies, he might pity thofe of o- 
thersfuj. That a CrGwn is a very unfafe PoiTeffion, for 
between the utmoft height, and the loweft fall, there is no 
Interpofition (12), That he depends upon the Will of o- 
thers, iince if they would not obey, he would be but like 
other men. The greater the Prince (hall be, the more he 
ought to eileem this Modefty, iince God himfelf does not 

(8) Qu¿e ex pluribus conjlatrefp me! ¡or eft Aiiíl. i Pol.C 4. (9) Hue 
enim funt omnia reducenda, nt Us qui fnb imperio funt, non Tyr annum , 
fed patrem- familias, aut regem agere videatur, &o Arift. Pol 5. C. 1 1. 
fio) Exod. 4. 6. (11) Hebr. <>.i. ( ,2 ) Quod rcgnum eft, cui parata 
non (it ruina, O* proculcatio, Ó" dominas, <¿f carmfex ? Nec ifta ínter- 
*vallis divifa, Jed hor.e momentum intereft inter ¡ilium , & aliena genu*. 

U 4 difdain 

1^6 Moderation in all things VoL 

difda'm it(n). Modefty which hides Greatncfs under i 
is like rich Enamel upon Gold, which gives it the great 
Value and Efteem. Tiberius had no Artifice more cunnin w 
than to appear modeft to gain Efteem, He feverely reptS 
hended thofe who call'd his Occupations Divine, and him 
Lord(i4). When he went into the Courts of Juftice, he : 
would not fuffer the Prefident to quit his feat, but fdt dowrr 
upon one corner of the Bench (15). He who is gotten to 
the higheft ftep among men, cannot rife but by looping., 
Let all Princes learn Modefty of the Emperor Ferdinand the ¡ 
Second, who was fa familiar and affable to all, that he made ■ 
himfelf lov'd rather thanreverenc'd. In him Goodnefs and 1 
Modefty were confpicuous, and Majefty found but by At- , 
tention: He was not the Imperial Eagle with a (harp Beak,; 
and bare Talons, threatening all, but the tender Pelican, 1 
continually digging his own Intrails to feed his people as 
his own young. It coft him no pains to humble his Gran-, 
dure and make himfelf equal to others. He was not the ; 
Matter but Father of the World, and the excefs of Mode- 
fty often caufes Contempt, to the ruin of Princes, to him 
}t created more Refpect, and oblig'dall Nations to his Ser- 
vice and Defence. See the force of true Goodnefs, and of 
agrejtSoul, which triumphs over it felf, and is fuperiour 
to Fortune / He has left us in the prefent Emperour his 
Son, the lively Portraiture of all thefe qualities, with 
which he fteals the Hearts both of Friends and Enemies. 
There is no vertue more agreeable to a Prince than Mode- 
fty, all others would be fooliih in him, if that did not ad- 
juft his Looks and Aftions, not permitting them to exceed 

In Government 'tis very convenient not to touch upon 
Extremes, for too great Condefcenfion is not lefs prejudicial 
than a haughty Grandure. Monaftick Communities may 
perhaps fuffer the Rigour of Obedience, but not popular 
ones. Such rigid Difcipline may keep a few in awe, but 

(13) Modeji infama, qua ñeque fummis mortalium fpcrnenda ejf, &i 
diis «fiimatur. Tac. 15. ann. (14) stcertejue increput't eos. aui div'tnat 
tccupatitnes. ipfutnque Dominum dixcrunt. Tac. 2. ann. (15) Jjfidebut 
in camuTribunalis. Tac. 1. ann. 



/ol. I. well becoming a Prfate. 297 

lot many. Civil Happinefs confifts in vertue, which con- 
ifts in the middle, as does civil Life and the Government 
>f States, for the nature of Empire is fuch, that the people 
nay take it away,without being ruin'd by too muchLicence, 
>r render'd obftinate by too much Rigour. In Government 
jve ought not to confider what ifliould be, but what may 
ie (16). Even God adapts himfelf to human Frailty. 

Between theie Extremes alfo the body of the Common- 
wealth ihould be conftituted, care being taken that there 
■payn'tbe too great difference in the conditions of the Citi- 
zens ; for excefs or inequality of Riches or Nobility, if it be 
¡much, creates in fome Pride, and in others Envy, and from 
phence proceed Enmity and Seditionsf 1 7¿For there can be no 
Friendihip or civil Agreement among them who are fo une- 
qual in their Conditions and Fortunes, for all hate equali- 
ty, and covet more, either to govern as Lords, or obey as 
Slaves (18). Some too haughty contemn the Laws, and 
liefpife Obedience; Others too fervile, know not how to 
bear it, and have neither Fear of Infamy nor Puniihment, 
Ihence there would become a Community of Lords and 
[Slaves, but without refpect between themfelves, lince nei- 
ther would know how to meafure themfelves by their own 
condition. Thofe of the loweft quality pretend to be as 
thofe of higher. Thofe who are equal or fuperiour in one 
thing, think they are in all. Thofe who have the advantage 
in all, can't contain themfelves, and defpifing every one 
would proudly lord it over them, without Obedience to 
him who commands, or adapting themfelves to the Confti- 
tutions and Cuftoms of the State, whence proceeds its ruin 
land converfion into other Forms (19), for all figh and are 

(16) Nontnimfolumrefpublica, qua optima fit, confederar i debet, fed 
I'tt'am qui confiitui pojfit, praterea qua facilior & cunclis ciwtatibus com- 
mmior habeatur. Arid. lib. 4 Pol. 6. c. 2. (17) Praterea feditiones 
¡non modo propter for tunarum, fed etiam propter honor um inxquaiit*tem 
fxifiunt. Arift lib. 2. c 5. (18) Sed jam hcec confuetttdo in civitatibuf 
limtaluit, ut homines, ¿qualitatem odio habeant, Ó* malint, aut imperii 
fotiri,autJivifiifuerint, imperio fubeffe . Arift. lib 4. Pol. c.i 1. (t^)Natn 
Vtqui virtute prafiant, iniqtto animo [ibi indigniores aquari paterenturi 
muamobremfepé eonfpirare t & feditiones commovere mtnntnr, Arift. Pol. 


2,98 Moderation in all things, &c. Vol. 

uneafie under it. And though it be imponible intirely 
remedy this contention in States, becaufe of the differer 
of condition of the parts of which they confift, yet at 
they preferv'd if it be moderate, and ruin'd if exceflive. As 
it happens in the four Humours of the Body, though tin 
Blood be the moft noble, and the Choler the moft potent 
yet do they mutually preferve one another, while there is nc 
great Inequality between them ; fo that State will continu< 
long, which confifts of moderate parts, and not much un« 
equal between themfelves. 'Twas the extravagant Riche 
of tome of the Citizens which caus'd the ruin of the State 
Florence j and is at prefent the cauíé of the troubles of Ge 
noua. Becaufe in Venice they are better divided, it has con 
tinued fo many Ages, and if there happen any danger or in- 
convenience in the Government, 'tis through the too great 
poverty of fome of its Magiflrates. If any Republick ha: 
been preferv'd for all thefe diforders and excefs of its parts 
'tis through the Prudence and Induftry of the Governour 
who keeps it in its Devoir, by the fear of the Laws, anc 
other difcreet means, fuchas not to wrong anyone, norvi 
olate the Privileges and Conveniencies of the Poor, to em. 
ploy the great ones in the Adminiftration, and in Offices ;ir 
fine not to opprels, but rather to encourage the hope 0: 
thole who are of an high and enterprifing Spirit. But thii 
will continue no longer than it has prudent Governours 
and becaufe States can't be fufficiently provided for by thefi 
temporal Remedies, which depend upon chance, 'tis necel 
fary in their firft Inflitution, to provide means to correal 
thefe ExcelTes, before they happen. 


Fol. I. 




I Am indebted, for the body of this Emblem, to the 
Civility of the prefent Pope Urban the Vilith. his 
Holinefs having been pleas'd to ftiew me upon a preci- 
ous Stone, engraven in the time of the Romans , two Bees 
drawing a Plough, which was found in his time; a Pre- 
fageoftherife of his noble and ancient Family, his Arms 
being joyn'dto thetriumphant Yoakof the Church. Which 
upon Reflection put mein mind of a Prodigy of King Wam- 
ba t when being anointed by the Archbifhop of Toledo, there 
was feen to fpring from his head a Bee, which flew ftreisht 
towards Heaven, prognosticating the fweetneis of his Go- 
vernment : from whence I infer, that the Ancients Would 
ihew by this Emblem, how neceíTary 'twas to mingle, Pro- 
fit with Pleafuie, the art of making Honey, with that of 
agricultura. For a Motto to which, I thought the begin- 
ning of that Verle of Horace would not be amifs. 


300 Seafonalle Lenity ► Vol. 

Omne tulit punttum> qui mifcuit utile aula. Hor. 
Who mixes gain with Sport gains er' y point. 

In this confifts the main art of Government ; this wai' 
the firft piece of Policy in the world ; this the ancient Phi- \ 
lofophy taught us, feigning that Orpbem made Beads fol.j 
low him, and that the very Stones danc'd to Ampbiorii 
Harp, with which he built the Walls of the City of Thebet t 
to fignifie that the mild inftru&ion ofthofe great perfora, 
were íufficient to reduce men, notlefs favage than Brutes,, 
and more infenfible than Stones, to the Harmony of the 
Laws, and civil Society \. 

Theíé Arts all States have ufed to inftruct the people^ 
mingling Inftruction with Sport and publick Games. All 
Greece flock'd to Mount Olympus, to be prefent at the Olynu. 
pian, Pythian, Nemaan and lfibmian Games ; fome out of 
curiofity to fee them, others to obtain the propos'd Rewards,- 
and upon this occafion they exercis'd their Strength, facri- 
ficd to the Gods, and treated of the moil important affairs 
of the Government of thofe Provinces. Comedies and Tra- '. 
gedies were alio invented to purge the Affections. The ; 
Gladiators ot the Romans, and the Bull-fights of the Spani-\ 
ara*$, (who alfo are diverted with terrible and defperate En- 
terprizesj were to confirm the Mind that it might not be 
daunted at the fight neither of Blood nor Death. Wreft- 
ling, Tilting, Horfe-races *, and other fuch Sports, are lb 
many Schools in which Arts military are learn'd, and the 
Mind at the fame time recreated and diverted. The peo- 
ple muft be drawn by Hattcrv and Mildnefs, to the Conve- 
niences and Defigtis of the Prince •, they are like a Horfe 
which being gently ftroak'd into Temper takes the Bitt, and 
afterwards fufjmits to Burthens and the Laih. They can't 
1 1 — i — M 

iSilvefiref htmjnes facer interprefque Deorum, 

Ctdibut & f&do vitltt deterrttit Orpheus, 

Dictas ab he Uniré Tigres, &e. 
* Juego de las Carinas. 


7b!. I. in a Prime commendable. 301 

iear too much Rigour, or too much Gentlenefs. Excels 
>f Liberty is as dangerous to them as Exceis of Slavery (ij. 
'rinces who have wanted this conííderation have felt the 
•age of the incenfed Multitude. Inveterate diftempersare 
lot always to be cured by the Knife and Fire. They re- 
mire foothing Medicines, and when there is need of bitter 
Pills, they fhould be well gilt, to deceive the Sight and 
raft. Tis not neceíTary that the people fhould know the 
ingredients of the Prince's Refolutions and Counfels, 'tis 
ufficient that they fwallow them upon any Pretext. 
> The Dangers and Hardihips of War are fweeten'd by the 
Tlildnefs of the Prince. Thus Germánicas to keep the Ger- 
Han Legions in obedience, and more ready for Battle, us'd 
ovifit the wounded Soldiers, and taking notice of their 
Wounds, commend their Actions, gaining fome by hope, 
)thers by good words, and fo made them eager to fight (1). 

This goodnefs alone is not effectual, there is need alfoof 
(bme eminent Vertuein the Commander, that if he be be- 
loved for that he may be refpecled for this. Many times a 
Prince is beloved for his extraordinary goodnefs, and de- 
tpifed for his Inefficiency. Reipect proceeds not from 
Love, buc Admiration. He obliges all, who having cou- 
rage to make himfelf fear'd, makes himfelf beloved ; who 
knowing how to execute Juftice, knows alfo to be mercW 
full. Goodnefs is often interpreted Softnefs and Ignorance, 
in him who has no other Vermes to recommend him. 
¡Thefe are of fuch force in a Prince, that they foften his Se- 
verity and Rigour, being recorapenc'd by them. Even 
great Vices are excus'd, or at leaft conniv'd at in him who 
is Matter alfo of great Vertues. 

In Negotiations 'tis very convenient to mingle Sweetneft 
with Gravity, and Jefts with Truth, provided it be apro- 
pos, without Offence to good Manners, nor the Gravity of the 
Subject, in which the Emperor Tiberius was well skill'd(3 J. 

( 1 ) Imperatttrus es hominibus, qui nee tot am fervitutem pati poffunt % 
nee tot am libertatem. Tac. J. hift. (2) Circumire fauctof, fail afingulo- 
\rum extollere, vulnera intuens y alium fpe, alium gloria, ctmtfos alloauio & 
eura, fibique & pr&lto firmabat. Tac. 1. ann ; . (3) Tikrita tamen /«- 
dibriajeriis permijeere folitus. Tac 6. ana- 


3 oí Se 'afonahk Lenity, &c. Vol.] 

There's none can endure a melancholy roughneís, a look al 
ways fet to bufinefs, agrave Speech and a formal Behaviol, 
'Tis Prudence fometimes to mix a little folly in CounfeIs(4J f 
when 'tis well apply'd 'tis Wifdom (5). A happy thought 
and a word in feafon gains peoples Minds, and moft difficult 
Affairs to the end propoled, and fometimes difcovers the In. 
tention, deceives Malice, diverts Offence, and prevents 1 
pofitive Aflfwer where 'tis not convenient. 

We ought alfo in Negotiations to mingle the advantage 
of thofe whom we would perfwade, ihewing them that 'tis 
their intereft as well as ours ; for all are mov'd by felf-in- 
tereft, few by Obligation and Glory. Sejanus, to incite Drw- 
fus to the Murther of his Erother Nero, fet before him the 
hopes of the Empire. The skill of a prudent Minifter 
confifts in facilitating affairs with others interefts, difpofing 
the Treaty fo, that theirs and his own Prince's may feem to 
be the fame. To delire to negotiate affairs by íeíf-intereft 
only, is to bring water in broken pipes ; where one receives 
it from another, all receive Affiftance and Advantage. 

(4) Mijce ftultitiam confilits irevem» (5) Eccl. 10. r. 




LL things as well animate as inanimate are Leaves 
of this great Book of the World, the Work of 
Nature, wherein divine Wifdom has written all 
Sciences, to teach and inftruct us how to act. There is no 
moral Vertue, which is not found in Animals. Practick 
Prudence is born in them ; in us 'tis not acquired but by 
Inftruction and Experience. We may learn from them 
without Confufion and Shame of our Ignorance, for he who 
informs them, the fame is Author of all things. But to put 
on their Nature, or defire to imitate them in acting like them 
irrationally, hurried by the Appetite of our Affections and 
Paííions, would be giving an affront to Reafon, the proper 
Gift of Man, by which he is diftinguiihed from other Ani- 
mals, and merits the command over them. They fcr want 
of Reafon are without Juftice, each aiming at nothing but 
its own Prefervation, without refpecting Injuries done to o- 


304 ? lain- dealing another mofl Vol.1 

thers. Man juftifieshis Anions, and meafures them by E< 
quity\ doing nothing to others, which he would not ha 
done unto himfelf. Whence may be inferred how impu 
and inhuman is the defign of Machiavel, who forms 
Prince upon another Suppofition, of the Nature of the Li 
on and the Fox, that what he can't attain by reafon he maj 
by force and fraud, in which he was inftrufted by Lyfanda 
General of the Laced&monians> who advis'd a Prince, tha, 
where the Lion's skin fail'd, he ihould put on that of th< 
Fox, making ufe of hi» Tricks and Artifices. This Do&rin< 
is of long (landing. Volybius reprehends it in his own atK 
the foregoing Ages (1). In this King Saul may Le a Lei: 
fon to all (2). This Maxim has encreas'd in time, then 
being no lnjuftice nor Indecency, but appears honourable t< 
Policy, provided it be in order to Dominion (3), thinking 
that Prince lives precarioufly, who is tied up to Law ara 
Juftice (4 1 Whence they regard not Breach of Trea-i 
ties, Faith, or Religion it felf, when for the Prelérvatiot 
or Augmentation of Empire. Upon thelé falfe foundation;. 
Duke Valentine endeavour d to raife his Fortune, but befon 
he had finiuYd it, it fell with that violence upon him, thai 
the very Fragments and Ruins of it were loft. How car 
that laft which is founded upon Deceit and Lyes ? How 
can that fubfift which is violent ? What force can there tx: 
in Contraéis, if the Prince, who ihould be their lccurity, i: 
himfclf thefirft that breaks them? Who will put any confi. 
dence in him ? How can his Empire ftand, who trufts mo« 
tó his own Artifices than to divine Providence. Nor for al 
this, would I have a Prince fo mild, as never to ufe forcé; 
nor fo candid and fincere, as not to know how to diffemble. 
nor provide againft Deceit, for fo he would live expofed tc, 
Malice, and be play'd upon by all. My defign in this En* 

(1 ) Quo Líonis pellis attingere non potejl, principi njfumendam VulfA- 
nam. Plut. (2) Fuit, cut in tr aft ¿indis negoiiis dolus mains placeret, 
quern Regi cojivenire fane nemo dixerit, et/ition defunt, qui id tarn crtbn 
ufu hodie dolt' mali, necejfarium earn ejfe dicant ad public am rerum adrau 
niflrationem. Polyb. 13. hift. (3,) Nihil glortofum nijt tutum, & omnia 
ret'imndx dominatisnis honefla. Sal. _ (4) Ubicunque t ant am konejia fc 
minanti lictf , prxcario regnatur. Sen. in Trag. Tnyeft; 


7o\. I. requijite Qualification. 305 

)lem is> that he íhould be indued with Valour, but not 
Vith that brutiih and irrational Courage of Beafls, but that 
Which is attended by Juftice, fignifíed by the Lyon's Skin, 
the Emblem of Valour, and therefore dedicated to Hercules. 
Sometimes 'tis neceiTary for a Prince to cover his Face with 
\ Frown, and to oppofe Fraud. He íhould not always ap- 
pear mild. There are occaiions when he muft put on the 
Lion's Skin, that his Subjects and Enemies may fee his 
Claws ; and that he may be thought ib fevere, that Fraud 
may not have the boldneis"to attack him with Flattery, 
which way it ufes to tame the minds of Princes. This, it 
¡feems the ts£gyptians would intimate, by putting a Lion's 
Skin upon their Prince's head. There is no Refpect nor 
Reverence, where there is no fear. The People perceiving 
¡their Prince can't be angry, and that nothing can alter his 
mild Temper, always defpiíé him; but this Severity need 
not immediately come to Execution. 'Tis not neceflary for 
a Prince tobe really angry, but only to appear fo. The 
Lion without difcompofing himfelf, or thinking of hurting 
any other Animals, with his very Looks infufes dread into 
all; fuch is the Majeftick force of his Eyesff). But becaufe 
'tis convenient fometimes to gild force with craft, and in- 
dignation with mildnefs, to diflemble a little, and accom-: 
|modate himfelf to the times and perfons: therefore in the 
prefent Devife, the Lion s s head is not crown'd with, the' 
little tricks of the Fox, which are mean and bale, and be- 
low the Generoiity and Magnanimity of a Prince, but with' 
Sef pents, the Emblem of carefull and prudent Majefty, and 
in the facréd Writs the Hieroglyfick of Prudence, for their 
cunning in defending their heads, in flopping their Earsa- 
gainft all Inchantments, and in other things only tending 
to their ownprefervation, not the prejudice of others. For. 
the fame reafoh, and the like accidents, I have made ufe oí 
thefewcrds asa Mótto to the prefent Devife, that be may 
know bow to ragn, taken from the Motto of Lewis the Ele- 
venth King of France ■, who knows not how to dijfemble , knows 1 

(s.) A Lion which is the ftrongeit among Beafts, and turneth ncé 
away for any. Prév. 3er 30. 

jc6 Plain- dealing another tnqfl Vol. I 

not how to reign. In which the whole art of Government is 
briefly comprehended ; but there is need of great Prudenc 
and Circumfpection, leaft this Power ihould turn to Ty 
ranny, and this Policy to Fraud : Thefe Mediums near! 
bordering upon Vices. Jupas Lipfius defining Fraud i 
matters of Policy, fays, 'tU firewd Connfet, deviating from 
Vertue and the Laws, for the good of the King and Kingdom . 
by which avoiding the Extremes of A4acbiavel t and finding al-, 
fo, that 'tis imponible for a Prince to govern without fomc 
Fraud and cunning, he advifes a little, tolerates Mediocrity, 
but forbids Extremes ; bounds very dangerous to a Prince. 
For who can exactly defcribe them ? there ought not to be 
fuch Rocks Co near politick Navigation. The malice of! 
Power, and ambition of Rule, a& fufficiently in many ; if 
Fraud be vicious, 'tis vicious in its leaft parts, and there-, 
fore unworthy of a Prince. The worth and dignity of the 
Royal purple, difdains the leaft ¿fpot. The minuteft Atom 
is vifible, and blemiihes the Rays of thefe terreftrial Suns. 
And how can it be fuffer'd that his actions ihould deviate 
from Vertue and the Laws, who is the very Soul thereof? 
There is no Fraud without a mixture of malice and fal-i 
fhood, both oppofite to Royal Magnanimity ; though Fla- 
to fays , That Faljbood is fuperfluout in the Gods, they having 
no need on' t, but not in Princes who have great occafion for it, 
and tftat therefore it may be allow' d them fometimes. That 
which is unlawfull ought not to be allow'd, nor ought we 
to make ufe of means in their own nature wicked, to obtain 
juft and honourable ends. Diifimulation and Cunning are 
then only lawfull, when they don't drive to Knavery, and 
prejudice the Authority and Reputation of the Prince; in 
which cafe I don't efteem them as Vices but Prudence, or 
the Daughters thereof, being both advantageous and necef- 
fary to a Commander : which would be, if Prudence refpe- 
cling its own prefervation, would make ufe of Fraud accor- 
ding to the different circumftances of time, place, and per- 
fons, fo as the Heart and Tongue, the Mind and Words 
may ever agree. That Diifimulation ought to be avoided, 
which with fraudulent intentions belyes the things defign- 
ed. That which would make another underftand that 


ol. 1. requtfite Qualification. 307 

hich is not, not that which would make him not under- 
ind that which is. For this end one may fometimes ufe 
different and equivocating words, not with a defign to 
eat, but to fecure ones felf, and prevent being cheated* 
:d for other lawfull ends. Thus we fee the Máfter of 
Irth himfelf pretended to his Diícíples, who were going to 
e City Emmaus, that he was going Carther (6 ). The 
unterfeit folly of David before King Acbts (7) \ the pre- 
nded Sacrifice of Samuel (%) ; the Kids skins fitted to J a- 
ft hands (9), were all lawfull Diffimulations, the in» 
it not being to cheat, but only to hide another defign, 
r are they the lefs allowable, becaufe one forefees that ano- 
er will thereby be deceiv'd, for that knowledge proceeds 
tfrom malice, but a kind of caution^ 
And thefe arts and practices are then chiefly to be made 
: of, when we treat with defigning and crafty Princes 5* 
• in fuch cafe, Diftruft, Cunning, Hypocrifie, .ambigú- 
s Replies, prudent Equivocation, leaft a Prince mould be 
"hared, and give occafion for others Plots and Machinati- 
s,defending himfelf with thefe arts,and not offendingor vi- 
iting his publick Faith, what is this but being upon his; 
lard ? That Ingenuity is fooliílí, which frankly difcovers 
fecret Sentiments ; and the State would -be in danger 
thout fome caution. 'Tis a dangerous fincerity to fpeak; 
ith always, iince fecrecy is the chief inftrument of Go= 
rnment. Whatever Prince intrufts a fecret to another, 
the fame time intrufts his Sceptre too; It does not he- 
me a Prince to lye, but it does to be filent, or to conéeaí 
ith; not to truft or confide in any one rairily, but 
be wary and circumfpect, that he mayn't be cheated; 
lis caution is extremely necefiary for a Prince, without 
úch he would be expos'd to many and great dangers. He 

[6) And he rinde as though hs would have gone farther. Luke 24 18. 
1 And he changed his behaviour before them, and feign'd himfelf 
din their hands, and fcrabbled on the doors of the gate, and let his 
ttlefall down upon his Beard, 1 Sam. 21. 13. (8^ And the Lord 
1, take a Heifer with thee and fay, I am come to facrifice to the 
rd, 1 Sain 16. 2. (9) And he put the skins oftheKidsof the Goats 
on'hib hinds, and' upon Ú& fmboihofhisneck. Gin', 2.7. iS. 

X x wlro 


308 V lain- dealing another ntoft Vol. , 

who knows and fees moft, believes and trufts lead, becau, 
either Speculation, or Practice and Experience renders fljj 
cautious. Let a Prince's mind therefore be iincere 
pure i yet skill'd in the arts and practices of others, 
rience will (hew in what cafes it becomes a Prince to 
thefe arts, that is, when he ihall obferve that the Mí 
and Stratagems of thofe with whom he deals require 

In all other actions a Prince ought to difcover a Rojj 
Candor,, fometimes even to thofe who would deceive hit! 
for if they interpret it favourably, their defigns are brok 
and begin to flag: befides no Fraud is íb generous ', 
Truth, of which, if they can befure, they make him h 
iter of the moft private fecrets of their Souls, without an, 
ing themfelves with the like practices for the future. Wl, 
Nets are not fpread, and what Stratagems contrived for t, 
Gunning and Subtilty of the Fox? who ever fetfnareslj 
the tame innocence of the Swallow ? 

Thofe Princes whom the world admires for their Pi, 
dence and Conduit can't make ufe of this art ; for nc, 
will believe that their adtions are guided by chance or fiiv 
ricy -, the demonft rations of their truth are taken for col 
tcrfeit : In them Caution is accounted Malice ; Pruden | 
Diffimulation ; and Circumfpe&ion, Deceit. Some chai 
his Catholick Majefty with thefe Vices, becaufe that by i 
natural Vivacity of his Judgment, and his continual ex¡ 
rience in War and Peace, he was well acquainted with ij 
treacherous dealing, unfmcerity of the times, defend' 
himfclf with fo great Prudence,that his Enemies wereeitl, 
taken in their own Snares, or wholly broken by Counfel i, 
Time. For this reafon fome Princes feign Sincerity and \ 
defty, the better to palliate their intentions, or that Mai 
may not fo eaiily trace them. So Domitianáiá fioj. 
JPrioce who would be thought wife in all things, is for t\ 
reafon not fo. To know how to be ignorant feafonabl]' 
the greateft Prudence : there's nothing more advantageo' 
nothing more difficult than to be wife with Moderado' 

(10) Simul fimpltcitatis, ae modeftit imagine conditus, fiudiumquel 
r»'um t & amortm tarmimm Jimulam, <$U9 velaret animara. Tac. 4. 1 


oí. I. requifite Qualification . 309 

lis Tacitus commends in Jgricola(n). All confpire a- 
iinft the moft knowing, either through Envy, or to de- 
tnd their own ignorance ; or perhaps, becaufe they fufpect 
lat which they cannot comprehend. Saul feeing that Da- 
id was too wife, he began to be cautious of him (12 J. 
Other Princes appear diverted in their actions, that they 
lay be thought to ait carnally and without defign. But 
ich is the Malice of Policy now a days, that it not only 
;netrates thofe arts, but cavils too at the moft plain fince- 
!ty, to the great prejudice of Truth and Publick Tranqui- 
ty. There being nothing that is interpreted rightly \ and 
'ruth confining in one point, and thofe in the circumference, 
•om whence Malice may take aim, being infinite, they fall 
ito great errors, who will wreft from anothers words and 
itions a different fenfe from what they 3ppsar ; and inter- 
reting others Defigns in the worft fenfe, caufe both parties 
) arm therafelves, and fo to live in continual Diftruft and 
ealoufie of each other. He who is moft ingenious in thefe 
ufpicions is fartheft from Truth • for by the acutenefs of 
is wit he penetrates farther than what is generally com- 
irehended ; and we are often pofitiveof that in others which 
! only a deceit of our own imagination. -So to a Sailor the 
Locks feem to run, when 'tis Only the Ship tfeat is in moti- 
n. The (hadows of Policy are ufually g&ater than the 
Sody it felf, and fome times this is negle&ed, and this made 
lie of, fo that there often ari fes greater Damage from the 
irevention, than could arrive from the thing fear'd. How 
>ft has a Prince, through a groundlefs Jealoufie, declared 
i/Var againft him who never thought of offending him ? and 
>oth taking arms, that which was at firft but a flight and ill- 
Jrounded preemption, ends in a bloody War : 'tis the 
ame with fuch, as with ill built Ships, which the more 
hey rally from fide to fide, are the fooner loft. I don't 
)lame Diffidence, when 'tis the Daughter of Prudence, as 
>ve faid elfewhere ; but a total defecl of good faith, with- 
in) Ifetinuitque quod difficillimum eft, exfapientia modum. Tac in* 
Mt. Agr. ( '*) Wherefore when Saul faw. that he behaved himf;lf 
;ery wifely, he was afraid of him, t.Sam. 1 8. 15. 

X ; out 

3 1 o Princes are to he care full how they Vol 
put which, neither Friendihip, Society nor Covenants 
be lafting. The Law of Nations would be invalid, and a 
things would be expos'd to Fraud and Deceit. All thin| 
are not a&ed with an ill intention. The greateft Tyrw 
fometimes propofes juft and honourable ends. 



UNcertain and dubious is the motion of the Serper 
winding it felf firft one way then another, wit 
fuch uncertainty, that its very body knows n< 
where it will erect its head. You'd think it made this wa; 
and immediately it moves contrary, without leaving an 
trait of its paflage, nor can the intention of its motion t 
difcover'd (ij. So occult ihould be the Counfels and D 
lignsof Princes. None ought to know whither they tend 
they ihould imitate God the great Governour of all thing 

(i).Btttcanft not tell whence it cometb,and whither irgoeth. >&.}.! 


¡Vol. I. communicate their Defigns to others. 311 

¡whole ways are paft finding out (2): for which reafon the 
eraphim cover'd his feet with his wings (%), Princes 
light lb carefully to conceal their deh'gns, that their Mi- 
ifters thernfelves fhould not penetrate them ; nay, thac they 
fhould be the firft that ihould believe otherwife and be deceiv'd, 
thereby the more naturally and effectually, without the 
danger of Diffimulation, which is eafily difcover'd to con- 
firm and fecure their real intentions, inftilling the fame error 
into others, that fo it may pafs current, and be believed on 
all fides. Thus Tiberius did, when fome murmur'd thac 
he did not go to pacifie the mutinous Legions in Hungary 
and Germany, he pretended he would go with all fpeed, by 
which deceiving the prudent, hedeceiv'd alfo the People 
and Provinces (4'. The fame alfo did King Thilip the Se- 
cond, who conceal'd his defigns from his own Ambaifadors, 
pretending others, when 'twas convenient for them to be- 
lieve them, and perfwade others to do Co. A Prince can by 
no means ufe thefe arts, if his ingenuity be not fo cautious 
and circumfped, as not to difcover the real motions of his 
mind by his manner of Government, and let his Rivals and 
Enemies penetrate his heart and thoughts ; that he may flip 
out of their hands, when they think they have him fecure, 
This method by which another is deceived is rather a fort 
of felf defence than malice, where it is ufed according to 
reafon, as the greateft Heroes have always done. What 
neceffity is there of difcovering the heart, which nature has 
on purpofe hidden within the breaft ? even in the moftlflight 
and frivolous affairs, 'lis pernicious to divulge them, becaufe 
it gives occafion by way of difcourfe to difcover farther. 
Yet though the heart be hid within the breaft, its ails 
and diftempers are difcover'd by the Arteries. Execution 
lofes its force, not without loís of the reputation of a Prince's 
prudence, if he divulges his defigns to the people. Secret 
and unknown defigns threaten all, and diftrait and puzzle 
an Enemy. Secrecy in War is more nec¿fláry than in other 

(2) And who is able ro difcover his way* ? Eccl. t6\ 19. (3) And 
wirh twain he covered his feer, lfai. 6. 2. (4) Primo prudentes, dei'n 
vulgum, diuttjfimi Provincial fefellit. Tac. 1. ann. 

X 4 Affairs. 

3ii Princes are to be care full how they Vol. I 

Affairs. Few Enterprifes unfeaionably detected fucceed well 
How is he furpriz'd who receives the Wound before he fees 
the Weapon; he who will not ftir till he hears theclaihing 
of Arms ! 

This I would have underftoad of Wars againft Infidels, 
not of thofe between Chriftians, which ought to be pro- 
claimed, that there may be time for fatisfa&ion, by which 
theeffufion of Blood may be avoided, this being required to 
render a War lawfull and juft.In this the Romans were to be 
commended ,who inftituted aCollege of twenty Priefts whom 
they call'd Heralds, whofe bufinefs it was to proclaim War, 
to make Peace, and to eftabliih Alliances : Thefe were alio 
Judges in fuch cafes, and took care that the party injur'd 
fhould receive fatisfa&ion, appointing a term of thirty-three 
days for an amicable compofition ; in which rime, if the 
difputes were not ended, they declar'd War by throwing a 
Spear into the Enemies Country ($), from which day com* 
menc'd aits of Hoftility and Incurfions. Of thefe declarati- 
ons there are divers examples in the Scriptures. Jephtba be- 
ing chofen Prince of the Israelites, did not take up Arms a- 
gainft the Ammonites, before, by Ambaifadors, he had en- 
quire into the reafon which mov'd them to the War. (6). 
The method of our times is not fo humane and generous. 
We experience the effects of War before we know the caufe 
thereof An unexpected and fudden lnvafícn makes the In- 
jury the greater, and renders the minds of the parties impla- 
cable, this generally fprings hence, that they take up arms 
not to íatisfíe Injuries, or atone for Damages received, but 
only from a blind Ambition to enlarge their Dominions; in 
which, without refpecl: to Religion, Confanguinity or 
Friendihip, they trample upon the moft facred Laws of Na- 
ture and Nations. 

if a Prince fufpeds any of Infidelity, let him not immedi- 
ately change the ferenity of his Looks,or fliew any fign of hii 
fufpkion, but rather by new Flattery and Honours endea- 

(?) Ei baculum mt or cfuens emit tit in auras, Principium pugna. Virg. 
(6) And Jepbtha tent Mefltngers unto the King of the Children ofv**« 
won, faying, What haft thou to do with me, that thou art come a- 
gainil me to fight in my Land ? Judg. n. 12. 


/oí. I. communicate their Defigns to others. 313 
FfiUr to confirm their Minds and oblige them to Fidelity. 
Vigour is not always the beft and fafeft remedy. Branches 
optoffdie, and revive not again. Thus MarceUusconnw'd 
it Lucius Bancus of Nola t a very rich, and withal very fafti- 
jusperfbn, and though he well knew heiided with Hannibal, 
tie call'd him to him, told him, how his Vertueand Valour 
were efteem'd by all, particularly by the Roman Generals, 
who were Witneifes of his Bravery at the Battle of Cannt : 
[he honour'd him with words, fupported with hopes and 
promifes; gave him at all times free accefsto his prefence,and 
;:by this courteous ufage fo oblig'd him, that from that time 
Khe Roman State had not a more faithfull Friend than he. 
¡This Diffimulation requires great care and prudence, for if 
5the Offender ihould miftruft it, he would interpret it a de- 
fign to bring him to Punifliment, and fo would fooner fire 
his Mines, or endeavour to preferve himfelf by other vio- 
lenc means. Which is chiefly to be fear'd in Tumults and 
'Crimes of the Multitude. Thus Fah'ms. Vakns, though he 
1 would not puniih the Authors of a certain Commotion, yet 
¡did he permit fome of them to be tried (7). But fince 'tis 
I very difficult to purge the mind of Trealbn once conceiv'd, 
j and fince fuch crimes ought not to go unpuniihed, 'tis then 
I only fit to connive, when greater danger attends the decla- 
ration, or the number of Offenders makes the punifliment 
impracticable. This Julius Cafar confider'd , when he 
commanded fome Letters from Pompey to the Roman Nobi- 
lity againft him, which he had intercepted, to be burnt un- 
open'd, thinking 'twas the mildeft method of pardoning, not 
to know the crime. A piece of true Generoiity and Angu- 
lar Prudence, fince 'twas impoffible to puniih all, not to 
oblige himfelf to the inconveniencies of connivance. Thofe 
of mean condition may be made examples, and the great ones 
conniv'd at, till a more convenient opportunity. But where 
the Delinquents may be puniihed without danger, 'tis íáfer, 
by punifhing them, to confult felf-fecurity, than to truft to 
Diffimulation ; for this often emboldens great Spirits. Han- 
nibal plotted to poiibn the Carthaginian Senate, and upon 

(7)NediJpmulan:fufpe£liorfQref. Tac 2. hift. 


3 14 Princes are to be care full how they Vol. 

the difcovery of the Treafon, the Senators thought it fu 
dent to make a Law to regulate the Excels and Expences 
Feafts, which gave Hannibal occafion to plot afreih agaii 

That Art and Cunning tnoft becomes a Prince, and that 
Diffimulation is raoft allowable and neceflary, which fo com- 
poles and forms the Looks, Words and Actions towards 
iúm whom it would deceive, as that he mayn't miftruft 
that his defigns are difcover'd : for by that means there will 
be time to fearch farther into them, and either to punifli or 
elude them, while the party is not fo follicitous in the con- 
cealment of them ; but if he once find hirafelf betray'd, he 
begins to tremble, and thinks himfelf not fecure, till he has 
pot his defigns in execution. This oblig'd Agrippina to pre- 
tend not to underftand the Murther which her Son Nero 
defign'd her (8 J. This Diffimulation or feign'd Simplicity 
is very neceflary for Minifters who lerve cunning and de- 
fignrng Princes, who make it their care to conceal their in- 
tentions; in this Tiberius was a great Matter (9). The 
lame artifice the Roman Senate us'd, when the fame Tiberius, 
after the death of Auguftus, let them know, to try their 
thoughts, that he would not accept of the Empire, it being 
a burthen too heavy for him ; they by a ftudied ignorance 
and forced tears begg'd he would pleafe to accept it, all be- 
ing afraid to feem to»underftand his meaning (10). Unjuft 
Princes hate thofe who they think underftand their ill pra- 
ctices, and take them for Enemies. They claim an abfo- 
lote Authority over mens minds, notfubjeét to anothers un- 
derstanding, they will have their Subjects Intellects at as 
much command as their Bodies, efteeming it part of their 
duty and refpeft not to underftand their defigns (1 1). Where- 
fore 'tis difallowable and dangerous to pry into the privacies 
and fecret thoughts of Princes ( 1 2). Tiberius complaining 

(8) Solum injidiarum remedium ejftfinon intelligerentur. Tac. 14.3011* 
(9) CoNfuIto ambiguas. Tac. 1 3-ann. (10) Quibu* uftu metus fi inielii- 
gert wderentur''TiC. r.ann. (n) Itttelligebantur artes : fed pars obfequit 
¿neone deprehendcrentur. Tac. 4. hift. (12) Abditos Principisfenfus, Ú* 
fi mud occult i us par at exánime illicit urn, anceps, me ideo ajf¿$uare. Tac. 
6. ana. 


Vol. I. communicate their Defigns to others, 315 

that he was in danger from (bine of the Roman Senators, A- 
finim Gallus defir'd to know who they were, that they might 
be brought to Juftice, which Tiberius took very ill, that he 
íhould defireto know what he had a mind to conceal (i;). 
Germanicus acted more prudently, who though he well un- 
derftood Tiberius 's meaning, and that he was recall'd from 
Germany ', only to flop the progrefs of his Glory, readily 0- 
beyd without feeming to underftand (14). Since Princes 
commands can't be declin'd/tis prudence to obey them chear- 
fully, pretending ignorance of the motives, to avoid danger, 
íhus Archelaus, though he knew he was caíí'd to Rome by 
Tiberius* Mother through Craft and Treachery, yet he dif- 
fembled it, and fearing violence if he íhould be thought to 
jinderftand it, made what haft he could thither (1$). And 
this Diffimulation is yet more neceflary in the Errors and 
Vices of Princes, for "they efteem them as enemies, who 
are acquainted therewith. In the Banquet at which Germa- 
nicus was poifon'd, fome ran for't, but the more prudent 
fat ftill looking upon Nero, that they might not be thought 
to miftrufl the Murther, but rather to believe that it was 
natural (16). 

(1 3) Eo sgrius accepit rechdi qua premeret. Tac 4. ann. (14) Hand 
cunBatus eft ultra Germanicus ; quanquam fingí ea jeque per invidiam 
parto jam decori abftrahi intelligeret. Tac. 2. ann. (15) Si intelligere 
videretur, vimmetuens, in urkm proper at. Tac. 2. ann. (16) Trepida*- 
turn a circumjedentibus, diffugiunt imprudentes, at quibut alt tor intel/e- 
ftus, refiftmt defixi, & Ñeronem intuentes. Tac. 13. ann. 





TH E Lion, the body of this devife, was among the 
<s£gyptians the Emblem of Vigilance, and us'd to 
be fet in the Frontifpieces and Porches of their 
Temples. Hence Alexander the Great was engraven upon 
his Coin with a Lion's skin upon his head, to intimate that 
he was notlefs carefulland vigilant than valiant ; for if at an 
time affairs requir'd that he fliould not fpend much time in 
fleep, he was us'd to lie with his arm out of bed, holding 
Silver ball in his hand, that if he fliould fallafleep, thatfal 
ling into a brafs Bafon fet underneath for that purpofe, migh 
waken him. He had never conquer'd the world, had 
been fleepy and lazy, he ought not to ihore away his time 
who has the Government of People committed to him 

f Wow deeet ignavum tot& producer e fomnum 
Noble virum, jub conftlio, fub nomine cujus 
Tttpopuli degunt, cut rerum cura, fide fjue 
Credit* fummarum eft. 


Vol. I. Vigilance and DiJJimnlation as wellasfoc. 317 

Thus the Lion knowing riimfelf to be King of Beafts, fleeps 
but little, or if he does, 'tis with his Eyes open: he does 
not confide ib much in his Empire, nor relie fo much on 
his Majefty, as not to think it neceifary to feem to be awake 
even while he fleeps. The Senfes do indeed require reft 
fometimes, but even then 'tis necefláry Princes ihould be 
thought to be awake. A fleeping King differs not from ano- 
ther man : This Paflion he ought to conceal from Friends 
as well as Enemies; he may fleep, provided others think 
him waking. Let him not depend fo much upon his Au- 
thority and Power, as to (hut his Eyes to Care and Cir- 
.cumfpection. 'Tis a cunning Diffimulation in the Lion to 
fleep with his Eyes open, not with a delign to deceive, but 
only to hide his fleepinefs. And it any one defigning againft 
him be deceiv'd, finding him awake whom he thought he 
had feen fleeping, 'tis his own fault not the Lion's. Nor is 
this pretence below the greatnefsof his Mind, no more than 
that other piece of cunning, of fmoothing over the Tract 
of his feet with his Tail to deceive the Huntfmen. There is 
noFortreis fecure unlefs guarded by Vigilance.The greater the 
Prince is, the greater care he oughttobe crown'd with,not 
with the Sincerity of innocent Doves, but the prudence 
of fubtle Serpents. For as when the Lion enters the Field, 
the other Beafts lay afide their natural Enmity, and give o- 
ver fighting, and with joint force combine againft him, fo 
among men all arm and unite againft the ftrongeft. No- 
thing is more pernicious to the Kingdom of England, than 
the greatnefs of the Dutch, for they take from them the 
Dominion of the Seas ; nothing more prejudicial to France^ 
than the Grandure of thoíé fame Rebels, who once breaking 
down the Dikes oppos'd by Spain, would, like an Inunda- 
tion foon o'erwhelm the Kingdom of France, as King Hen- 
ry the Fourth wifely obferv'd : and yet what weigh'd more 
with both thefe cwo Qowns than their danger, their hatred, 
1 mean, and fear of the Spanifi Monarchy, rais'd that peo- 
ple to that Grandure and Power, which upon alteration 
of affairs they may fear againft themfelves. We are more 
follicitcus and carefull to avert prefent dangers than future 
ones, though thefe are often greater. Fear obftrufts the 


3 1 8 Vigilance and Dijfimulation as well Vol. 

Senfes, nor permits the Mind to furvey things at a diftanc 
A groundleis Fear is often of more force than the greateft 
rcafon of State. The power of Spain in Italy is a preferva 
tive againft the diftempers of the Genoefe liberty; the fam 
alio preferves the Dukedom of Tufcany, augments the Spiri 
tual Empire of the Church, maintains the Authority o: 
the Houfe of Mjiria i and fecures the Venetians from the 
Tyranny of the Turks; yet I know not whether the Mini- 
fies of thefe Princes will acknowledge this, or aft confor- 
mable to this their Intereft. Such Jealouiies as are not gui- 
ded by reafon, work their own ruin. They who thought 
they mould be fafe in difarming the Emperour Ferdinand 
the Second, found afterwards that they had need of thofe 
arms which they had caus'd him to disband. Many Pro- 
vinces, which for Reafons of State fought the ruin of the 
Roman Empire loft their own liberty with its ruin. 

Let not a Prince put much confidence in exterior refpccl; 
and ceremony,for 'tis all feign'd,and far^from what it appears 
to be; Complaifance is Flattery; Adoration, Fear; Re- 
fpett, Force ; and Friendihip, Neceffity. The good opi- 
nion which a Prince conceives of others, they make ufe of 
to circumvent and betray him. All watch his motions, to 
make a prey of him; all firive to overcome him by Strata- 
gem whom they can't by force; few or none acT: fincerely 
with him; for he who is fear'd, feldom hears truth; and 
therefore he ought not to fleep in confidence of his own 
power. Let him oppofe Stratagem with Stratagem, and 
Power with Power. A generous mind clofely and cautioufly 
prevents, or couragioufly refifts dangers. 

But though in the prefent Emblem we allow of the arts of 
Diflimulation,nay and think them neceliary with the 
reftrictions, yet does it more become the Minifiers than the 
Princes them fel ves, for in them there is a certain occult 
Divinity which is offended at that care: Diflimulation is u- 
fually the Daughter of Fear and Ambition, neither of which 5 
ought to be difcover'd in a Prince. The conveniences of 
Diflimulation he ought to fupply by filence and referved- 
ftefs. A Prince is more belov'd for being prudent and wary, 
provided he ait with a Royal Sincerity. AÜ hate Artifice, 


Tol I. as Power [onetimes necejfary. 3 19 

nd on the contrary, a natural and open freedom is agreea- 
ble to all, as Tacitus remarks in Petroniuj(i). 

(1) Difia fattaque ejus quanta folutiora, & quandamfui negligent ¡am 
neferentia, tanto gr at i us inffeciem [implicit atis ateifietantur. Tac. 16. 




N Oar under Water appears crooked and broken, 
which is caus'd by the refraction of Species : íb in 
many things our opinion deceives us. For this 
eafon the Sceptick Philofophers doubted of all things, and 
iurft affirm nothing for certain. A wary piece of Modefty 
ind prudent Diftrudt of humane Judgment, and not with- 
out ground ; for to a certain knowledge of things, there are 
required two difpofitions, that which is to know, and that 
which is to be known ; the firft is the Undemanding, which 
afes the external and internal Seníes to form Imaginations ; 


3*0 Princes hot to aft inconfiderately> or Vol. 1 

the external are varioufly changed according to the abun 
dance or defect of humours. The internal are alfo fubjed 
to changes, either from the fame caufe, or from the difft 
rent AffecMons of the Organs. Whence proceed fuch dif 
ferent Opinions and Judgments, one judging differently o 
the fame things from another, and both with equal uncer 
tainty ; for things change their (hape and colour with their 
places, by being near or at a diftance, or becaufe none an 
purely ilrople, or becaufe of natural Mixtures and Specie! 
which interpofe between them and the Senfes ; fo that w 
can't affirm things are fo and fo, but that they feem fuch, 
forming an Opinion not certain Knowledge. Plato found \ 
yet greater incertainty in them, when he confider'd tha: 
there was nothing of fo pure and perfect nature as God 
an<j that in this life we could have no perfect knowledge o., 
anything, but faw only things preíént, and thofe too, Re, 
flections and Shadows of others, fo that 'twas impoflibk u 
reduce them to a Science. Not that I would have a Prind 
a Sceptick, for he who doubts all determines nothing ; noi 
is thereany thing more pernicious to Government, than He, 
fitation in relblving and executing. I only advife that h*j 
would not be too pofitive in his opinions, but believe that h 
may eafily be deceived in his Judgment, either througl 
Affection, or Paflion, or falfe Information, or Flattery am 
Infinuation, or becaufe he don't care to hear truth whict 
preícribes bounds to his Authority and Will, or becaufe o. 
the uncertainty of our own apprehenfion ; or laftly, becauij 
few things are really what they appear, efpecially in Policy, 
which is now a-days nothing but the art of cheating, orno 
being cheated ; wherefore they ought to be viewed in diffe 
rent lights, and a Prince ought carefully to confider an< 
weigh them not (lightly to pafs them over, lean he fliouli 
give credit to appearances and groundlefs Stories. 

Thefe Cheats and politick Tricks can't be well known, 
unlefs the nature of man be alfo known ; for the knowledge 
of him isabfolutcly neceflary for a Prince, that he mayknov 
how to govern and beware of him. For tho' Governmen 
bean invention of men, 'tis in no danger but from them 
for Man has no greater Enemy than Man. The Eagle hurt 


7o\. I. rely too much on their own Judgment. 32Í 

lot the Eagle, nor the Serpent the Serpent; but man is 
Continually plotting againft his own kind. The # t)ens of 
Jeafis are open and unguarded, but three of the four Ele- 
ments are not fufficient for the guard of Cities, viz. Earth 
aft up into Walls and Entrenchments, Water confin'd tó 
Pitches, and Fire enclosed in Artillery. That fome may 
(eep, the reft muft watch. What inftrumenrs are there 
lot invented againft Life, ds if it were not of it felf ihori: 
inough, and fubject to the infirmities of Nature ; and tho* 
[he Seeds of all Vertues and Vices are in man as their pro- 
per Subject ; 'tis with this difference, that thofe can't grow; 
nd increafe without the Dew of celeftial and fupernatural 
5race; but thefe do fpontaneouííy bud out and fíouriíh,whic|i 
s the effect and púniíliment of man's firft Sin ; and as we aU 
ays fuffer our feíves to be led by our inclinations and Paili- 
tas, which hurry us toill,andas there is not the fame danger 
In Vertue as in Vices, we therefore will lay before a Prince 
ftiortdefcriptionofdeprav'd human Nature* 
Man is then .the moil inconftant Animal in the Creation 5 
ernicious both to himfelf and others j Changes with his 
ge, Fortune, Intereftand Pailion; nor does the Sea vary 
r o oft as his condition. He is deluded by empty appearances^ 
|nd through felf-coneeit perfifts in his Errour. Revenge 
nd Cruelty h? efteems .praife* worthy and honourable* la 
ell vers'd in Hypocrifie, and can diííembíe his Palfions á 
;reat while. With Words, Laughter and Tears he con* 
eals his thoughts. Veils his' Defigns with Religion*- 
onfirms and maintains Lyes with Oaths, is a Slave to 
ope and Fear. Favours make him Ungrateful!. Domi- 
ion proud. Conftraint vile and abject. Lawfearfull. Be- 
lefits he infcribes on Wax ; Injuries receiv'd «on Marble 3 
índ thofe he offers on Brafs. He is fubject to Love, not out 
)f Charity, but an appearance of good. Á mere Slave to 
finger. In Adverfity proftrate and cringing. In Profperi- 
[y arrogant and proud. What he commends in himfelf^ 
fád affects, he wants ; calls himfelf a true Friend, bat knows 
tot what Friend fliip means. Slights his own and covets 0- 
mers goods. The more he has, the more he defifes. The 
J5ood Fortune and Proiperity of others kills him with En- 


5 12 Princes not to ail inconftderately, or V6 
v y. Under ihew of Friend íhip, he is the greateft Eneni] 
Loves the Rigour of Juftice in others, but hates it in him 

This is a defcription of humane nature in general, nc 

are all thefe Vices in one perfon, but difpers'd in fevera 

And though a Prince think that fome one is wholly fa 

from them, let him not therefore be lefs cautious of hi 

for there is no certainty in the Judgment which is made 

the condition and nature of men. Vice often puts on 

Mask of Vertue, the better to deceive, and thebeft of me 

may be deficient fometimes, either through human frailt; 

or the inconftancy of the times, or neceflky, or intereft, < 

appearance of publick or private good, or over-fight, c 

want of knowledge; whence it happens that the good are rtf 

lefs dangerous than the bad ; and in cafe of doubt, 'tis moi 

prudent for a Prince to avoid the danger, remembrio 

(not to offend, but to defend J that, as Ezekiel faid, Briai 

and Thorns are with him, and he dwells among Scorpions (i 

whofe Tails are always ready to ftrike (2). Such generar 

«re Courtiers, they all advance their own pretenfions by d 

luding the Piince, or by removing his beii and moil defeij 

ving Favourites, by means of his own power. How oftc 

have waves of Envy and Jealoufie been interpos'd betwee 

the Eyes of the Prince, and the Minifter's anions, makjr! 

thofe appear crooked and difloyal which are drawn by ti 

rule of Juiiice and his Service.Thus Vertue fuffers,the Prim' 

lofesagood Mmifter, and Malice triumphs in its Practice: 

which that he may practically know, and not fuffer Inn> 

cence to be wrong'd, I will here íét down the moil ufi 


There are fome Courtiers fo fubtle and cunning, th 
while they 4eem to excufe their Rival's faults, they tU 
raoft accufe them. So Auguflus reprehended the Vices ' 
Tiberius (;). 

(t) Ezek. a. 6. (1) Semper cauda in iclu ejl t nulloque momento mu 
tari cejfat, nc quando defit occaftoni. PJin. lib. I i.e. 2 5 (3) Quanqat\ 
honor» orationc, qtaedxm de habitu, cultuqus ¿P ¡njiiiutis ejus feceri 
qujc vdut (xcujando expréraret. Tac. I aim. 


pi. T. rely too much on their own judgment. 3*3 

Others there are, who to cover their Malice, and gain 
idit under pretence of GoodneCs, begin under the title of 
iendihip, with the praiies of him whom they would re- 
^ve, extolling fome little infignificant Service, and at 
; fame time by a feign'd zeal for the Princes intereft, 
lien they pretend to prefer before all Friendihip and Rela- 
m, gradually difcover his faults, which may procure his 
ifgrace or lofsof Place. But if their Ambition and Malice 
n't procure this,they at leaft eftabliih their own Reputation 
carping at their Friends faults, and gain themfelves Glory 
his infamy (^).Alphonfo the Wife King of Naples was well 
juainted with all thefe praflices; wherefore when he heard 
e full of the praiiés of his Enemy ; Obfervefoys he,?/;? Ar* 
¡ce of that man, and you will find that the drift of thefe 
nmendations is only to do him more mifchief. And fo it 
lout, when he had for fix Months endeavour'd togaiá 
:dit to his intentions, that he might afterwards the foon- 
bebeliev'd in what he lhould fay againit him. Mines are 
vays fprung at a diftance from- the Walls where they are 
do execution. Thofe Friends who praife you are worfe 
an Enemies who murmur at you (>). Others, that they 
ay cheat more fecurely, praife in publick, and in private 
andalize (6). 

Nor is their fubtilty lefs malicious, who fo adorn their 
ilumnieSjthat they look like praifes ; as Aleto did in Tajfo» 

Gran fabro di calumnie adorne in modi 
Novi, che ¡ono accuje e payen lodi. 

Thefe the Pfalmift meant, when he faid, They were 
rned aftde like a deceitful bow (7). 
Or as Hofea the Prophet fays, like a deceitfall bow y whkh 
tns at one place and hits another (8). 
Some extoll their Rivals to that degree, that it may 

{$)Vnde amico hifamiavt'parat, inde ghriamfibi reapere. Tac. i. 
n. C<¡) Pejpmum inimicorum genu:, laudantes. Tac. in vie. Agrie 
) Secreta cum crhninatitmbus itifamaverat, ignarum, Ó* quo cautitit 
ciperetur, palam Uudatum/TdC.'i. hift. (7) Pfal. 78. 57. (8) Hof. 
J 5. 

Y 2 

;i4 Princes not to aft inconfiderateWy or Vol 

plainly appear they don't fpeak ferioufly and really, aj 
obferv'd in Tiberius when he prais'd Germankus (9). 

Others make ufe of thefe commendations to raife the 
nemy to fuch pods as may at laft ruin them, or at leaf 
cure their removal from Court, though to his greater 
vantage ; which I believe was among others, the reafon 
Ruigomez caus'd Ferdinand Duke of Alba to be fent 
Flanders, when thofe Provinces revolted. With the 
int nticn Mudan prais'd -Anthony in the Senate, and 
pos'd for him the Government of the Neither Spain ( 
and to facilitate it, he divided his Offices and Honours 1 
mong his Friends. 'Tis fcarce credible, how liberal El 
is, when it would remove him who eclipfes its Glory, 
obftrufts its Rile : ? tis a wave which drives him who ca! 
fwim, upon the Shore of Fortune. 

Sometimes Commendations are us'd with a defign of c 
ating Envy to the party prais'dj a ftrange way of ftrikii 
with others Vices. Many endeavour to introduce their 01 
Creatures with fuch Artifice, as no one can penetrate th 
defigns; and to that end, they firft carp at fome trill 
faults committed by others in the fame Offices, then pni 
and cry up others as more fit for thofe places, and fometifl 
they entertain them as if they had no knowledge of the 
as Lacm did Pifo-, that he might be adopted by Galba (12 

Others, the better to conceal their Paffion, lay th 
Plots at abidance, and inftill their hatred gradually ii 
the Prince's Mind, that being at laft full, he may burft t 
on their Enemies. Thele means Sejanw us'd to aiienate 1 
Mind of Tiberius from Germankus (13). And thefe l 
Holy Spirit feems to condemn under the Metaphor of pic 
ing Lyes ( 14). Which is the fame as fowing Tares in t 

(9) Multaque de virtute ejus memoravit, magi: in (pecitm verbis at 
nata c¡uam ut penitus (entire crederetur. Tac. i. ann. (ic) Jgitur Aft 
anus quia propalam opprimi Antonius nequibat, rnultis in Jtnatu 1st 
bus cumulation fecret is promiflis oner at , Citeritrem Hijpamam ofient 
difceffu Clxvii, v/rcuam. Tac. 4 hi ft. Uz) ¡>cd caliidi ut ignot 
fovebat. Tac. r. ann. (13) Odia in longum j.ic:ns, aix re.or.deret , aui 
fue promeret. Tac. 1. ann (1 4) Devifc nor (L;C. neii jr.irvj a )yeagai 
rhy Brorher ; Eccl. 7. f 3 . 


I. Í. rely too much on their mvn Judgment. 315* 

id, that they may afterwards reap the fruit of Wicked- 

5ome, not with lefs cunning, firft deceive thofe Minifters 
ffhom the Prince has moft confidence, by infmuating in- 
:hem fome Falfhoods, which they afterwards imprint in 
Prince. This was the art of that lying Spirit of the 
iphet Micaiah, which propos'd to deceive King Achab t 
Deing in the Mouth of all his Prophets, and God per- 
ted it as the moil effectual ipans (16). 
fhere are other?, who make advantage of the injuries 
Prince has received, and perfwade him to revenge, tither 
t they may themfelves be thereby reveng'd of their Ene- 
•s, or elfe caufehim to be rurn'dout of Favour and Truir. 
this Artifice jfo^/i Pacheco perfwaded King Henry the IVth. 
apprehend Alphonfo Fonfeca Arc hbiihop of Sevillana after- 
rds advis'd him privately to provide for his own fafety. 
Hiele are the ufual practices of Courts, and though they 
oft difcover'd, yet they never want Patrons, nay, there 
thofe who will fuftxr themlelves to be cheated twice ; 
ence we often fee bare-fac'd Impoftors remain at Court fo 
g ; an effeit of the weaknefs of our deprav'd Nature, 
ich is more taken with Lyes than Truth. We aie more 
¡to admire the Pifture of a Horfe than a real one, that 
ng but a Lye of th'other. What is Rhetcrick with all 
Tropes and Figures, but a kind of Falihood and Cheat? 
am all Which we may fee, how much danger there is of 
frince's being deceiv'd in his opinion, unlefs he with great 
Plication and diligence examine things, fufpending his 
ief, untill he not only fees the things themfelves, but alfo 
it were, feels them, thofe efpecially which he has only 
hear-fay. For the Breath of Flattery, and the Winds 
Hatred and Envy enter at the Ears, and raife the Pafli- 
s and Aheftions of the Mind, before there can be any 
rtaintyofthe truth of the thing. Twould therefore be 
■y convenient for a Prince to have his Ears near his 

(15) Ye have plowed wicked nefs, ye have reaped iniquity, ye have 
en the fruit of Lyes, Htf. to. 13. (\6) And he faid, I will go forth, 
Ibea Lying Spirit in the mouth of all his Prophets, 1 Kin. 22. 22. 

V 3 Thoughts 

316 Friüces not to aft incovjielerütely, or Vol, 

Thoughts and Reafon. Asare the Owl's (for that real 
perhaps facred to Minerva) upon the top of its head, I 
Chamber of the Senfes, all of which we have need of 
hearing, leaft our ears fliould deceive us. Let a Prh 
therefore take great care thereof, for when the ears are 01! 
free from affefiions, and reafon fits there as judge, every th 
is well examin'd ; all things relating to Government depx 
upon the relation of others: therefore wh.3t ¿lriffotle faid 
Bees feems improbable ; that is, that they are deaf; for t 
would be a great inconveniency for that prudent and pi 
tick little Animal, fince thofe two Senfes, Hearing and" 
ing, are the Inftruments through which we draw U'ifd 
and Experience; both thefe we have need of to prevent) 
being deceiv'd by Paflion, Nature or Inclination. 1 
prepo(Tefs ? d Moabites thought the Waters upon which 
Sun (hone, were Blood ( 1 7). The fame noile of the peo¡ 
to the Ears of Warlike Jcjhua, feem'd their Shoots to Bat 
and to thofe of gentle Mofes a. Harmony of Mufickfi 
For which caufe, God , though omnifcient, would ver 
with his Eyes what he had heard ofSodomandGoMorrba(¡ 
When therefore a Prince fliall have feen, heard, and 
things, he can't be deceiv'd, or if he be, 'twill not be 
fault. From all which we may fee how ill contrived 
that image of the Thehans, by which they exprefs'd the<] 
locations of their Princes, for it had ears, but no E; 
thefe being full as neceifary as thofe: the Ears to know thii 
and the Eyes to believe them, in which the Eyes are n 
trufty, for truth is no farther diftant from a Lye than 
Eyes from the Ears. 

! ' 7! ! ■ • 

(17) And they rofeSip early in the Morning.and the Sunlhonet 
the Waters, and the Moabites íaw the water on the other fide as K 
Blood, 2 Kings 3. 22. (18) And Jojoua heard the noife ofthe pec 
as they íboated, he faid unto Mofes, There is a noife of war in 
camp. And he faid, it is not the voice of them that ihout for Mail 
neither is it the voice of them that cry for being overcome : but 
noife of them that fing, do I hear, Exad. 32. 17, 18. (19) I wil 
flown now, and fee whether they have done altogether according 
the ay of ir, which iscome unto me; and if nor, I will know, 1 


r o\. T. rely too much on their own Judgment. 3 27 

Nor -has a Prince need of left diligence and attention in 
iifcuffing the CouniHs and Propofals of his Minifters, be- 
>re he puts them i.i execution •, fuch as concern railing 
Money, regulating the Government, and other matters re- 
ping to Peace and War, for their ufual aim is their own 
Particular intereft, and efte&s don't always correfpond to 
bur expectations. Ingenuity often approves Counfels which 
experience afterwards rejects. Yet is it imprudence wholly 
:o flight them, for the fuccelsof one only makes amends for 
:he vanity of the reír. Spain had never obtained the Em- 
pire of the new world, if their Catholick Majefties had not 
gave more credit to Columbus than other Princes. Yet to 
be over credulous or confident to act whatever is propos'd, 
is either Levity or Folly. Firft, The condition of the Pro- 
pofer is to be confider'd, his Experience in the matter; 
what end he may have in deceiving ; what intereft if he fuc- 
ceeds ; alio the means and time by which he thinks to accom- 
pliih it : Nero, for want of thefe confiderations, was much 
cifappointed about a Treafure which one told him he had 
found in Africk (20). Many Projects at firft feem confide- 
rable, which prove at laft vain and ufeleis. Many feem 
light and frivolous, from whence refult great advantages. 
Many which have been fuccefsfully experience in'fmall mat- 
ters, in affairs of greater moment fucceed not. Many feem 
eafie to reafon, which are difficult in the operation. Ma- 
ny are prejudicial at firft, and advantageous afterwards, and 
fo on the contrary ; and many have different effects from what 
were at firft propos'd. 

The lazy and blind Vulgar don't know truth, unlefs they 
light on it by chance, for they fooliihly form opinions ¿Í 
things before Reafon forefees the ifconveniences, and pro- 
mife themfclvesa more certain knowledge from thelucceis, 
the guide of the ignorant, and fo if any one fliould go about 
to argue thefe people out of their opinions he would lofe hi? 
time and pains. There are no better means, than to make 
them fee and feel their Errors ; fo ftartling Horfes ufe tobe 

(20) Non authorit, non ipfitu negotii fide fatis fpeBatet, nec wijjis vifít" 
rfbvsper <¡mt nofceref an vera ajfererentur. Tac.16. anij. 

y 4 w!?ip f 4 

3^8 Tribes not to aft inconJiJerately, or, &c. VoJ. 

whip'd and fpur'd to make them go forwards to fee the va- 
nity of the ihadow which frightned them. This means 
Pacuvhs us'd to appeafe the people ofCavua, who rofe a. 
gainft the Senate: he firft (hut all the ¿enators by their 
ownconfent, into a certain Hall ; then calls the people tor 
gether, tells them, that if they have a mind to take off or 
puniih the Senators, now is their time, for they are lock'4 
up without Arms ; but withal tells them, it would be nece" 
fary to take them one by one, and immediately to elect 
nother in the room of him whom they took off, for tha 
without thofe heads the State could not fubfift a Moment; 
He puts all their Names in a Pot, draws out one, and asks 
the people what they would have done with him; they all 
cry out, let him die ; then he advifes them to elecl: another ; 
this confounds them, and they don't knowiwho to propofc; 
and fo a fecond and third time they could not agree upon 
their choice. At laft their confufíon taught them, that 
'twas better to bear with an ill already experience , than to 
attempt a remedy, and fo they immediately commanded the 
Senators to be releas'd. The people is very furious in its 
opinions, and 'tis often, efpecially upon any imminent danr 
ger, a piece of great management in a Prince to govern it 
with his own hand, keeping pace with it in its igno- 
rance. The people are often redue'd to their duty, by lay- 
ing before them the inconveniences which have hapned in 
the like cafes ; for they are more mov'o! by Example than 
Reafon (2 1). 

(u)Pkfcia ingenia exemflU magis $uam rat ¿one ca^iuntttr. Macrok 


Vol.?. %%i 


VEN Vertues have their Dangers ; they fliould be 
always in a Prince's Mind, but not always inexercife. 
Publick intereft ought to dictate when and where 
to ufe them. Us'd without Prudence, they either become 
Vices, or are not lefs hurtfull than them. In a private per- 
lón they refpeft only him ; in a Prince both him and the 
State too. They ought to fuit with the common intereft of 
all, not with that of particular perfons. Civil Science pre- 
fcribes certain limits to the Vertue of him who commands 
a.nd him who obeys. Juftice is not in the power of the Mi- 
nifter, but ought always to be directed by the Laws. In 
the Prince, who is the Soul thereof, it has certain confede- 
rations, which refpectthe Government in common. In the 
Subject Commiferation can never be excefiive ; in a Prince 
'tis often dangerous. To demonftrate this in the preient 
Emblem, I have made i}(je of that method, which according 



3 JO A Trine e is to confider, that Vol. L 

to Smazaro and Garcilazo, the Shepherds us'd to catch 
Crows. Which (hews Princes with how much circumfpe 
¿lion they ought to intereft themfelves in the misfortunes 
and dangers of others. They fa (tried a Crow by the Pini- 
ens of its Wings to 'the ground, this feeing others fly by, 
would, by making a grievous noife, excite them to pity, and 
comedown to its aififtance. 

Cercavanla, i alguna mas piadofa 

Del mal ageno de la companera. 

^ua del fnya a vifada, o timer ofa t &c. 

Fot that which was faftned to the ground, catches hold of 
another with its Claws, thereby to free it felf, and that a- 
gairc of another, which the fame Companion brought to 
fiieir afliftance; fo that for the fake, of one another, they 
areali caught. In which fomething may be attributed to 
the Novelty of the accident, for íbmetimes that appears 
Companion which is only a motion of natural Inquietude. 
I allow the Eyes and Heart to be mov'd with Companion, 
at the Misfortunes and Complaints of foreign Princes. But 
not to arm upon every flight occafion for their Defence. For 
a private perfon to expofe himfelf to dangers toferve his 
Friend» is brave and commendable, but in a Prince blame- 
able, if he hazzards the pubiiek fafety for the fervice of a 
Foreigner, without good grounds andreafons of State ; nor 
arethofe of Confanguinity or private Friendihip fufficient. 
For a Prince is born more for his Subjects than his Relati- 
ons and Friends; he may indeed aflift them, but without 
incurring any damage or danger. When affiftance renders 
the danger fo common, that the ruin of one draws after it 
that of the other, there is no tie of Obligation or Piety can 
excuíe it : but when interefts are fo interwoven and united, 
that one muft follow the fate of th'other, who-ever affifts 
in that cafe aits his own caufe ; and 'tis more prudence 
fas we have faid) to oppofe dangers in a foreign State than 
to expect them at home. Alio when 'tis the publick inte- 
reft to affift the opprefled ; the Prince who is moft po- 
tent, is, without doubt, obliged to it. For between Prin- 
ces Juftice can't have recourfe to the common Tribunals . 


Vol. I. even Vertues have their Dangers. 3 3 t 

'tis in the Authority and Power of the ftrongeft, that it 
finds Refuge. In fuch cafe 'twould be a kind of Tyranny 
to be an idle Spectator -only, and give way to that Policy 
which aims to imbroil other Princes, that themfelves may 
be more fecure through their diflenfions, and raife their 
own fortunes upon the ruin of others, for fuch as thefe the 
fupreme Judge of the intentions feverely punifhes. 

Thefe cafes require great Prudence, to weigh the ingage- 
ment with the intereft, lead we ihould entangle our felves 
in others Misfortunes, and make their danger ours, for we 
mud not afterwards expect the fame return. Spain pitied 
the Misfortunes of the Empire, and aífifted it with its Blood 
and Trcafures, from whence proceeded the Invafions which 
France made in Italy, Flanders, Burgundy and Spain, the 
whole War lying at prefent upon this Monarchy, yet won't 
fome in Germany acknowledge this, or believe that it is for 
their fakes. 

Experience therefore in our own and others Misfortunes 
ought to make us more cautious in our Commiferation and 
Afliftance. How often, by aflifting the Misfortunes of our 
Friends, have we loft both our feives and him, being after- 
wards ungrateful! for the benefit ! How often have thefe 
incurred the hatred of a Prince by thoíé very means by 
which they have endeavour'd to ferv'd him. Germánicas 
was adopted by Tiberius, appointed to fucceed him in the 
Empire, and fo faithful 1 in his Service, that he took it as 
an affront, that the Legions fliould offer him the Empire (1), 
end when they prefs'd him to it would have ftabb'd him- 
felf (2); and the more faithfully he behav'd himfelf, thelefs 
gratefull he was to Tiberius. His care in appealing the Le- 
gions with Donatives was diflaftfull (%). His Piety in ga- 
thering and burying the Relifts of Farus's Army, he inter- 
preted Ambition (4). The Companion of his Wife Agñp- 
pina in cloathing the Soldiers, feem'd a defire of rule (¿); 

( &l a fe f"lere contaminaretnr. Tac. i . ann. (2) At Ule moriturum 
fottus quamfidem exturet, damttans, ferrum d latere dtripuit,elatumque 
deferebat in pectus. Id. ibid. ( j) Sed quod largiendis pecuniis & miffxont 
fepnata favorem ruilitumqaafivijjet, belli caquoque Germanic: gloria au- 
gebatur. Id. lbd. (4) kuod Tiberio hand probatum. Id. ibid. (5) Id 
fibtm smivmm altws penetravit. Id. ibid, 


3 \i *A Trince is to confía er, that Vol. Í.' 

In a word, all Germanicus's actions were miflnterpreted (6)- 
Germankm knew this Hatred, and that he was call'd upon 
pretence of Honour, from his true Glory in Germany, and 
cndeavour'd to oblige him more by Obedience and Obfer- 
vanee (7) ; but this made him ftill more odious, till Grati- 
tude, opprefs'd by the weight of Obligation, he fent him 
to the Eaftern Provinces (8), where he caus'd him to bepoi- 
lbn'd by Pifo, rejoycing in the death of him, who was the 
fupport of his Empire (9). Some Princes are Idols, whofe 
Eyes are, (as Jeremiah faysj blinded with the duftof thofe 
who enter in to worthip them (10). They acknowledge no 
Services, and what is worfe, won't be convinc'd of them, 
nor that their liberty is fubjecl: to defert, and therefore take 
great care to difengage themfelves from it. Him who has 
perform'd fignal Services they charge with fome Crime or 
other, that his pretention to reward being reduc'd to a de«- 
fence, he may take his Pardon for a fttfficient Recompence. 
They leem dif-fafísñed with thofe very Services which they 
inwardly approve; to avoid being obíi&'d, or they attribute 
them to their own orders, and ibmetimes that very thing 
, which they deiir'd and commanded to be done, they repene 
Gf afterwards, and are angry with him who facilitated it, 
as if he had done it from his own motive. The Heart of a 
King is unfearchable (1 1). ' ris a deep Sea which is today 
boiflerous and raging, from the fame caufe which made it 
yeftcrday calm and ferene. The Goods of Fortune and 
.Mind, and alfo Riches and Honours, they ibmetimes e* 
lleem meritorious, ■ Ibmetimes injurious and criminal ( 1 2). 

The mod officious diligence often difpleafes them. That 
of Uz,zab to God, in putting forth his arm to fupport the 

(6) CunSia Germanics in detcrini trahinti. Id. Ibid. (7 ) Quantofum* 
nti jfpei prop/ or y tanto imptrtjins pro Tiberio nit i. Id. ibid (8) Novifyue 
provine tit impo/itum, dob ¡Itnul & cafbus objeclaret. Tac 2. .inn (9) Nam 
Gtrmanici mortem inter profpera ducebat. Tac. 4.. ann. {10) Their eyes 
be full of dufr, through the feet of them that come in. Baruc. 6. 17. 
(it)Prov. 25. 3. (12) Nobilitas, opes, omijfi gejiique honores pro crsmine & 
»¿ virtittes certijpmum exitiurn. Tac. I. hift. 


Vol. I. even Vertues have their Dangers. 3 ] i 

falling Ark, coft him his life (13). Princes ufually recom- 
pence negligence rather than care, and reward the lean Ser- 
vices with greateft Honours. To be oblig'd they reckon 
fervile and mean, and chuTe Ingratitude rather than Ac- 
knowledgment. The prompt zeal and liberality of Junius 
JsUfus towards the Emperor Vitellim got him his Hatred 
inftead of Thanks (14). The renown'd Roger of Catalonia, 
being at Coriftantinopk to affift Fadricus King of Sicily, was 
recall'd by the Emperor Andronicus to defend the Empire; 
he did things beyond belief; with a fmall number of his va- 
liant Cataloniam ; he repel I'd the Turks , and when he ex- 
pected a reward for his Services, theEmperour upon fome 
(light pretence, put him to death. And very often fome 
frivolous pretence is more regarded than the greateft Ser- 
vices ; for Gratitude is efteem'd a burthen to the mind, but 
Revenge difcharges the Bile. There is this Misfortune in 
the Service of Princes, that no man knows when he obliges 
or difobliges them (15). And if we would form any method 
of Policy from the light of Hiftory, and the Misfortunes 
which we incur througn our over officioufnefs, we had need 
diftinguiih between Vermes, that we may know how to ufe 
them, by confidering that though they are all in us as their 
proper Subject:, yet do they not all operate within us. Some 
are pra&ifed externally, others internally. Thefe are For- 
titude, Patience, Modeiiy, Humility, Religion, among 
which, fome are only fo far for us, that thofe external 
ones contribute no more thereto, than the fecurity of hu- 
mane Society, and an efieem for their own Excellence, as 
are Humility, Modefty, and Humanity. So that the more 
perfect thefe Vertues are, the more they work upon the 
Minds and Approbation of others, provided we can keep a 

(1 3) And Uzzah put forth his hand to the Ark of God, and took 
hold of it, for the Oxen ihook ic And the anger of the Lord was 
kindled againft Uzzah, and God fmote him there for his error, and 
th-re he died by the Ark of God, 2 Sam. 6. 6. (¡4) Lugdunenfis G¿L 
lis. reelor, genere it/ujlris, hrgut animo, €r par opibus, cireumdaret Prirt~ 
eipi mini fieri a, comitaretttr liberaliter, eo ipjo ingmtiis quamvir, odium f-'i- 
teUius htmiUhm blanditiif welartt. Tac. * hift. f 1 c) And no man 
fcnonveth either Love or Hatred, by all that is before them', Eccl.9 1, 


334 A Trine e is to conftder^ that Vol. f. 

Decorum. Other of thofe Vermes, though they are in- 
ternal, yet. their Operation depends upon external Action5¿ 
as Valour and Magnanimity. In thefe there is no danger, 
if they be govern'd by Prudence/ which prefcribes time and 
manner to all Vertues. For exceflive and imprudent refcr- 
vednefs ufually obftrutts our intereit ; we lofing our felves 
under a Notion of Reputation and Glory, while thofe who 
fuit themfelves to the Times, Neceffity and Flattery, obtain 
the Rewards and Commendations. In the exercife of thofe 
Vertues which refpect the good of others, fuch as Liberali- 
ty and Compaflion, there is always fome danger, becaufe 
neither the Rewards of Princes, nor the acknowledgments 
of Friends are anfwerable to them ; we perfwade our felves 
that our Services will be acceptable, and that to afliit our 
Misfortunes, they will reciprocally expofe their own Lives 
and Fortunes. Into this error we are led by our own Senfe 
of Gratitude, which often makes us heedlefsof our own ru- 
in, to fatisfie for Obligations receivM. But if we fall into any 
Calamity they withdraw and defert us. There were but 
three of Job's Friends who viiited him in his Afflictions, 
and they too by God's Command (16) : nor did they aftift 
iiim but with Words and fevere Advice, which he had need 
of all his Patience to bear. But after God again fmiPd upon 
Job t and began to heap on him Riches in abundance, then 
came flocking to him, not only his Brethren and Relations, 
but thofe too who knew him not but by fight, and fat down 
at Table with him, that they might partake of his Profpe- 
rity (17). 

This error, under pretence of mutual aiTiftance and obli- 
gation has been the ruin of many, who have reap'd nought 
but Ingratitude and Hatred from their benefits and kind- 
neiTes, and created Enemies of thofe who before were their 
Friends, fo that they die friendlefs and miferable. The Ho- 

(16) Now when Job's three Friends heard of all this evil that was 
come upon him, they came every one from his own place, V. Lat. <vc 
veruntficut locutus eft domimu ad eot. Job 2. 9. (17) Then came there 
unto him all his Brethren, and all his Sifters, and all that had been of 
his acquaintance before, and did eat Bread with him in hishoufe, 

yob 41. 11. 

Vol.!. even Fertues have their Dangers. 33$- 

ly Spirit has cautioned us of this: My Son, fays he, ifth»* 
he farety for thy Friend, if thou haft ftrichen thy hand with A 
firavger ; thou art fnard with the words of thy mouth, thm 
art taken with thine own words (1 8). He ad v i fes us to deli- 
ver our fdves from the hand of a Friend, as a Roe from the 
hand of the Hunter, and as a Bird from the hand of the 
Fowler ( 1 9). Do good but look about yc, is a Spanijh Pro- 
verb drawn from Experience. Thofe are not fubjecl; to 
thefe Misfortunes who live only to themfelves, nor fujfesr 
themfelves to be rnov'd by Companion or Charity, to aíSI 
the calamities of others, being deaf to their Tears ana 
Groans, avoiding all occafions of interrnedling with tfoern, 
whence they live free from cares and troubles, and if they 
gain not new Friends, they however keep thofe they have 3 
not being efteem'd for the good they do, but for the ill thej 
don't do, this being in them accounted Prudence. BeiidfiS 
we naturally efteem them moft, who have ieaft need of 11s, 
who without being beholden to us, live content witii thek 
own. Whence confidering the ufual cuftora of Mankini, 
it may perhaps feem advifeable to-be an idle Spectator of mo- 
thers Calamities, and minding only our own interefts, not 
to engage our fdves in their dangers and troubles. But this 
policy would bs againft our duty as Chriftians, Charity, 
and generous Vermes, which gives us a nearer accefs to 
God. This would diflblvc all civil Society, which wholly 
confifts in the mutual afliftance of one another. Verme 
needs no outward acknowledgments ; being to it felfa fair 
reward. Nay, 'tis then moft perfeci and glorious, when it 
expefts the leaft return ; for 'tis a kind of Avarice to do good 
in hopes of a Retaliation, which if not obtain'd creates a 
lairing refentment. Letus therefore be guided by thecon- 
iideration of what we owe our felves, and alfo by the exam- 
ple of God Almighty, who beftows his Bleflingseven on the 
Ungratefull. Yet 'tis Prudence to have refpeel; to the time 
when and where acknowledgments may be expe&ed, for 'tis 
too hard for a man, after great Expences, great Hazards 
and Hardihips undergone for another, to meet with nothing 

1 '■ —■-'■■' " — ' - ■ , j 1 1 1 _ 1 1 11 11 ) ■ 1 1 ■ ■ 

(i8)?zov. 6.1. (19) Ibid. 


33^ A Prince is to conJiJet^ that, &c. Vol. 

but Ingratitude in return. To him who underftands the na- 
ture and ufual ways of Mankind, this will not fcem at all 
new ; but foreknowing it, will ward the blow, and avoid 
being hurt. 

We ihould alfo well cohfider, whether it be really our 
Friends intereft for us to undertake his afliftance : for fome- 
times we do him an injury by our diligence, becaufe 'tis 
"either uníéafonable or imprudent, by which we ruin both 
our felves and him too. This officioufneis Thrafea* check'd 
in Itufticus Arulenus, though in his own behalf, knowing 
that kindnefs would be prejudicial to the Interceflbr, and 
of no advantage to the criminal (20). 

Nor isitlefs imprudent and dangerous to be over zealous 
for the publick good and welfare of the Prince, then efpeci- 
ally, when without obligation of duty, or certain profpect 
of remedy, we intermeddle with their concerns to our own 
apparent ruin. I don't mean, that we ihould be infenfible 
at the fight of others fufferings, or that for our own eaie 
and quiet we ihould bafely truckle to the Times and Tyran- 
ny. But that we ihould not fooliflily ruin our felves, and 
that we ihould follow the example of Lucid Pifo, who in 
difficult and deplorable times, knew how to preferve him- 
felfwith fuch Prudence, that he was never the Author of 
any fervile propofition, and upon abfolute neceflity, did it 
with great Moderation (21). Oftentimes we are forward 
in giving our advice in things which don't concern us, per- 
fwaded that therein confifts the remedy of the publick ills : 
not confidering how eafily we are deceiv'd with a conceit of 
our own opinions, without particular knowledge of the 
motives upon which Princes aft. Nothing is more dange- 
rous than to advife ; even he who is oblig'd in duty to it, 
ought to avoid it if not ask'd ; for Advice is jüdg'd by the 
event, and that depends upon future accidents, which no 
Prudence can forefee, and that which falls out ill is attribu- 
ted to the Counfellor, but not that which fucceeds well. 

(20) Nevana, & reo non profitura, intercejfori exitiofa inciperct. Tac, 
16 arm. {ii) iJullius Jervilts fententia front t aut far, & quo', us necef- 
fttas ivgrucrst, fapitntér modcram. Tac. 6. anií. 


Vol.!. Uf 


ÜW are Princes arm*d againflf foreign feíerhiés ! 
and how unprovided againft domeftick ones ! who 
follow them even through the midft of theirGuards, 
yet do they take no notice of them. Thefe are Flatterers 
and Parantes ; nor is there lefs danger from their Fawns 
than from an Enemy's Sword, Flattery has róin'd morís 
Princes than force. What Royal Purple has not this Moth 
eaten ? What Sceptre has not this Worm gnaw'd ? It in- 
finuates it felf into the talleft Cedars, and preying upon the 
root foon brings them to the ground. 'Tis a damage not 
difcern'd, but by entire ruin ; the eSe& is fooner feen than 
thecaufe. Tis a falfe Silk-worm which inhabits the gild- 
ed Roofs of Palaces. The- prefect Emblem compares it 
to a Lizzard , with a gay fiarry back, and poi- 
fon'd Breafi. It appears to the Piínce uñ4er the íhi- 
ning Cloak of Zeal 7 Elk better to ccñeéal its pernfc 

7d «nota* 

% 3 8 Flattery when liflend to, Vol. I. 

cious defignsfi). Let a Prince know, that all brightnels 
does not denote the Excellence of the Subject ; for in theScri- 
pture it is a fign of a Leprofie (ij; and rotten wood gives a 
kind of light in the dark. There are fome glimmerings of 
good, even in the blacked Soul. Sometimes in the very 
«bowels of Severity, fhe AiTertor of Liberty, and Oppofer of 
the Prince. Flattery bafely difcovers it ielf ; as when Va- 
lerius Mefah propos'd the adminiftring the Oath of Alle- 
giance to Tiberius each year, and being ask'd by whofe or- 
der he did it, he reply ? d, That 'twas from his own proper 
motive; for that in all matters of publick concern, he would 
follow the Dictates of his own realbn,even though hefliould 
oifend by it ( %). Not unlike this, was that of Jteius, who 
when Lucius Ennius was accus'd of having deftroy'd the 
Silver Statue of Tiberius, to make houfe Plate on, and Tibe- 
rius being willing to wave the Accufation, openly oppos'd 
it, faying, That the Senators ought not to be deprived of 
the power of judging, nor ihould fuch a Crime go unpu- 
niih'd; that he might indeed forgive his own Grievances, 
but ihould not be prodigal of the Injuries done the State (4). 

The Lizzard changes its skin every year,fo alfo does Flat- 
tery, as oft, I mean, as the Prince changes his mind. The 
Minifters of King Alphonfo the Tenth, advis'd him to Di- 
vorce Queen Violante, for Barrennefs, arguing, that the 
Marriage was void, which they afterwards declared valid, 
and perl waded the King to retake her to his Bed | 

There is no Animal more cunning than the Lizzard, 
whence the Lawyers call all falfe practice Crimen Stettiona- 
tus. Who ufes more cheats than the Flatterer, impofing 

(i)Wo unto them that call evil good and good evil; that pul 
(hrknefs for light, and light for darknefs; thac put bitter for fweer, 
and fweet for bitter, IJai. 5. ao. (a) When a man fhall have in the 
tkin of htsFlefh, a riling, a fcab, or bright fpot, Levit. 13.1. (3) Spm- 
te dixiffe, Hefpondit; ntque in Us qu£ ad remp.pertinerent, confilio nijifuo 
ufurum^vel cum per ¿culo e fen font's ,ea Jola /pedes adulandifupererat. Tac. 
I.ann. ($) Palam afpernante Atieo Capitoné quafi per liber: at em. Ni» 
en'tm deberé eripi patribus vim flatuendt, ñeque tantum maleficium im- 
pune habendum ; ¡ant lent ¡us injuo dolor t ejfit j reipub. dolores nc Urgiré- 
iur. Tac 3. ann. t Mar. hift. Hifp. 


Vol. I. of dangerous confequence to Princes. 339 

upon the Will, the nobleft faculty of man ; fo much above 
the other Senfes, that without it the reft would be inflav'd. 

The Lizzard does not kill him whom it wounds, but on- 
ly benumbs him, and puts him, as it were, befide himfelf, 
by railing divers paifions in him. The proper quality of a 
Flatterer, who with fpecious pretences charms the Eyes 
and Ears of Princes, and put them fo betide themfelves, that 
they can't fearch the truth of things. The Lizzard is id 
inveterate againft man, that when it cafts its skin, it eats 
it up, leaft it fliould be ufefull in the cure of the Falling- 
ficknefs. A Flatterer deiires a Prince may not recover from 
bis errors; for Difabufe is the Son of Truth, which is an 
utter Enemy to Flattery. Flatterers envy the profperity 
of Princes, and hate them as thofe who by their power, and 
a certain neceííity oblige them to the Slavery of Diffimula- 
tion and Flattery, and force them to fpeak one thing and 
think another. 

A Prince has need of great Prudence to difíinguiíh Flato 
tery: for it confifts in Praife, which he will find from thole 
who are far from that Vice. This is the difference that a 
Flatterer promifcuouOy commends all, honourable or bale, 
good or bad 5 but the other only that which is jufi and good. 
When therefore a Prince fees things attributed to him 
which are due to others, or which are mere accidents f j) ; 
frivolous things commended and extoll'd which don't de- 
ferve it, fuch as tend more to pleafure than Reputation. 
Such as aveit his mind from the toil of affairs, fuch as re- 
fpecl; more his own advantage than the publick interelt, and 
that the perfon who fo commends thefe things, does not 
rightly govern himfelf, that he does not ihew any concern 
or readinefsto admoniih him, when he commits any thing 
■ below his Perfon and Majeiiy ; nay, that he excüfes his Er- 
tors, and regards more his own ínrereít than his Service, 
that he never fcems offended at any thins, that he mn:y be al- 
ways near him, that he does not afTociare with thofe who 
are zealous Patriots and lovers of their Country. That he 

(5)0 my People, they which lend thes caufg thee to err, and de- 
ftroy the way of thy p*th<, I fa. 3 . 12. 

Z 2 praifti 

340 Flattery when lift end to, Vol. f. 

praifesthofe whom he thinks agreeable to him, and whom, 
if he would, he cannot turn out of favour, that when be 
finds himfelffixt therein, makes it his bufinefs to gain the 
eileem of others, by attributing all good fuccefs to himfelf, 
and by accuiing the Prince in that he did not follow his 
Counfel ; that to gain credit, he brags that he reprehended 
his Errors, when in private he excused commended and ap- 
prove. Such a one as this a Prince may well mark for a 
Flatterer, whom he ought to avoid as the moft venomous 
Poifon, and direclly op polite to that fincere Love with 
which he ought to be ferv'd (6). 

But though thefe marks are plain enough, yet is fell Con*' 
ceit^ generally fo blind, as not to difcern Flattery, but fuffer 
it ielf to be coax'd with its own Praifes, which exercife 
an agreeable Tyranny over the Senfes, fo that there is no 
Flattery fo grois, which it does not believe itsdue. Some- 
times this happens from a remifs and negligent Goodnefi, 
which not duly confidering the inconveniences of Flattery, 
bears ir, and interprets it Submiifion and Zeal. This was 
the fault of Ferdinand King of Galicia, who was hated of 
his Subjects for liitening too much to Flatterers. And King 
Stfphonfü the Ninth, for the fame reafon, did not a little ob- 
faire the Glory of his other Vertues and Exploits. Let 
Princes therefore believe, that they may be fo deceiv'd ei- I 
ther through Self conceit, or their natural Goodnefs, that 
though there be diffident tokens to diftinguiih Flattery, 
which that they may know and avoid, 1 would advife them 
to read Hiftory, and obferve by what Tricks and Cheats 
their Anceftors were cajol'd, and what LofTes they have in- 
curred thereby, and then confider, whether or no they are 
not ferv'd in the fame manner. Onetime only, when King 
¿ibafiterus could not fleep, and commanded the Chronicles 
to be read to him, he preléntly learn'd from thence what 
never any one durft tell him, the Defigns and Tyranny of 
his'Favouritc Haman, and the faithfuH Services of Morde- 
cai: thoie hid hitherto by Diffimulation and Flattery, thefe 

(6) BlandUia j>($tBum veri aifccl'a venenata ; fus cuíque militas. Tac 
1 fttf. 


Vol. I. of dangerous confequence to Princes. 341 

fiifled through Malice, by which being difabus'd, he pu- 
niih'd the one and rewarded the other. Yet even in this 
they ought to beware of Flattery, wherefore let them read 
themfelves ; for perhaps if another reads, he will either 
pafs over thofe cafes which mould initrutft them, or change 
fome Sentences and Words. O unhappy State of Majefty, 
which can't be fure of the truth even of .Books, winch are 
efteem'd the faithfulleft Friends of Mankind. 

A Prince ought alfo to get a fight of all Libels which 
are publiuYd againft him : for though Malice dictate them, 
yet Truth writes them, and he will find therein what his 
Courtiers conceal , and gather Prudence and inftruclion 
from his Infamy. Tiberias feeing how he had been cheated, 
in not difcovering the practices of Sejanus in time, caus'd to 
be publiih'd the Will of Fulcinius Trim, which was a Satyr 
upon him, that he might fee, though to his ihame, the 
Truths which Flattery had concealM from him / 7 ). 

Let not a Prince always view his own actions in the 
glais of thofe that are about him, but rather let him conluk 
Strangers, zealous Men, and fuch as are of Uriel; Lives and 
Converfation, and obferve if they all agree in one opinion r 
for the variable .and inconftant glaffes of Flattery never re. 
prefent things as they really are, but as the Prince would 
have them. And 'tis better to be corrected by the wife, 
than cheated by the Flattery of Fools (8). To this end 'tis 
neceifary fometimes toconfult one, fometimes another, ma- 
king them lay afide Modefty and Fear, by letting them know 
the obligation they are under to fpeak Truth. Even Samur 
el durft not freely tell what God commanded him, to Eli 
the High-Prieft (<?) 9 until he untreated him (ic). 

(7) Qjye *b haredibus wculteta, recitari Tiber ¡ns jujjit ; patieiitiam li- 
hertatis aliens ofteptans, & conteznptor ¡iuz infamia, an (csl¿ritm Sejani 
diet nefciuf, rnox quodam ir.odo dtcla 'vulgar t malebat , r vtritatijq%t cui 
tfficit adulado, per prtbra Jaltem gnartu f¡?ri. Tac 6.ann. (8) Ic is bet- 
ter to hear the rebuke of the wile, than for a man ro hear the Song of 
Fools, Eccl. 7. 6. C9) And Samuel feared to ftjew Eli the Vifion, 
j Sam 3. i?, (ro) And'be fii-J, What is the thing that ths Lcrdharb, 
foid unto tups ? I pray tfcee hide ic not from rrie, Ibid. 

7< % Ut 

3 4 1 Flattery when lift end to y Vol. 

Let a Prince fome:imes view himfelf in the glafs of the 
people, in which the leaftfpot immediately appears, for th< 
Mob can't diííemble. Lewis the Fourth of France, woul( 
difguiVd, mix himfelf with the Crowd, and hear what 
they faid of his AtVions and Government. He that would 
find Truth, muft leek her in the Streets. Lewis the Eleventh 
oí France us'd to complain, that he wanted one piece of Fur»' 
niture in his Palace, which was Truth. Which is too mo- 
deft and plain to live in Courts, being confounded in the 
prefence of Kings. For this reafon Saul difguifed himfelf 
when he went to confult the Witch of Endor, that (lie 
might anfwer him with more freedom ; and he did this him- 
felf without trufting to another (ii J. Jeroboam alfo ob- 
ferv'd the fame method, when he fent his Wife to Abijabto 
enquire about their iick Child He commanded her to dif- 
guife herfelf, that he might not know her, leaft if he fliould, 
he might either give her no anfwer at all, or not tell her 
truth (n). Since then Truth is not to be found in the Pala- 
ces of Princes, ihe muft be trac'd out elfe-where ; 'tis the ho- 
nour of aKing tofearcb out a matter ( r 3 .!. King Philip the Se- 
cond had a Favourite, whom he lov'd extremely, whous'd to 
inform him of whatever was faid of him as well within as 
without the Court. 'Tisobfervable,that though the difcour- 
ftsof the people in the abience of the Prince,betrue,yetwher 
they come to his ears tljcy are fo foftned, and gilded with 
Flattery, that they rather encourage, and blindly make him 
purfue his Vices, perfwading him that his actions are highly 
approv'd by all No Government was more tyrannical than 
that of Tiberius ; no Favourite more hated than Sejanus ; 
yet when they were at Caprea t the Senate earneftly begg'djthat 
they would pleafc to let them fee them (14). Nero was fo 
miferably deceiv'd by the Flattery of the people, that he be- 
liev'd they could not bear hisabfence from Rome, though for 
never fo fmall a time, and that his prefence comforted them 

(n) And Saul difguifed himfelf, and put on other raiment, and he 
went, 1 Sam. 28 8. (12) 1 Kings 14. 2. (13) Prov. 2?. 2. (14)0-4. 
brifque precib:y effia^iiabant, vifendifui copiam facerent. Tac. 4. anrj. 


Vol. I. of dangerous conference to Princes. 343 

in their Adverfity fif); though he wjs really fo odious, 
that the Senate and Nobility were in doubt, whether he 
was more cruel in his Abfence than his Prefence (16). 

There are other ways to know Flattery, but few Princes 
care to make ufe of them, it being fo agreeable to their incli- 
nations and nature ; and lb we fee Coiners puniih'd, but not 
Flatterers, though the lait are moft guilty ; thefe gild and 
counterfeit our Money, thofe our Vices, putting them off 
even to our felves for Vertues. This is a great fault, which 
is ftill decry'd, yet Mill maintain'd in the Courts of Princes; 
where Truth appears not without danger, efpecially with 
haughty and paffionate Princes (17J. Bernardo de Cabrera loft 
his life for his friendly advice in fome affairs wPeter the IVth 
of Arr ¿go», notwithstanding his fignal Services,and his having 
been his Tutor. He whoadvifesor informs another,feems to 
accufe his A¿tior¡s and Judgment, which Princes won't en- 
dure; for they think he don't fuííiciently refpetí them, who 
talks to them freely. Gutierrez Fernandez of Toledo with 
an honeft and well-meaning Sincerity, told King Peter the 
Cruel, what he thought of his Government, and advis'd 
him ro moderate his Severity ; which meritorious Advice 
the King took for fuch a crime, that he caus'd him to be 
beheaded for it*. A Prince looks upon him as his Judge, 
who obferves his Aftions, nor can he endure him who finds 
fault with them. The danger is in a'dmoniihing a Prince 
what he fliould do, not what he would do (18 : which is 
the reafon Truth is fo timorous, and Flattery io audacious. 
But if any Prince would befo generous, as to think it bafe 
and mean to be coax'd by Flattery, and look upon it as a 
contempt for others to pretend to impofe upon him, by 
falfe praifes, and fpeak more of his Grandure than his Per» 

(15,) Vidijje civium mceftos vultut, and ire ¡ceretas tjuxrimonias, tjusd 
tantum adituruf ejfut iter, cujut ne módicas ojuidem tgrejfiu tolerartnt,jueti 
adverfum fortuita afpeclu PrincipU refoveri. ( 1 6¡ Senatw & Pn'matrt 
in incerto erant, procuran coram atrocior haberctar. Tac. I <;. arm. (17) Cíb- 
tumacius loqiú non eft tutum apud aures fuperbas, &" ojfen/ttm proniores. 
Tac 4. ann. * Mar. hift. Hifp. (¡8) Nam Juadere Pnnc\pi qwd opor» 
teat, multi labor is, & per ¡culi. Tac. r. hift. 

Z 4 fo.i 

344 Flattery yoben ItfleríJ to, Vol. I. 

fori (19), he would fbon be rid of this fort of cattle by arm- 
ing himíélf with feverity ; for none will dare attempt a 
(ranch and fevere Prince, who fathoms the truth of things, 
and has learnt to contemn vain Honours-. Tiberius with the 
fame compofure of countenance, heard the freedom of ?ifo t 
and the Flattery of Gallus f 20). And though he diflembled 
fo well, he knew the Flattery, as he dio* that of Ateius Ca- 
pito, confidering their Thoughts, not their Words (21). 
Let a Prince alio publickly gratifie thofe who (hall be fo in- 
genuous as to tell him Truth. Thus Clifihenes the Tyrant 
of Sicily did, who erected a Statue to one of his Counfel- 
Jprs, who contradicted his Triumph, by which he wonder- 
fully gain'd the hearts of his Subjects, and encouraged his 0- 
tber Goupfellorsto fpeak their Sentiments more freely. King 
Alphonfo the Twelfth, being once advifing about an affair of 
great moment, with his Sword in his right hand, and his 
Sceptre in his left, fpoke to this effect .• Copie, fays he, fpeak 
all your minds freely, and frankly advife me what you think for 
the glory of this Sword, and the advantage of this Scepter *. 
Jlappy that Kingdom, in which Couníél is neither embar- 
rafs'd by Refpect, nor aw'd by Fear ! All men know the 
bafenefs of Flattery, but they know too the inconveniencies 
of Truth, and fee more danger from this than that. Who 
Would not fpeak with more fincerity and zeal to Princes, 
were they all of the fame temper with John the Second 
King of Portugal, who when one petitioned for fome vacant 
Office, reply'd, That he had long fince promisMittoa faith- 
full Servant, who never fppke to pleafe, but tofervehimand 
the State f. But this generous Sincerity is very rarely to be 
found; Princes bein°.ufjally of King Achab\ mind, who 
calling a council of Prophets, would have Micah excluded, 
beaiuie, fays he, he doth not prophecy good concerning me, but 
evil (22). For this reafon, Minifters often run great Rifques, 
who through zeal are too forward in telling their Thoughts 

(19) Ltiavi ego Ó" tujmpUeilptué inter ms hcdi:lotjuimur i cxteri Ubtn- 
tivicMw fortune nojlr a (juamnobifcutn. Tac. i. hiít. (:o) Judíente h<c 
Tiberio, ac fílente. Tac. 2. arm. (2 1 ) Inteilexit h<£C Tiberius, uterant ma- 
ga, (¡uam ut diccbantur. Tac. 3. anq. ' Mar hift. Hifp. f Mar. h»ft. 
tJifp. (22) 1 Kings 25. 8. ' 


Vol. T. of dangerous consequence to Princes. 345- 

of futiere dangers, that they may be feafonably prevented. 
For Princes had rather not know them than fear them ; their 
ears are prepar'd for the foft Harmony of Mufick, but can't 
bear the jarring founds of impending dangers. Whence 
they chofe for their Counfellors and Confidents, fuch as, 
will tell them nothing but what they approve of (23), and 
not what God infpires as the Prophet Micab did (24). What 
wonder then, if without the light of Jruth they lofe their 
way and are loft ? 

Would thefe Tell-truths be guided by Prudence,doubtleís 
a Prince would more value Truth, than vain and empty 
Flattery ; but there are few who ufe it feafonably, or with 
that Modefty and Addrefs that is requinte. For all that 
are free are morofe, and offend Princes with the afperity 
of their Looks, efpecially when arm'd with Truth ; for 
lome Vertues are odious, fuch as obftinate Severity, and a 
Spirit not to be gain'd by favours. For Princes think them- 
felves flighted, when they fee thofc meafures, which are u- 
fually taken to obtain their favour are contemn d, thinking 
he who does not ftudy to acquire them, neither acknow- 
ledges himfelf their Subject, nor has occafion for them. The 
Superiour ufes the Lancet or inciiion Knife of Truth, 
to cure the diftempers of the inferiour, but this on- 
ly a cauftick, which without pain benumbs, and wears a- 
way the parts infefted in the Superiour. To be troublefome 
with unfeafonable and improper Truths, is rather Malice 
than Zeal, rather Saucinefs that Admonition. God bim- 
íélf ufes fingular Prudence and Caution j n revealing them ; 
for though he might have told Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar 
their future Calamities by Jofepb and Daniel; yet he choie 
rather to do it by Dream, when the Senfes were lull'd and 
Majeily buried in Sleep, and even then not clearly, but by 
Figures and Hreroglyphicks, that there might be fome 
time allowed for their Interpretation, to avoid fudden Ter- 
rour and ConMernation, as alfo the danger cf the Minifters, 

Í23) Afrer their own Lvfís they irul] heap to rhemfelves teachers, 
a lim 4- 3- (14) And Micab find, as the Lord liveth, even what my 
pod faith, (hat will Í fpeak,2 Chun. 18 13. 


34<> Flattery when lift end to, Vol. T. 

ihould they unask'd declare fuch things (25). 'Tis fuffici- 
ent, if the Minifter can make the Prince underftand them; 
which if he can effecl: by figns, let him not ufe words. Yet 
are there fome fo imprudent, that they glory in bold Truths, 
and are fond to be the bearers, nay fometimes the inventers 
of ill News. Let thefe learn of what befell King Ralfbazzar % 
to whom the hand that pronounc'd his death upon the Wall, 
was not wholly vifible, but only the fingers appeared, and 
but the ends of them neither ; fo that it could not in the 
leaft be difcover'd, who guided them ; nor this by day light 
but by night, writing that decretory Sentence by Cafltlle- 
light, upon the Wall in fuch Chara&ers, as required fome 
time to be underftood. While therefore the intention is 
good, and accompanied by Prudence, 'twill be eafie to walk 
a fecure and middle path, between the Slavery of Flattery 
and the Arrogance of Truth ; for all Truths may be fpo- 
ken, provided it be with difcretion, by propofing only the 
amendment of thofe to whom they are dire&ed. Thus the 
difcretion and addrefs of Aerícola mollified the ftern hu- 
mour of Domhian (27). He who with his Services and 
Modefty minglesValour and Induftry,may live fafe under the 
worft of Princes (18); and gain more Reputation,than thofe, 
who by being too ambitious of Glory ,do fooliihly ruin them- . 
felves, without any advantage to the State ; by this circum- 
ípeilion M. Lepidus turn'd to his advantage many dange- 
rous Flatteries, and preferv'd the favour of Tiberius (19). 
Tbrafea Patms going out of the Senate, to avoid being pre- 
ient at the Votes, which to flatter Tiberius, they were ma- 
king againft the Memory of Agrippina, was pernicious to 
the Senate, and dangerous to himfelf, without giving any 
foundation to the peoples Liberty, as he propofed (%o). 

(a$) Gen. 41. 22. Ó" Dan. 4 2. (27) Moderatione t amen prudent i a- 
que agrícola leniebatur, quia non contumacia, ñeque inani ja&atiene //- 
bertatis famam, fatumque provocabat. Tac. in vit. Agrie (28,) P<Jfe 
etiam fub malis Principibus magnos vivos ejfe. Tac in vir.Agric. (29) Nam 
phraque ab fxvis adulatiombus aliorum m melius fíexit : ñeque tamtn 
temper amenti egebat , cum .-quabili autbon'tate, & gratia apud Tiber turn 
viguerit. Tac 4. ann. (}o) Thrajea Pxtus fihntio velbrevi af.nfu pri- 
ores a iones tranfmitterefoütus, exitt, turn Scnitu, acjtbi caujam ptri- 
culiftcit, (aterís iibertatis imtium non prabmt. Tac. 14. ann. 


Vol.1, of dangerous conference to? r faces. 347 
Truth is yet more dangerous in thole, who avoiding 
Flattery, to feem free and plain, carp at the aftions and 
failures of Princes, with iharp Jefts, which flick long by the 
great ones , efpecially where they are grounded upon 
Truth fit J: As Veftinus found by Nero, who put him to 
death for reprehending his Vices with too much free- 
dom (31). To fpeak Truth only to publiih the faults of 
the Government, is a kind of freedom which looks like Ad- 
vice, but is Reflection ; it appears Zeal but is Malice. And 
this I look upon as not left pernicious than Flattery it felf. 
For if one be an odious Slavery, the other is a falfe kind of 
Liberty. Hence the wifeft Princes dread freedom as much 
as Flattery, neither being fafe, and therefore the extremes of 
both are to be avoided ; which was obferv'd in the time of 
Tiberius (33) Yet 'tis certain, there ought to be fome al- 
lowance for Flattery, thereby to introduce Truth ; for not 
to flatter in fomethings, is to accufe in every thing ; and in 
a corrupt Government, there is as much to be fear'd from 
too much* as too little Flattery (34). The State would be 
in a defperate condition, and the Prince inhuman and 
barbarous, if neither Truth nor Flattery durft approach him. 
He would be like an Adder, if he fliould be deaf to that 
Flattery which would perfuade him to what is glorious 
and honourable (35J. With fuch as thefe God threatned 
the people of Jerufalem by the Prophet Jeremiah ; J will 
fend Serpents among you, Cockatrices which will not be charm d y 
and they fiall bite you (;6). That Mind is wild and favage, 
which a gentle and modeit Flattery cant footh into good 
Temper , and Compliance with its wholfome Advice. 
Truth being of it fclffomething bitter, we mud fweeten the 
brim of the Cup, that Princes may drink with more pleafure. 
They won't hear it if it be dry, nay are often worfe for it. 

(l c) Tiberius acerbis facetiis irridire folittts, quarum apvd prepotente* 
in I ongvm memoria eft. Tac. $. ann. {"\i) S*pe afperis facetiis illtifur, 
quee ubi mult urn ex vero traxere, acrem fui memtriam relinafunt. Tac. 
1 5. ann. (}■*) Uudeangnfta & lubrica oratiofub Principe qui libertatem 
metuebaty adulationem oderat. Tac. i- ann. (34) Quiz moribus corru- 
ptis, perinde anccps, ft nulla, & ubi nimia eft. Tac 4. ann. (3 5) PfaL 
57. 6. (36) f«. 8. 17. 


'348 Flattery when UJtenJto, &c Vol. L 1 

The more liberies Cruelty was exclaim'd againft, the 
more fevere and bloody he grew (37). Tis of ufe fome- 
times to commend fome famous actions in them, as if they 
had actually done them, that they may be thereby prompt- 
ed to put them in execution ; or to be extravagant in the 
commendation of Valour or other Vertues, that they may 
be the more eager to follow them. This enflames the mind 
more to honour than Flattery. The fe means t fays Tacitus t 
the Roman Senate us'd to Ñero in the beginning of his 
Reign ($$). 'Tis of very ill confequence to commend Vi- 
ces under the name of Vertues; for this is encouraging 
Princes to commit greater. Nero feeing his Severity taken 
for Juftiqe, became a perfect Tyrant (39). We ill confult 
our own Liberty, Fortunes and Lives, in endeavouring to 
extend the unjuft power of Princes beyond their due bounds, 
by adminiftring them means to fatisfie their Ambition and 
Lufts. Scarce any Prince would be bad, were not his Mi- 
nifters Flatterers. g They gain that favour by publick Mif- 
chief, which they" can't merit by their Vertues. » Prodigi- 
ous Villany! For a momentary favour, which they are very 
often difappointed of too, or rather ruin'd with, to betray 
their Country and promote Tyranny) What wonder, if 
God chaftifes Subjects for the faults of Princes, if they are 
the caufe of them, while Princes act all by their Minifters, 
who teach them feveral ways of burthening their Subjects 
with Taxes, of opprefling the Nobility, and turning the 
Government into Tyranny, by violating Privileges, Laws 
and Cuftoms, and fo are at laft their own Executioners. 

(37) Cafar objeBam pbl adverfut rets inclement i am, eo pervicacius am- 
flcxus efi. Tac. 4. ann. (38) Magms patrum laudibus, ut juvenilis ani- 
mltslevium tjttoque rerum gloria fublatus, m aj ores continuar et. Tac 13. 
ann. (39) Pojiyuam cúnela fcehrmn pro egregiis e:cipi videf, txturbat 
Oñ 'avian. Tac. 14. ann. 

£ Mi 

Vol. I. 



ANY reafons make me doubt, whether the 
chance of birth has any part of the favour or ha* 
tred of Princes ; or whether our Conduct and 
Prudence, can, without ambition and peril, find a fecure 
path, between a froward Obftinacy, and a defpicable Sla- 
very. There feems to be a certain occult force, which, if 
it does not compelí, does at kaft move our Will, and incline 
it to one more than another : and if in the Senfes and natu- 
ral Appetites there is a Sympathy and Antipathy to things, 
why not in the Affections and Paifions ? They may perhaps, 
have more power and force over the Appetite than the Will, 
becaufe that is more a Rebell to Free-Will than this, but it 
can't be deny'd, but that the inclination too is of great 
force, being generally attended by reafou, efpecially when 
Art and Prudence know how to adapt therofelves to the hu- 

250 The Authority of Miniflers of State Vol. Í. 
mour of the Prince. We fee in all things as well animate 
as inanimate, a fecret Correfpondence and Friendíhip, whofe 
chains are eafier broken than parted. Neither the injuries 
nor adverfities which King John the Second fuffer'd for 
his affe&ion to Alvarez de Luna, nor the apparent danger 
of the latter, could diflblve that firm bond of Friendíhip 
with which their Souls were united. And though this in- 
clination be not natural, yet gratitude for pait Services, 
or the extraordinary merits of the Subject ufually produce it. 
Verrue isof it i'dfamiable,and gratefull to theWill. *T would 
be barbarous to oblige a Prince to balance his affe&ions with 
indifférency to all, for they proceed from the heart by the 
Eyes and Hands : what ííanch feverity can always reiift the 
charms of favour? How referv'd was Philip the Second? Ytt 
had he not one but many particular Favourites. God himfdf 
had fome whom he peculiarly favoured, giving them power 
to flop the courfe of the Sun and Moon (ij; The Lord 
obeying the voice of man (2). And why (as King Feter 
obíérv'd) is particular Friendíhip allow'd to private perfons 
and not to Princes ? Many are the troubles of Government, 
to alleviate which, 'twill be necefláry to have fome one near 
you in whom you can put a more particular Confidence. 
There are many difficulties in it, which are not to be fur- 
mounted by one. The burthen of a Crown is too weighty 
and cumberfeme for one to bear, the flrongeft yield to it, 
and, as Job fays, bend under it. For this reafon, though 
God was aíílitant to Mofes, and fupply'd him with ability 
and inftructions to adminiiier his Office, yet he commanded 
to make ufe of the elders in the Government of his people, 
that they might help to hear the burthen (3). And Jethro 
his Father in- Law, thought the burthen greater than he was 
able to bear (4). Alexander took Parmeno to his aíliílance ; 

f 1) And he faid in the fight of Ifraef, Sun, ftand thou (rill upon Gi- 
bcov. -., and thou Moon, in the valley of jfjtlon, jof 10. 12. (;) The 
Lord harkened to the voice of man, for the Lord fought for ifrael, 
Uid ( t) And rhey fhall hear the hmrhmof the people with thee, that 
ihou hear it not thy fclf alone, Nut/ib. it. 17. (4} For thi< thing is 
too heavy for ilnce j thou art not able to perform it thy felf alone, 
Exid. 18 i 8. 


Vol. I. depends folely on the Tower of the Prince. $f% 

David, Joé; Solomon, Zadock ; Darim, Daniel ; by whofe 
dire&ionsthey fucceeded in their affairs. No Prince is fo pru- 
dent and difcreet, as of himfelf to know all things, nor fo 
carefull and diligent, as to manage all affairs alone. Which 
natural impotency oblig'd Princes to erecT: Courts and 
Counfels, and to create Prefidents, Governours, and Vice- 
roys, in whom the power and authority of Princes might 
refide. For along (fays King Alphonfo the Wife) they can't 
penetrate and examin all things, but have need of the aj/iftance 
of others, in whom they can confide, who ¡bould ufe the power 
which they receive in performing thofe things which Princes 
can't do themfelves f. And if Princes ufe the afliftance of 
Minifters abroad, why ihould he not in the more private 
affairs of his Cabinet? 'Tis neceffary he ihould have fome 
one near him, whom he may deliberate with about the Ad- 
vice and Counfel which is given him. That he may with 
him compare his own Scruples and Propofitions, and be by 
him inftrufted. Whom, in fine, he may fafely truft to 
expedite and execute Affairs (0- Would it not be worfe, 
if embarrak'd with fuch weighty cares, he ihould commu- 
nicate himfelf to none? Befides, 'tis absolutely neceffary that 
the Prince ihould have fome aififtant, who, difengag'd from 
all other bulinefs, ihould be as a Mediator between him 
and his people : Otherwife it would be imponible for him 
to hear and fatisfie all, nor would it fuit with his Majefty. 
For this reafon, the Ifraelites befought Mofes that he would 
fpeak to God for them, for they themfelves were afraid of 
bis Prefence (6). And Abfalom, that he might render Da- 
vid odious to the people, urg'd that he had no Minifters 
about him io receive the complaints of the diftreifcd (7). 
.The Zeal and Prudence of a Favourite may with eafe re&U 
fie the defects of Government, and the inclinations of Prh> 

f L. %. tit. i- p. 2. (s) Solatium curarum frequenter fibi aihibent nta- 
turi Reges, & hhic melisres ¿eflimantur, Jifoli omnia non prafumunt Ca£ 
fiod lib 8. epift. 9. (6) Exod. 20. 19. (7) Thy matters are good 
and right, but theie is no man deputed of the King to hear chee, 
a 15. 3. 


3 $ t The Authority of Miniffert of State Vol. Í. 

ccs (8;. Agrícola by his prudent addrefs, reclaim'd Domi* 
titm, and though Sejams was bad, Tiberius was worfe, when 
Vvithout him he follow'd his own inclinations (g). And truly 
by fuch Favourites God often faves a whole Kingdom, as he 
did Syria by Naaman, and *s£gypt by Jofepb (io). Since 
then 'tis neceííary that the weight of Government mould be 
divided ; 'tis natural in the choice of fuch an aififtant to be I 
guided in fome meafure by inclination, or fome fecret Sym- 
pathy in the perlbnsof each; which choice, if it be found- 1 
ed upon defert, can be no ways dangerous; nay, 'tis requi- 
lite that the humour of the party whom the Prince takes to 
affift him, ihould be chofen to him The queftioh is. Whether 
one or many fhould be chofen to this Office ; if many equally 
favour'd and refpeited , Emulation will ariie, and their 
Couniels will thwart one another to the detriment of the 
State. So that it feems more agreeable to natural order, 
that affairs fliould be committed to one alone, who ihould 
íupervife the reft, and by whom affairs ihould come digefted 
and methodized to the Prince, who ihould only fubftitute 
him to h'is cares and trouble, not his power and authority, 
jn his Counfels not his Rewards. The Sun alone imparts 
Light to the whole world, and when he fets, he leaves not 
many but only one Vicegerent, the Moon, with a Luftre 
much greater than that of the. other Stars, who feem butas 
fo many inferiour Minifters to affift her. Yet neither this 
northofe flbine with their own, but borrow'd Light, which 
the Earth acknowledges receiv'd from the Sun. Nor does 
this favour misbecome Majefty, when a Prince devolves part 
of the burden of Affairs upon his Favourite, fo as to pre- 
lerve the fovereign power and authority to himlelf .• for this 
is not favour but Employment, not io much an obligation, 
asa communication of trouble ; nor is this Co much to been, 
vied, if Princes would befo prudent, as to give it another 

(8) Qui in rcgix farailiaritatis facrar'tnm admitttintur mult d faceré 
foffittit, & dictre, qtiibus patipcrum necejjitas Jublevetur, faveatur religia, 
fiat ¿quitas, Ecclefia dilatetur. Petr. UJif. Épift. 150. (9) Obteclu ¿i- 
bi din i bus, dnm Sejauum dilexit, timuitvc: poflremo in ¡celera fimul ae 
dedecoraprorttpit, pofío/Ham remoto pudor e,& met u,fuo tanturn ingenio uit> 
bat or, T«*c. 6. ann. (10) 3 Kings j, r. 

name ? 

Vol. I. depends folely on the Tower of the Tr'tme. 3 5" % 
ríame; as Prefident of the Council, or Chancellour; as the 
Magiflrates call'd Prafefiiat Rom ¿ncuvi'd no Envy, though 
they were fecond Cafirs. 

The felicity of Subjects confifls not in the Prince's being 
like a loadftone, attractive of Iron and not of Gold, but in 
his knowledge in chilling fuch a Minifter as will attribute 
whatever is great and commendable to him ; and take alt 
the Reflexions and Odium of the people upon himfelf; 
one whofe mind is wholly bent upon the publick good ; who 
manages affairs without Ambition ; hears without Difdain 
and debates without Paflion ; whofe Refol ves and Determi- 
nations have no refpect to felf-intereft. In a word, whofe 
whole aim is the fervice and advantage of his Country, noC 
himfelf, or the prefervation of his Mailer's favour. By this 
rule one may know whether this Familiarity proceed from 
pure Zeal or Tyranny. Princes ought to take great care in 
the choice of fuch a Minifter, endeavouring not to be byafs'd 
by Affection or fanfifull Inclination,but by rare and excellent! 
Qualifications and Merits, for fometimes fuch Friendfhip 
is not the refult of deliberation but accident; it is not fa-^ 
vour but diligence : Courts ufually erect and adore fome I- 
dol which they deify, and treat with Royal Splendor and 
Magnificence; they worfhip it upon their Knees, burn Ta- 
pers, and offer lncenfe to it, imploring its affiftance with 
Pravers and Vows (1 1). As induftry can change the courfe 
of Rivers, and turn them another way; foil often happens 
that thofe who have butinefs at Court, not regarding the 
Prince, the true channel of affairs, apply themfelves to the 
Favourite, whofe arts do, by this, ib iecure the Prince's 
favour, that he can never difengage himfelf from it. No 
Prir.ce was more cautious, none more free than Tiberius, 
yet was hefubject to his Favourite Sejtmis (11). In which 
cafe *ris difficult to fay, whether fach favour be human 
choice, or fome fuperiour power, for the greater good or 

( 1 1) And fo the mulriruae, allured by the grace of the work, took 
him now for a God, which a little before was but honoured as a man, 
IVifd 14. ao. {iz) Tiberium variis artibus devinx/t, adti ut objcurunt 
édverfus zUos.fibi tmi uK4¿'.um } ¡ntefluwqxe efficsrct, 

A a \\\ 

3 $4- The Authority of Miniflers of State Vol. I. 
ill of the Commonwealth : The Holy Spirit fays, 'tis a par- 
ticular judgment of God (i$). Tacitus attributes the fa- 
vour and fall of Sejmui to the anger of the Gods for the 
ruin of the Empire (14). A misfortune fcarce avoidable, 
when this favour falls upon a perfon of great quality, as ic 
ufuallydoes in Courts where the chief of the Nobility are 
Miniiters. For he who is once ponWd of it, will, by the 
preheminence of his Birth and Grandure of his Family en- 
deavour what he can to preferve it, nor will he eaiily fuffer 
himfelf to be fupplanted by any one. As was feen in John 
sllphonfo Robles, in the time of King John the Second t. 
The heart of a Prince is never fafe in the power of a Sub- 
ject, whofe Nobility and Authority make him too much re- 
fpeáed by others. Though this inconveniency is leifen'd, 
when this favour falls upon fome great man who is truly- 
zealous and intent upon his Prince's Service, and the ho- 
nour and welfare of his Country, for then the people's En- 
vy and Odium will not be Co great, and the orders which 
are difpatch'd through the hands of fuch a one will be the 
more readily obferv'd ; yet 'tis always highly neceflary, if a 
Prince could balance his favour between his own Authority 
and the Merits of his Favourite, to commit only that part 
of the adminiftration to him, which he cannot manage 
himfelf; for ihould he commit it wholly to him, he would 
experience the fame misfortunes with King Ahafuerus, when 
he entruiled Haman with the Government of his people (15). 
Let him not give by another's hand what he can difpofe of 
with his own j nor borrow others Eyes, when he can fee 
with his own. As to what is done in Courts of Juftice and 
Councils, let him afterwards confult the Prefidents and Se- 
cretaries, from whofe relations he may receive a juft ac- 
count of the affairs therein tranfafted ; and his Refolutions 
will be more concife and ready, when he confers with thofe 
by whom the affairs have been managed. This method the 
Popes and Emperors ufe, as did alfo the Kings oí Spain till 

(iq)ProV. 29. 26. (r4) Nan tarn folertia (qttippe iifdem artibus vi~ 
fíus eji) quant fleam ira in remRoma7¡at»,cujui pariexnio vigutt ceciditque. 
Tic. 4. ann. t M«, hift. tiifp. lib. 20. 1. 15. (15) Efth. 3. 11. 


Vol. I. depends fokly on the Tower of the Prince. 3 5 $ 

Tbilip the Second, who being an excellent Pen-man, intrc° 
duc'd the cu'ftom of taking debates and con flotations in wri- 
ting, which afterwards prevailing, gave rife to private fa- 
vour: forthe Kings being embarafs'd with fuch a vaft num- 
ber of writings were obliged to communicate them to fome 
one, and this muft of neceifity be a Favourite On fuch a 
one let a Prince bellow more peculiar marks of -favour and 
benevolence. For he who merits his favour and filares his 
trouble, ought to have Pre-eminence above' others. The 
ihadow of St. Peter worked Miracles (16). What won- 
der then, if a Prince's Favourite, who is but his ihadowj 
a&s with more Authority than others ? Neverthelefs, fome 
favours fliould be referv'd for others ; nor ihould thofe other 
be fo great, as to exceed the condition of a Subject, and 
make him equal to the Prince, fo as to have Court made 
to him as Co-partner in the Empire, and to draw the whole 
body of affairs after him, which derogates much from the 
Authority and Efteem of the Prince. A Favourite ihould 
aft as the ihadow not the Subftance. In this the Kings of 
Caftile, who, in times paft, had Favourites, run t great" 
Rifques; for as the power of the Kings being then riot fó 
large, how little foever they granted, it endangered the 
whole Kingdom ; as it befell King Sancho the Strong, fof 
his favour to Lopez de Hará \ King Alpbonfo the Eleven th,- 
for his to Count Alvaro Oforio-, King John the Second, 
and King Henry the Fourth, for theirs to Alvaro de Luna^ 
and John Pacheco. The whole point of Favouritifm confifts 
in the Prince's knowing how much he ought to allow his Fa- 
vourite, and he how much he ought to receive from his 
Prince. Whatever exceeds this rule, creates (as we íhalí 
mention anon) Jealoufte, Envy and Danger (17). 

(16) A&S ?. i J. O l) Sedutcrque menfuram implevimut & tu quan- 
tum princeps tributte dmico pojfes, & ego quantum amicus a principe acc¡¿ 
fere : at era invidiam augent. T¿c. x 4. ann. 

Á a i EM¿ 



._£ fll B LE M L. 

TH E Mountain looks down with difdain upon the 
other works of Nature, and proudly rifes above 
them, Co as to have communication with the Skies. 
Let not the Values envy it this Glory, for though it be 
nearer the favours of Heaven, 'tis alfo more expos'd to the 
firokes of its Thunder too. About its head Clouds gather, 
and Storms prepare their rage, and upon it they firft exert 
it. 'Tis the fame in Offices and Imployments more imme- 
diately under Princes. The Activity of their power is moft 
offeniive to thofe who are neareft it. Their Converfation is 
as venomous as that of a Viper ( i ). Whoever walks among 
them, walks among Snares, and the Arms of his offended 
Enemies (i). The favour and difdain of Princes are Co im- 

(¡) Ecclef. 9. 13. (2J Jfeid. 


Vol. I. Mfaifters aught always to le fuhjeci^ &c. 357 
mediate, that nothing intervenes. Their Love knows no 
Moderation ; when turn'd to Hatred, it leaps from one ex- 
treme to tifother, from Fire to Froft. The fame inftant 
fees them love and hate, with the effefts of Thunder, which 
while the noife is heard, or the flaíli íéen, reduces the bo- 
dies to Aihes. The favour of Princes is like fíame, extin- 
guiih'd with the fame eafe 'twas lighted. Nay fome have 
thought it abfolutely fatal to thofe on whom it falls (3). 
And many examples as «veil part as prefent, are fufficient 
evidences of it; we have frcih inftances of the fudden falls of 
the moft exalted Favourites. The Duke of Lerma in Spain ; 
the Marfhal D'Ancre in France ; The Duke of Buckingham 
in England-, John Olden Barnveh in Holland ; Cardinal 
Clefel in Germany ; at Rome Cardinal Nazaret; yet may this 
be afcrib'd to divers caufes, either becaufe the Prince ha- 
ving given all that he could, or the Favourite obtain'd all 
hedefirM, he was mounted to the higheft ftep, and fo mull 
of neceílity defcend (4J. But fuppofe there be moderation 
in the favours of the one, and the ambition of the other; 
yet what conftancy can there be in the minds of Princes, 
which the more vehement they are, are the more fubject to 
variety and contradiction ? who can fix the affeclions of 
him wfoofe Senfes fee double, and is like the firft matter, 
not refting in one form, but pleas'd with variety. Who 
can preferve that favour which is liable to fo many chances 
and turns of Humour? Who can behave himfelf with fo nice 
integrity, as to maintain the Prince's good opinion of him 
with the people? The Eyes of all are upon the Favourite. 
The Prince's Jrriends'think him an Ufurper of their Rewards, 
his Enemies that he incenfes the Prince farther againft them. 
Thefe, if they return to their duty, m.uft make the difgrace 
of the Favourite one of the conditions; thofe if they for- 
íake ir, lay all the blame upon him. Ambition and Envy 
are always in Arms, inrent upon every occasion to ruin him. 
The people are fo imbitter'd againft him, that they impute 

(3) Fato potentin raro femp items. Tac. 3. ann. (4) An fat tut capis, 
an: ¡Iks cum omnia tribuerunt ; Ant bos, cum jam nihil rehquurn tjt juod 
capant ? Ta-. 3.:¡nn. 

A a 1 «vea 

^8 Minijlers ought always to he fuhjett as well Vol. I. 

even natural misfortunes, and the Prince's Vices, all to him. 
Bernardo de Cabrera loft his head for the Tyrannies of Peter 
the Fourth, "king of Arragon^ whofe Favourite he was. By 
the fame means that a perfon endeavours to gain the favour 
of the Prince, he incurs the Odium of the Subjects \ io that 
it was truly laid by that great Man, Alpbonfo de Alb** \ 
querque, Governour of the Eoft-Indies, that a Minifter in 
obliging lis Prince, offended the People: and if he endea- 
vour to gratifiethe People, hedifobliges the Prince. 

If this favour be only founded upon exteriour Adoration, 
fomented by Court-Artifices, 'tis violent and momentary, 
and the Prince will endeavour to free himfelffrom this im- 
pos d involuntary Slavery. 

If it proceed from a natural propenfity of the Mind, 'tis ; 
very fubject to fecond Caufes, and is effae'd by time or the ' 
ingratitude of the Subjeit, when he forgets from whence he 
took his rife f y). 

If a perfon's Mein and Carriage do, as it were, ravííh the ; 
Prince's favour, it either foon fades, or is only fuperficial, j 
as in common Friendihip. 

Jf it be from Tome qualifications of Mind greater than 
thofe of the Prince, when-ever he knows it, there's an end 
of his favour, for none can endure in another Pre-eminency 
in Wit or Valour, which is ufually efteem'd above Power 
and Authority. 

If it be from afliduity and care in bufinefs, diligence is 
not lefs dangerous than negligence ; for fuccefs does not al- 
ways correfpond to means, becaufe of the diverfíry of acci- 
dents; and Princes will be difappointed in nothing that they 
wifh and defire. Succefs is attributed to chance, or to the 
fortune of the Prince, and not to the prudence of the Favou- 
rite (6), but mifcarriages to him alone, though the fault be 
anothers, for all are willing to father Succefs, but Misfor- 
tunes are laid at another's door (7), that is to the Favou- 
rite. Even Cafualties are imputed to him, as the falling of 

(<;) Wifd. 15. 11. (6) H<tc eft conditio Regum, ut cafut tantum ad- 
t/erfos hamittibus tribuant , fecundos fortuna ¡hx. .flSmil. Prob. (7) Projpe* 
va omnts vendtcant, adverfa uni imputantur. Tac. in vie. Agrie. 


Vol. I. to the Difpleafure as Favour of the Prince. 3^9 

the Amphitheatre, and the burning of Mount Calim were to 
Sejanus (8). Nor do they only accufe him in affairs of his 
own management, but alio in thofe of others, or in thole 
accidents that depend upon the Prince's |Will and Nature. 
Thus Seneca was blam'd for that Nero would have drown'd 
his Mother (9). Men cannot imagin a wickednefs fo 
firange as was not believ'd of Sejanus ( 1 o). There is no na- 
tural death, of a great Minifter or Relation of the Prince, 
but is immediately reflected upon the Favourite. As was 
that of Prince Philip Emanuel, Son to Charles Duke of Sa- 
voy , to the Duke of Lerma. 

If this favour proceeds from Obligation, and from iignal 
Services perform'd, the Prince will by degrees grow weary 
of the burthen, and his Love will turn into Hate, becauie 
he looks upon him as a Creditor, and being unable to pay 
him, he feeks pretences to break with him, and fo firike 
off the Debt (ri). Acknowledgment is a kind of Slavery. 
For he who obliges another, makes himfelf his iuperiour, 
which is inconfiftent with the Sovereignty of a Prince, whofe 
power is diminiihed, if it be not greater than the obligation : 
and Princes being opprefs'd with the weight of Gratitude 
and Obligation, become notoriouily ursgratefull, that they 
may difcharge themfelves from them ( 1 1). The Emperour 
Adrian put Titian to death, who had been his Tutor from 
a Boy, and to whom he ow'd his Empire : Not to mention 
that the fatigues of many years are effae'd by oneoveriight ; 
Princes being more apt to punifh a (light offence, than to 
reward Mgnal Services. If they are honourable, they create 
Emulation and Envy in the Prince himielf, for whofe Ser- 
fs) Feralemque annum fertbant, & omnibus adverps fufceptum Principi 
confilium abfentia, qui tnos vulgo ad culpam fortuita trahextes. Tac. 4. 
ann. (9) Ergo non jam Nero cujus •immamtas omnium qwflus anteibat, 
fed adverfo rumore, Seneca erat, quod orationc tali corfeffionem fcrippfpt. 
Tac. 14. ann. (10) Sed quia Sejanus facinorum omnium repertor habt- 
baittr, ex nimia charitate in eum CttJ'aris, & ctteroruir, ¡n ulrumque 
odio quamvts fabuloja Ó" immania credebantnr. Tac 4. ann. (11) Nara 
beneficia eo u j 'que lata funt dum videntur exfolvi pofje ; zib': muhum ante- 
venere, pro gratia odium redditur. IMd. (iz) Qtidim quo pfw de6:nt t 
magis oiderunf. Leve /es alienum debitorem faar, grave inimi.iup, Se¡¡. 
£p. j 9. 

A a 4 vice 

3 6o Minifters ought alwaj stole fyljeft as well Vol. L 
yice they are perform'd, for fouie are more angry with 
thofe who have ferv'd them fuccefsfully and glorioufly, than 
with thofe who have heen more remifs and lefs fuccefsfull, 
of this humour was Philip oí Macedón (13) ; a Vice which 
his Son Alexander inherited (14)} and was vifible in James 
the Firft of Arragcn, who when Don Blafco de Alagon had 
taken Moreüa, he thought he had gotten more Glory than 
he in that Expedition, and therefore took from him that 
City, and gave him in exchange that of Sagafto. The Victo- 
ries of Agrícola made Domitian jealous, feeing that the fame 
of a private man exceeded his f 15). So that in the mod 
glorious and fuccefsfull Exploits there is the grcateft dan- 

If favour fprings from the prompt obedience of the Fa- 
vourite to the Will of the Prince, it makes the Government 
incur the above- mention'd inconveniencies of Flattery, and 
fbon ruins both the Prince and Favourite ; Obedience is as 
dangerous as difobedience ; for if the command fucceeds, 
'tis afcrib'd to the Prince, if not, to the Favourite. If this 
command be not obey'd, 'tis then the reafon why it fucceed- 
ed not. if it be unjuft, he dares not make that his excufe, 
left he offend the Prince; if he obey, the fault is all laid 
upon him; and the Prince, that he mayn't ftem the Author 
of the mifchief, permits him to fufFer either in the opinion 
cf the People; or in the hands of the Judge. ThusT/fon- 
us ferv'd Pifo after he had by his command poifon'd Germa. 
metis, whofe caufe he referred to the Senate (16 ) ; and com- 
ing to Rome, he behav'd himfelf as if he knew nothing of 
the matter, leaving him confounded to iee him fo uncon- 
cern'd and referv'd, without either pity or anger (17). 

(13) Q,mm i t a, glori & cupidum ejfi dicunt familiares, ut omnia clam 
fdiinora fua ej/e videri cupit, & ma^isindignatur Ducibuf & Pr*fcc~Iis,qui 
¡profpere, & hudabiliter aliquid gfjfsrint, qmm lis qui mfeliciter & igna- 
we, Demoft. (14) Sua demptum gloria exifiimans quicquid cefiijfet alien i. 
Curt. (15) id [ibi máxime formidolofum, pr-vati hominis r.amen fupra- 
Principis attoUi. Tac. in vir. Agrie. (16} Integram caujam ad Striatum 
remifit. Tac. 6. ann. (17) tlullo magis ettttrritus eft, qua?» quid Tibe- 
riutn fmevjtfcratione, fine iraobftinatum, claufumque 1'idit, ne quo affiicln 
¡)errumperetur.T?AZ. 3. aim. 


Vol. T. to the Difpleafure at favour of the Prince. %6i 

If this favour falls upon a man of fmall Qualifications and 
Merit, he will fink under the weight of affairs ; for without 
a brave and vigorous mind, without a quick and piercing 
Wit, the favour of Princes cannot he long maintain'd. 

If it proceeds from a refemblance and conformity of Ver- 
tues, when the Prince bids adieu to them the other is atan 
end. For he will hate the Favourite, as one who accufes 
his change (18J, and whom he can't make ufe of in the pro- 
fecution of his Vices. 

If a Prince loves a Favourite, for that he makes ufe of 
him as an inftrument to execute his vicious defigns and in- 
clinations with ; what-ever ills do thence ariie, either to 
the King's Peribn, or to the Government, all fall upon 
him; and the Prince with eafe clears hirafelf by difgracing 
him ; or elfe hates him as a witnefs of his Vices, whofe 
prefence does, as it were, upbraid him with his crimes. For 
the fame reafon Nero diigrac'd Anicetm the Murtherer of 
Jgrippina(i<)); fo T/foriajdifcharg'd thoie Minifters who 
had aflifted his Cruelty, and made ufe of others (20,1. The 
Odium of the Death, and the favour of him who com- 
mands it, end both with the execution, and the Prince 
thinks he fufficiently clears himfelf in puniihing the crime, 
as ? lancina found (21). 

If this favour proceed from the communication of im- 
portant Secrets, he is in danger from them, for they are Vi- 
pers in the bread of the Favourite, which gnaw his En- 
trails till they eat their way cut, for either levity or ambiti- 
on of feeming a man in favour, reveals them, or they are 
diicover'd by another, or by difcourfe, which are equally 
pernicious to the Favourite. But though this thould noc 
happen, the Prince will be willing to free himfelf from the 
care of having entrufted them, by tearing open the bag in 

(i8)Wifd 2.iy. (19) Levi poft admiffum feelm gratia, deitt gra- 
v'tore odio, quia mahrum facitiorum minijirt yta/iexprobrantes afpiciuntur. 
Tac. 14. ann, (20) Qui Jcderum miniftros ut pervertí ab aliis nolebat, 
it a plerumcjiic [attatiu, Ó 4 oblatis in eandern opera?» recent ¡bus, veteresó" 
pr agraves actfltxit. Tac. 4, ann. (21) Ut cdium & gratia defter e, jus 
i>aluit. Tac. í. ann. 


jtfi Mint fien ought always to hefuhjeft as well Vol. í. j 

which they are hid jft as many Secrets fo many dan: 
gers (ii)i 

Nor is the danger left, if this favour proceeds from the 
Favourites being confcious of the Prince's Cowardice and 
Bafeneis ; for fuch favour is rather fear than inclination, 
nor will a Prince indure, that his honour ihould depend 
upon another's filence, or that there ihould be one who in- 
wardly ihould defpife him. 

If this favour be but fraall, it can't refift the fury of En- 
vy, but is blown down by every blair, like a tree not firmly 

If it be great, it creates Envy and F$jfcn the Prince him- 
felf, and fo makes him carefull to free himfelf from it ; as 
when we have pil'd Stones upon Stones, we at laft fear left 
the heap which we have rais'd, ihould fall upon our own 
heads, and fo puih them over th'other. way. The Prince 
fees the Statue which he erected fliades his own Grandure, 
and ib pulls it down again. I may venture to fay, that 
Princes fecm to delight to fliew their power, as well in pul- 
ling clown thofe images as in erecting them ; for their pow- 
er being limited, can't feem immenfe, unleis it return to 
the center from which it proceeded, or keep in a circle. 

Thefe are the rocks againft which, if the (hip of favour 
íirike, 'tis loft, fo much the furer, by how much the 
more fail it makes. But if any one fcape, 'tis either be- 
caufe it recover'd port in time, or that it ran firft upon the 
more of Eternity. Is there then any Pilot fo skilfull as to 
know how to manage the, helm of favour, and to fail in fo 
very dangerous a Gulf? What prudence, what art can fave 
him ? What Ghymift can fix this Mercury of Princes Affe- 
ctions? efpecially, when favour founded upon eminent me- 
rit can't refift Envy and the Machinations of fo many as 
confpire its ruin. Neither the Kings Darius nor Achis 
could defend their favour to Daniel and David, againft the 
hatred of the Princes and Guards (23); but were fore'd for 
their fatisfaction, to banifli one, and throw the other into 
a Den of Lions, though they were well aifured of their In- 

(ai) Ifa. 24. 16, vid. ¡at, verf. (23 J Dan. 6 4. 


Vol. I. to the Difpleafare as Favour of the Prince. 3 6j 

tegrityand Innocence (24). Though no prudence nor atten- 
tion be fufficient to prevent thofe accidents which depend 
not upon the Favourite, yet may he do much in things which 
depend upon him, and at leaft will be unblameable if he fall 
into difgrace. Which confideration obliged me here to mark 
out to him theufual caufesof his ruin, arifing from his own 
imprudence and the malice of others, that being forewarn'd 
he may avoid them. If we would attentively confider 
the Maxims and Aftions of former Favourites, and efpeci- 
ally of Sejanus, we (hall find, that moil of them fell, be- 
caufe they could not continue thofe good methods by which 
they at firft obtain'd the Prince's favour. All to merit it, 
and gain theapplaufe of the people, enter into favour zea- 
lous, humble, courteous, and officious, giving counfél for 
the Glory of the Prince, and Prefervation of his Grand ure, 
the method by which Sejanus ingratiated himfelf (is), but 
being once matters of this favour, they loofe the Helm 
which before guided them, and believe they have no more 
occafion for it in their Voyage, but can fail fecurely with the 
gale of the Prince's favour. 

At firft they are diligent to appear wholly difengag'd 
from their own affairs, and only intent upon the Prince's 
intereft, preferring his fervice even to their own Lives and 
Fortunes ; whence the Prince, perfuaded that he has got in 
this perfon a faithful aflbciate in his labours, loves him and 
extolls him every-where; as Tiberius did Sejanus to the Se- 
nate and People (26). 

They endeavour farther by fome generous and heroick 
action to prove their fidelity to the Prince and win his heart. 
Thus Sejanus ingratiated himfelf with Tiberius, by iuftain- 
ing with his own hands and head, the weight of a Preci- 
pice which would elfe have fallen upon Tiberius, caufing 
him thereby to put more confidence in his Friendlliip and 
Conitancy (27). 

(24) 1 Sam. 10. 6. (2 í) Quia Sejanus ¡incipiente adhucpotentia, font* 
(onfiliis notejcerg volehat. Tac. 4. arm. (26) Ut jocium laborum ncn modi 
in fermonibus ,fid apud patres & populum cehbraret Tac 4. arm (ij)Pr.f- 
buitaue ipfi matsriam, cur amatia, confíantiaque Sejani magis fideret. 
Ibid. ' 


364 Mwi(¡ers ought always to le fubjett as well Vol. I. 
Which good opinion of a Favourites fidelity, if a Prince 
once imbibes, he eafiiy fancies himfelf fecure of it for the 
future, and willingly takes his advice though never fo per- 
nicious, putting more confidence in him than in himfelf; 
as Tiberius did after that action (18). And hence proceed 
very great mifchiefs. For he is bunded by this pre-con- 
ceiv'd opinion, nay, and himfelf promotes his Favourite's 
Credit and Reputation, by permitting extraordinary Ho- 
nours to be paid him, as Tiberius did, hanging Sejams's pi- 
cture in the Theatres aud publick Places ( 29). This whifper 
paifes immediately from one to another, whence is rais'd a 
new Idol, like that of Aaron out of the Ear-rings (30), 
for either there would be no favour, or at leaft, 'twould be 
but of fliort continuance,without the applaufe of the people: 
This Honour creates Arrogance and Avarice to fupport it, 
the ufual Vices of the great ones (;i). The Favourite for- 
gets himfelf, and thofe good qualities which made him at 
firft efteern'd, by degrees fade, Profperity infenfibly diiclofing 
thofe Vices which Policy had a while conceal'd. So it 
happened to Antonhs Primus, in whom Profperity dilco- 
ver'd Pride, Avarice, and other ill qualities which were be- 
fore unknown ($2). Grandure diflurbs the reafon, and 
makes the Favourite afpire to things above him ; thus Se- 
janus orTer'd marriage to Livia(i%). He manages affairs 
not as a Minifter, but a companion (which was Mucian's 
great fault) f; 4) ; and would have the Prince but a bare 
name, referving all the authority to himfelf (35). Nor dares 
any fay to him what Batbjheba faid to David, And now be- 
hold, Adonijah reignetb, and now, my Lord the King, thou 

(28) Major ex eo, & quanqttam exitioja ftiaderet, ut nan Jui anxittt, 
cum fdi audi (bat «r. Ibid, (-¡y) Colique per theatr» & for a effigies ejus, 
interque principia kgionum finer et. Ibid. (30; Exod. 2.2. 4. (^i) Ava- 
rJtiam O" arrogant iam } precipua walidiorum vitia. Tac. I. hift. (} 2) Fe- 
licitas in tali i?Jgenio t avaritiam, fuperbiam, cater aque occulta mala patc- 
fecit Tac 2. hill (33) At Sej anus nimia fortuna. focors,& mulubri />,- 
fuper cttpidine incenfus, promiffam matrimonium, flagitarite Livia y com- 
pon: t ad CeJ arios codidllos. Tac. 14 ann. 1 * 0+) Muctanus cum expedite 
maiJH, fociumm.igis imperii quam mini ¡hum agent, Tac.4. ann. ( JjJ Vim 
frincipis ampluli, rsmen remitiere. Tac. 4 hift. 


Vol. T. to the Difpleafure as Favour of the Prince. %6$ 

knowejl it not (;6j. And 'tis the Favourite's whole aim to 
exceed the Prince in thofe qualities which are proper to 
Royalty, that he may be efteem'd beyond him ; which way 
Abfalom made ufe of to difgrace King David, affecting affa- 
bility and a readinefs to hear the Subjects Complaints ; by 
which he ftole the hearts of the people (;7). A Favourite 
does not think hirolelf fuch, unlefs his Servants, Relations 
and Friends participate of his Authority, and fo for his fe- 
curity he conferrs the chief Offices of State upon them, and 
fo cuts the Nerves of Envy. With this defign Sejanus pre- 
ferid his own Creatures (; 8^. And becauie this power de- 
rogates from the Authority of the Princes of the Blood, 
who always oppofe favour, not being able to brock that 
it fliould be more efteem'd than Birth, and that the Prince 
íhould fuífer himfélf to be govern 'd by a Subject, on whom 
they muft depend, (a danger which Sejanus experiene'd in 
the Family of Tiberius (39). The Favourite breeds diicon- 
tent between them and the Prince. Thus Sejanus inform'd 
Tiberius, that Azrippina confpir'd againft him, and Agrip* 
pina that Tiberius defign'd to poifbn her (40). 

If the Favourite fucceeds in any thing of this nature it 
emboldens him to proceed farther. After the death of 
Drufus, Sejanus had a defign to cut off the whole Family 
of GermanicHS. So that the Favourite being blinded with 
paifion and excefs of power, fcorns private Artifices, and 
arts openly againft the Prince's Relations, as Sejanus did a- 
gainft Agrippina and Nero. None dare warn him of the 
danger of his actions, for all tremble at the Majefty of his 
prefence, as the Israelites did at that of Mofes, when he 
came from converging with God (4.1) And as he fees him- 
felfasmuch refpected as the Prince, he confpires againft 
him (42), and opprefíés his Subjects, knowing he can't gain 
their good Will ; which makes them in Defpair, doubt, 
whether his Avarice and Cruelty would not be lefs, were 

(36) 1 Kings 1. 18. (37) 2 Sam. 15. 6. {tf)Neque Senatorio am* 
bit» abflintbat, clitntes fttos honoribus out provinciis ornando. Tac. 4. ann. 
(39) Ctterum plena Ctfarum domtts, juvenis f.lius, nepotes adulti mo- 
ran» capitis adferebant. Tac. 4. ann. ¿40) Immijfis <fti per fp(ciem ami- 
a'tixmonerent, paratum ei venerium, vitandas joteri ipules. Tac. .j.. ann. 
(^i)Exod. a 30. (<p)Efth \6. a, 


3 66 Minifters ought always to lefutjeft as well Vol. I. 
he really their Prince, than now when not being io, he 
treats them as Slaves and Strangers. Which Otho confi- 
der'd in a Favourite of Galba (4;). 

All attempts of this kind augment the danger, for Envy 
encreafes, and Malice arras againft the Favourite, who 
thinking he can't overcome it, but by fome greater, applies 
all the means that Emulation of favour, more furious than 
that of Love, can fuggeft. And fince the fecurity of his fa- 
vour depends upon the conftancy of the Prince's Will, he 
endeavours to oblige him, by pleafures and voluptuoufneis, 
the main inítruments of favour, which Vitellines Courtiers 
made ufe of to preferve his (44). And lead the Prince 
íhould give credit to any, he makes him diffident of all, the 
good especially, for them he fears moit. By this artifice 
Vatinhi (45?, and Sejanus ingratiated themfelves (46). 

The Favourite confidering, that nothing is more oppo- 
fite to favour than the capacity of the Prince, makes it his 
whole endeavour, to keep him from knowing, undemand- 
ing, feeing or hearing any thing, or having any one about 
him to inform him. He procures his averfion to bufineis 
and fatigue, by filling his mind with the diverfions of Hunt- 
ting, Plays, and Banquets, that his Senfes being diverted, 
neither his Eyes may infpeét Tranfa&ions, nor his Ears 
hear the Murmurs and Complaints of his people. Thus in 
the Sacrifices of the Idol Moloch, the Priefts made a noife 
with Drums and Trumpets, todrown the Cries and Groans 
of the dying Infants. Sometimes by a farther fetch, he 
embarailes and confounds him with Affairs and Papers, on 
purpoieto tire him quickly, fo we ride Colts in a boggy 
ground to break them, and make them fooner take the Bit. 
To which end he perfwades him to affift at Audiences, by 
which being wholíy wearied, he may commit the manage- 

(4? ) Minore avaritia, out licentiagrajfatus tjfet fortius (i ipfe impera/- 
Jet, nunt Ó" /«bjef/os nos habuit t anauam fuos , & viles ut alíenos. Tac r. 
hift. (44) Ufium ad potentiam iter prodigis epulis, & fumptu, ganeaaue 
fatiare inexplebiles Vitellii libídines. Tac. 2. hift. (45) Optimi cujufque 
criminatione eouj^ue iialuit, ut gratia, pecunia, vi nocendi, etiam malos 
framineret. Tac. 15. ann. (\C) Sm obtegens in alios criminatot. Tac. 4. 


Vol. 1. to the Difpkafure as Favour of the Prince. 367 
ment of all to the Favourite, thinking it fufficient to have 
an account of affairs from him. Whence (as Jeremiah 
faid of the Babjlonijh Idols) the Prince is nothing but what 
the Favourite pleafes (47). 

He would not have Affairs go fmoothly and with fucceft, 
for any one can fail in a Calm , but he wifties that the Sea 
may run high, and that the State may be fo tofs'd by the 
Waves, that the Prince may be afraid to put his hand to 
the Helm, and fo have more need of him. And then to 
flop at all Avenues to Truth, and remain lole manager of 
Affairs beyond the reach of Envy , he draws him from 
Court to fome Retreat among his own Creatures. So Se- 
jams perfwaded Tiberim to retire from Rome (48 ). 

All thefe Arts redound much to the prejudice of the 
State, and the Princes reputation, and he who hawks after 
a Prince's favour by thefe means, does him more injury 
than one who openly offends him C49). For an offence is 
given by one fault, but favour is not acquir'd under many, 
and thefe always derogate from the Honour of the Prince, 
and are oppofite to the publick Welfare. A State fuffers 
much upon the fudden death of its Prince, but this grie- 
vance is foon remedied in his Succeflbr, which can't be a 
when the Prince is by thefe arts render 'd unferviceable to 
the Government, this misfortune muft continue as long as 
he lives, to the utmoii Detriment of the Commonwealth. 
And as 'cis daily more and more felt, it creates Difcontent 
and Murmurs among all, who find that this favour is not 
voluntary but violent, not choice but force , and many 
grounding their fortune upon his difgrace, he being an im- 
pediment to their promotion ; thefe, I fay, being always 

(47) Baruch-6. 46. (+ 8) Ac ne affiduos in domum cettu arcendo, in- 
fringers potent i am, ant receptando facúltatela criminantibus praberet; 
hue flexit, ut Tiberiumad vitamprocul Roma amcenis loci s degendam , im- 
felleret : multa quippe providebat. Sua in manu adittn, literarumqite 
magna ex parte ft arbitrum fore, cum per milites ctmmeavent :mox Cafaren» 
vigente jam Jenecla fetretoque loci mo/litum muni a imperii facilius tranf- 
miffarum : & minui ibi invidiam, adempta (alutantum turba, fublatif- 
que manibuf vera potentia augerc. Tac 4. ann. (49) Plurafxpe peccan* 
fur dum demeremur, quam cum offendimm. Tac. 1 5. ann. 


3 6 8 Minifters ought always to lefuhjett as veett Vol. T. 
arm'd againft him, 'tis impoflible but that at laft they íhould ! 
find an opportunity to diiplace him, or that the Prince 
ihould not at laft perceive the trick, and that all the Envy 
and Odium conceiv'd againft the Favourite falls upon him, j 
ssTibáÍHS at laft found (50): and then the Prince begin- 
ning to open his Eyes, at the fame time begins to fear the ¡ 
power which he has given his Favourite ; which made Ta- j 
citus doubt whether Tiberius more Iov'd or fear'd Seja- 
ms (51); and as before his favour rais'd him, fo now his 
hate procures his ruin. 

This is the critical point of favour, in which all are in 
danger, for neither can the Prince diflemble his dif-iatis- 
faction, nor the Favourite remain conftant in his Difgrace, 
whence both being difgufted the bond of Amity is broken. 
The Prince regards the Favourite as unworthy his favour, 
and he him as ungratefull for his Services, and believing that 
the Prince can't be without him, and that he muft ihortly 
recall him, he withdraws a while from Court, and gives oc- 
cafion to another to intermeddle in Affairs, and foment the 
new raised difgufts, whence in a fliort time the favour is 
turn'dinto hatred, the impatience of the Favourite haftning 
his ruin. The report of his Difgrace fpreads, and all grow 
infolent and infult over him, it being now not in the power I 
of the Prince himfelf to aflift him. His Relations and j 
Friends fore-feeing his fall, and the danger which threatens 
them, fear left they too ihould be involved in the ruin (¿2). 
As a lofty Tree falling cruihes all that grow under the flia- 
dow of its Branches ; nay thefe are the chief promoters of 
his fall, that they may get out of danger themfelves, all join- 
ing, fome as Friends, fome as Enemies, to puih down this 
falling Wall ($3). The Prince afham'd of himfelf, ftrives 
to free himfelf from this Subjection, and to regain his cre- 
dit, by making the Favourite the principal caufe of all mff- 
carriages, lb that he is caught in his own Snares without 

(90) Perqué invidiam tut, meqmque incufant. Tac. 4. arm fyi) Dum 
Sejanum dt/exit timnitve. Ibid. (?2) Quídam male álacres, qui- 
bus i?jfau/la amicitii gravis cxitus immitttkat. Tac. 4. arm. (5 3) Pl»l. 
61. 4. 


Vol. I. to the Difpleafure or Favour of the Prince. 3 69 

being able to free himfelf, as Sejanm was (54), and the 
more he ftrives to difengage himfelf, the more he haftens his 
ruin: For when Favour once fickens it muft die, there be- 
ing no Medicine can recover it. 

From all that has been faid we may evidently fee, that 
the greateft danger in Favour is in the methods which Am- 
bition takes to preferve it; it being the fame with Favou- 
rites,as with People who are too curious about their Health, 
who thinking to preferve it by abundance of Phyfick, ra- 
ther deftroy it and ihorten their days. And as in Difterii- 
pers of the Body there is no better remedy than Abftinencej 
leaving the reft to Nature, fo when Favour begins to iicken, 
the belt Advice is not to tamper too much with Medicines^ 
but to ferve his Prince with fincerity and integrity, without 
affection or intereft,leaving the Operation toMerit andTruth, 
more durable than Artifice; and ufing only foiiie Prelerva- 
tives, fuch as refpect the Favourite, the Prince or his Mi- 
nifters, or the Court, or the People, or Strangers. 

As to the Favourite, he íhoüld preferve the fame fíate 
of Modefty, and Affability that bis fortune found him in.' 
He fhould clear his Looks from the dazling Beams of Fávoür¿ 
as Mofes did when he fpoke to the People, after he came 
from communing with God (55). Daniel, though he was 
a Favourite to many Kings, Waited with the reft in the Anti- 
Chambers (56). Let him refufe thofe Honours, whicfi 
either belong to the Prince, or exceed the Sphere of a Mi- 
nifter, and if any would offer them, let him advertiíe both* 
himfelf and him, that he is only a Servant to the Prince, to' 
Whom alone thofe Honours are due: fo the Angel inform'd St. 
John when he would have worihipped him (57). Let him not 
make his Prince's Favour the means whereby to execute hist 
Lufts and Paifions. Let him hear With Patience, and an- 
fwer calmly (58), let him notaffeft others Favour, nor fear 
their Difpleafure, nor conceal his Favoar, nor covet. So- 
vereign Power, nor arm againft Envy, nor provide againft 

(C4) Nm tarn fde^tia, quippe iifiem arttbus vitfus eft. Tac. 4. ann. 
(55J Exod. 34 j'j. (6) Dm. 2. 49. (57; Revel, tj. 10. (58) Ecclef, 

í T. Q. 

Bb Emulation. 

370 M'tn'ifter sought always to hefuhjett as well Vol. I- 

Emulation, for in thefe Precautions are very dangerous 
Let him fear God and Infamy. 

The Favourite is alfo in danger from his Family and Re- 
lations, for though the Prince and People do approve of his 
Actions, it don't thence follow, that they muft alfo thole 
of his Domefticks and Relations, whofe Diforders, Indifcre- 
tion, Pride, Avarice, and Ambition render him odious and 
ruin him. Let him not deceive himfelf by thinking, that 
his own Creatures are the fupport and ftrength of his Fa- 
vour, for he who depends on many, is in danger of many, 
and therefore 'tis better to keep them within remembrance 
of their former Condition, and far from the management 
of Affairs, that others may fee they hold no part in the Go- 
vernment, nor his Favour, or that they are preferr'd meerly 
for being his Servants. But if they are perfons of Worth 
and Merit, I would not that their being the Favourites Ser- 
vants and Relations fliould prejudice them. Chrift has 
taught us this Point, giving tp his Relations the Dignity of 
forerunner and Apoitle, but not that of Teacher of Nati- 
ons, and that of the Pontificate, which were due to the 
Faith of St. Peter, and the Learning of St. Paul. 

With the Prince let him obferve thelé Maxims. Let him 
always prefuppofe, that his Favour or Affection is very fub- 
ject to change, and if any fuch change fhould happen, he en- 
quire not into the Caufe thereof, nor pretend to take notice 
of it, that the Prince may not fufpect him, nor his Rivals 
hope his Fall, for he is in danger of it when he but thinks 
of it. Let him not build his Favour upon the inclination 
and fancy of the Prince, but upon his own Merit ; for if 
the Gold of Favour be not well tempered with that Allay, 
it can never endure the Hammer of Emulation. Let him 
love more the Dignity than the perfon of a Prince. Let 
him moderate his Zeal by Prudence, and guide his under- 
ftanding by that of the Prince, for none can fuffer a 
a Rival in Senfe. Let him think himfelf his Subject not his 
Companion, and being a Creature, let him not pretend to 
equal his Creator (59J ; let him efteem it honourable, and 

(59) Iccltf a. 1 a. 


Vol. I. to the Dljpleafure a¿ Favour of thePrince. 371 

glorious to ruin himfelf to augment his Grandeur. Let him 
advife with a modeft, agreeable and fincere Freedom (6o) t 
without fear of Danger or Ambition of being account- 
ed zealous and flanch in his Opinion. Let him make no 
Affair his own, nor think his Reputation concern'd in 
its Succefs, nor be difgufted that his Sentiments are reje- 
cted , or that being admitted they were afterwards altered, 
for fuch Attempts are very dangerous. 

In Debates and Refolutions, let him be neither fo hot as/ to 
flame, nor fo cold as to freeze, but keep a moderate pace ac- 
cording to time and opportunity. Let him bemore intent 
upon his Duty than his Favour, but without Affeftation or 
vain Glory, for he who ferves only for Reputation, robs the 
Prince of his (61). Lee his Silence be a p ropos , and his 
words clofe and ready upon occafion, which quality King 
Tbeodorkk commended in one of his Favourites (6i). Let 
him prefer his Princes Service to his own intereft, nay let 
them be both one. Let him pay due Veneration to the 
Royal Family, eiteeming their Friendtliip his greateft Secu- 
rity, without fomenting Differences between them and the 
Prince, for Blood is eaiily reconcile to the ruin of the Fa- 
vourite. Let him take care that the Prince has always 
good Servants, and faithful Minifters about him, and let 
him inftruft him faithfully in the Art of Government. Let 
him neither fiiut his Eyes, nor ftop his Ears, but rather take 
care that he fee, touch and feel all things himfelf. Let 
him difcreetly inform him of his Errours and Failures, 
without fear of offence, if neceflitv requires. For though 
his Favour may ficken for a time, 'twill recover again when 
he finds his Errour,as it happen'd to Daniel with the Kings 
of Babylon (6%). When the Prince refolves or determines 
any thing through Heat or Paflion, he fliould endeavour to 
bend not break thofe Refolutions, waiting while time and 
the inconveniencies thereof convince him of his Errour. 
Let him not prevent his hearing Peoples Complaints, and 

(6c) Piov. 22 xi. (61) Luk. 17. 10. (62) Sub Genii nojiri luce in- 
trepidus c¡'t¡dem, fed renjerenter ajfabat, opportune tacit us, necejfarie cp- 
ftofuiy Call lib 5. Ep 3. (62) Prov. 28 23. 

B b 2 Satyrs^ 

37^ Mhifters ought always to fofuljcft as well Vol. I. 

Satyrs, for when they fall upon Innocence, they arc as Grams 
of Salt that preferve Favour, and Admonitions not to err 
or to amend. Let him afcribe fuccefsful Actions to the 
Prince, but take mifcarriages upon himfelf. Let him al- 
ways think his ruin fure and certain, waiting for it with 
Conftancy, and a free and difinterefs'd mind, without be- 
ing over follicitous to eftabliih his Favour, for he falls foon- 
eft from a Precipice who fears it moft. The reflection of 
the danger difturbs the Brain, and we grow giddy with look- 
ing from an height. Whatever Favourites have been 
thus giddy have certainly fell, when thofe who have not 
been fo follicitous have pafs'd fecure (64). Among the 
JMinifters of State,let him behave himfelf rather as a Compa- 
nion than a Mañer, rather as a Defender than Accufer (6$ ). 
Let him encourage the Good, and endeavour to reform 
the Bad. Let him not interpofe his Authority in their 
Preferments or Removals ; and leave to them their own bu- 
iinefs. Let him not alter the Courfe of Counfels in Con- 
sultations, nor deny any accefs to the Prince. If the Prince 
would have him confer with him, let him declare his Sen- 
timents frankly, without any other Defign than to confult 
for the beft. 

The Court is the moft dangerous Rock of Favour, and 
yet all ufe it to eftabiim and confirm it ; there is not aftone 
in it but would ftrive to fall, if in falling it might cruih 
the Statue of the Favourite, which is as brittle as that of 
Nebuchadnezjar, by reafon of the diverfity of Metals that 
composed it. Not one Courtier is a true Friend to the 
Favourite ; if he choofes fome he incurs the Hatred and 
Envy of the reft. If he introduces them, he is in danger 
of being fupplanted ; if he does not he makes them his £■ 
riemies. 'Tis therefore the fafeft way to walk with indiffe- 
rence to all, and not to intermeddle in the Affairs of any one, 
but endeavour to fatisfie all, and (if poffible) rather to pro- 
mote than hinder them in their Preteniions and Intereft. If 
any one fhall have infinuated himfelf into the Prince's Fa- 
vour, 'twill be the beft way to keep him there; for he who 

— r- ' ' ' ' ' -^ { 

(6$) Prov. 10.9. (6<¡j Ecclef 3a. 1. 

' ■•■ wreftles 

Vol. I. to the Difpteafure as Favour of the Prince. 373 

wreftles with another to throw him down ufually falls 
with him, and oppofition confirms Favour. More Favo- 
rites have been ruined by ftriving to difplace others, than 
by advancing them. Let him flight Accufations, or Com- 
mendations to the Prince, and leave them to Fortune. 

Favour is very fubjett to the People, for if they dil&pproMé 
the Favourite, the Prince can neugr fupport him agaii.ií che 
common Cry ; or if he Attempts it, the People ufually turn 
his Judges and Executioners, we having feen a great many 
fall by their hands. If the People love him to excefs he is 
in danger from thence, for that creates Jealoufie and Envy 
in others, nay in the Prince himfelf, whence the Peoples 
Loves are generally íhort and unlucky (66). And ib that 
the Favourite may walk fafe between thefe twoExtreams,he 
muft avoid all occafions of publiok Applaufe and Acclama- 
tions. Let him only endeavour to procure to himfelf a good 
Efteem, by Piety, Liberality, Complaifance and Affability, 
making it his Care to fee Juftice duely adminiftred, that 
there may be plenty of all things, that the publick Peace 
be not difturb'd in his time ; that Privileges be not violated, 
nor Novelties introduced into the Government $ but above 
all that there be no Difputes in matters of Religion, nor 
difference among the Clergy : For he will foon feel the Peo» 
pies Rage, if he once incur the name of impious. 

Foreigners who want this natural Love for the Prince, 
depend more upon the Favourite than him, whence they pay 
him moft RefpecT:, that they may by his means accompliili 
their Defigns, to the great diflionour of the Prince, and pre- 
judice of his States. Nay,they often prove the ruin of the 
Favourite, urilefs he abundantly íátisfie them in their De- 
fires and Requefts ; wherefore he ought to beware of their 
Refpeft, and refufe the incenfe and worth of Foreigners, 
jetting them who would pay him thofc Honours know, 
that he is only the Curtain before the Image, and that *cis 
the Prince that works the Miracles. 

Ambaifadors ufually affect the Friend fhip of the Favou- 

(6) Breves & infaujlos poptili Romani »mtr<t. Tac t. amy 


% 74 Miaifters ought always to lefuljeft as well Vol. I. 
rite, as the raoft effectual means to accompliih their Affairs, 
and judging that the diforders which refult from Favour, 
will be of Service to them, they endeavour to foment it, 
being often introduced thereto by the Favourite himfelf, 
and as they take occafion to commend them in Audiences, 
and feem at firft fight free from Intereft and Emulation, it 
has often very good Effeft, yet for all this they are dange- 
rous Friends ; for the Favourite can't preferve their Friend- 
flrip without great Detriment to the Prince and State. And 
if in confideration of his Duty, he does not abundantly látis- 
fie them, they arc utter Enemies and leave no ftone unturn'd 
to ruin him. 'Tis therefore fafeft not to be more engag'd to 
them than the Princes Service will permit. Endeavouring 
only to gain the Reputation abroad of a fincere and affa- 
ble Perfon,and one who would rather preferve the good Cor- 
refpondences and Alliances of his Prince, than break 'em. 

A timely Application of thefe Prefervatives may perhaps 
prevent a Favourites fall, but when he has once incurr'd 
the Odium and Envy of the people, theft are look'd upon 
as Tricks and Artifices, and more endanger him. As it 
happened to Seneca who took no method to prevent his 
Death, but endeavouring to moderate his Favour, when he 
found himfelf perfecuted (67). 

If notwithstanding the Obfervation of all thefe Cautions, 
the Favourite fhall fall into Difgrace, his fall will be Glori- 
ous, he having liv'd without the little Fears, and the ihame- 
ful Care of preferving his Favour by methods below a ge- 
nerous Spirit, 1 torment much worfe than the difgrace it 
íélf. If there be any thing valuable in a Princes Favour, 
'tis only the Glory of having merited his Eiteem; the 
Continuation of which is full of Cares and Dangers. And 
he is happieft , who fooneft and with moft Reputation 
quits it. 

I have defcrib'd, Royal Sir, the Practices of Favou- 
rites, but not how a Prince ought to comport himfelf to- 

(6j) Lift i tut a priorii potenti* cemmntat, prohibet catas fahttantium^ 
vi tat tomit antes , rxrus per Urbem , qtiafi valetudine tnfenfa , aut fa- 
pienti* fiudiis dtrni auimfetnr. Tac 1+ ana 


Vol. 1. to the Difpkafttre as Favour of the Prince. %j$ 
wards them, not fuppoiing that he ought to. have any, for 
though he mutt be allowed to have more inclination to one 
than another, yet not fo as to devolve all his Authority 
upon one perfon, from whom the people muft expect Or- 
ders, Rewards and Puniihraents ; for fuch Favour is pro- 
perly an Alienation from the Crown, and dangerous to the 
Government, even when Favour fucceeds in the Election 
of the Subject, for neither will the people fo readily obey, 
nor fo awfully refpect the Favourite as the Prince, nor is he 
fo much concern'd for the welfare of the State, nor is he 
fo immediately under the care of God as the Prince : So 
that though many of your Royal Highnefs's Anceftors have 
had Favourites, who with much care and zeal (as we fee 
at prefent) have endeavour'd to Act with the greateft Inte- 
grity, yet have their attempts met with anfwerable Succels. 
Let not your Royal Highnefs be deceiv'd by the example of 
France, whofe Territories we fee indeed much enlarg'd by 
the Counfels of a Favourite, but not without detriment 
to the Kingdom, and prejudice to the Royal Prerogative. 
Whoever fliall duely confider the Perfecution of the Queen 
Mother ,and Duke of Orleans ; the Blood of Atfonmorency fpilt, 
that of the Prior of Vendofme, of Paul Reny, and of Mon- 
fieur de Macraints, the Imprisonment of the Duke of Bul- 
loign, the Exactions and Oppreffions of the Subjects, the 
Ufurpation of the Dutchy of Lorrain,Ü\e Leagues made with 
the Dutch, Proteftants and Swedes, the Defign upon Charles 
Emanuel Duke of Savoy, the Peace made at Monzón without 
the knowledge of the Allies, the Curb impos'd upon the 
Valtoline and Grifons, the Succours fent to Scotland, and the 
Englijh Parliament,the Sieges of Fontarabie t St.Orner, Th'm- 
ville, Fornavent and Catelet, the lofs of fo many Soldiers at 
Lovain, Tarragone y Perpignan, Sake, Valence upon the Po 
Imbree and la Roque, the retaking Aire and the Bafs. He 
I fay, who fliall conflder thefe things, will find that all his 
meafures were grounded upon Violence, and that his Fa- 
vour was founded upon force ; that the Sword fo daring 
againft the Perfons of Kings, has been timorous and co- 
wardly againft this Minifter, that Fortune has favoured his 
Temerity, that he has fucceeded by the fame means he 


3 76 Minifters ought always to téfuljeft, &c. Vol. t 
fliould have fail'd, whereas we have loft by the fame rati 
thods wc (hould have gain'd ; a fure Sign that God profper- 
ed this Favourite for the Exercife of Chriftianity, and for 
our Chaftifement, foreftalling our Prudence, and confound- 
ing our Valour. Kingdoms deftin'd to Ruin, fall by the! 
fame means they ihould be fupported ; thus the entrance 
into the Adriatick created Diftruft, the Protection of Man- 
tua Jealoufie, the oppofition at Nivers Wars, the Diveriion, 
Expence, the Army in Alface Rivals, the War for Spain 
Rebellions. At the Siege of Cafal we loft an opportunity 
of putting an end to the War ; the Counfel of Secretary 
Perito Prince Thomas, hindred the relief of Turin and 
triumph over France. The fame thing happed at Aire, for 
a fooliíh piece of Formality, the News that was brought of 
the Siege of Arras made them omit the Care of relieving 
it. For a vain Scruple If AmviUiers was not fuccoured , 
through Cowardize or Treachery, Chapelle furrendred. O 
Providence Divine ! Whither tend fuch variety of Acci- 
dents, fo different from their Caufes ? *Tis not by chance 
that the Government of Europe is put into the hands of 
Favourites. God grant Succefs may anfwer the publick 

Tk End of the Ftrjl Volume.